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Sie suchten nach: we should not cut trees (Englisch - Kanaresisch)

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Englisch

We should havd the bhavikyate

Kanaresisch

ಉರುಸುಗಲ್ಲಿ ಭವೈಕ್ಯೇಟ್ ಕುರಿತು ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2019-09-07
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Englisch

we should keep our enviroment clean

Kanaresisch

ನಾವು ನಮ್ಮ ಪರಿಸರವಾಗಿ ಕ್ಲೀನ್ ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾರೆ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-10-31
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Englisch

House is where we stay we should keep our house always clean

Kanaresisch

ಮನೆ ಮೇಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-02-15
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Englisch

Dont cut trees, for they are our best friends who ask nothing in return.

Kanaresisch

ಪ್ರಕೃತಿ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಘೋಷಣೆ

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-11-03
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Englisch

We shouldn't ride cycle in middle of road we should ride in left side of road

Kanaresisch

ರಸ್ತೆಯ ಮಧ್ಯಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ನಾವು ಸೈಕಲ್ ಸವಾರಿ ಮಾಡಬಾರದು, ನಾವು ರಸ್ತೆಯ ಎಡಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸವಾರಿ ಮಾಡಬೇಕು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-12-16
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Englisch

The paper should not be wasted.Teachers can make children aware of theimportance of trees and how paper ismanufactured and ask children to stopwasting paper.

Kanaresisch

ಕಾಗದದ ವ್ಯರ್ಥ ಮಾಡಬಾರದು. ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರ ಮರಗಳು ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಮಕ್ಕಳಿಗೆ ತಿಳಿಸಲು ಮತ್ತು ಹೇಗೆ ಕಾಗದದ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾಗದದ ವ್ಯರ್ಥ ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಲು ಮಕ್ಕಳು ಕೇಳಬಹುದು.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-02-07
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Englisch

But as we know that everything has a limit even we should watch television in limited time as recent studies prove that there are chances of diabetes in kids

Kanaresisch

ಆದರೆ ನಾವು ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನೂ ಒಂದು ಮಿತಿ ಹೊಂದಿದೆ ತಿಳಿಯಲು ಸಹ ನಾವು ದೂರದರ್ಶನ ಸೀಮಿತ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಇತ್ತೀಚಿನ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳು ಮಕ್ಕಳು ಮಧುಮೇಹ ಸಾಧ್ಯತೆಗಳನ್ನು ಇವೆ ಎಂದು ಸಾಬೀತು ಎಂದು ವೀಕ್ಷಿಸಲು ಮಾಡಬೇಕು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-03-17
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Englisch

computer should not replace internet. if computers are there only internet will come.so according to me computers are important in this world.

Kanaresisch

ಕಂಪ್ಯೂಟರ್ ಇಂಟರ್ನೆಟ್ ಅನ್ನು ಬದಲಿಸಬಾರದು. ಕಂಪ್ಯೂಟರ್ ಇದ್ದರೆ ಇಂಟರ್ನೆಟ್ ಮಾತ್ರ ಬರುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಕಂಪ್ಯೂಟರ್ಗಳು ಈ ಜಗತ್ತಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿವೆ.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2019-10-18
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Englisch

Good habits means doing good things to others and also overself . Good habits also means keeping our surroundings clean tidy.there are many good habits which we should do everyday.

Kanaresisch

ಒಳ್ಳೆಯ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸಗಳು ಇತರರಿಗೆ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದನ್ನು ಮಾಡುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ಒಲವು ತೋರುತ್ತದೆ. ಉತ್ತಮ ಪದ್ಧತಿಗಳೆಂದರೆ ನಮ್ಮ ಸುತ್ತಮುತ್ತಲಿನ ವಾತಾವರಣವನ್ನು ಸ್ವಚ್ಛವಾಗಿರಿಸುವುದು ಎಂದರ್ಥ.ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನಾವು ದಿನನಿತ್ಯದ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-07-31
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Englisch

Lawyers work is always to tell truth and support the people who are right not the people who are wrong we should never think of money but about someone's life and help them until they get justice

Kanaresisch

ವಕೀಲರು ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡುವುದು ಸತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಹೇಳಲು ಮತ್ತು ಸರಿಯಾದ ಜನರನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲ ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ನಾವು ಹಣವನ್ನು ಯೋಚಿಸಬಾರದು ಆದರೆ ಒಬ್ಬರ ಜೀವನ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರಿಗೆ ನ್ಯಾಯ ದೊರಕುವವರೆಗೆ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡುವುದು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-06-07
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Englisch

Select the default encoding to be used; normally, you will be fine with'Use language encoding 'and should not have to change this.

Kanaresisch

ಪೂರ್ವನಿಯೋಜಿತವಾಗಿ ಬಳಸಲು ಎನ್ಕೋಡಿಂಗ್‌ ಅನ್ನು ಆರಿಸಿ; ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ, ನಿಮ್ಮ ಬಳಕೆಗೆ 'ಭಾಷಾ ಎನ್ಕೋಡಿಂಗ್ ಅನ್ನು ಬಳಸು' ಎನ್ನುವುದು ಸಾಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಹಾಗು ಅದನ್ನು ಬದಲಾಯಿಸುವ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-10-23
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Englisch

Here you can specify text used to prefix negative numbers. This should not be empty, so you can distinguish positive and negative numbers. It is normally set to minus (-).

Kanaresisch

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನೀವು ಋಣಾತ್ಮಕ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಗಳ ಎದುರು ನಮೂದಿಸಲಾಗುವ ಪಠ್ಯವನ್ನು ಸೂಚಿಸಬಹುದು. ಇದು ಖಾಲಿ ಇರಕೂಡದು, ಆಗ ಧನ ಹಾಗು ಋಣ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ನೋಡಬಹುದು. ಇದು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ ಮೈನಸ್‌ಗೆ (-) ಸೂಚಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿರುತ್ತದೆ.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-10-23
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Englisch

Whit no rain the plants would die animals would die of thirst, we would have nothing to eat. We all would die, and the world or the civilization would come to end. We should save water as much as we can.

Kanaresisch

ಸಸ್ಯಗಳು ಸಾಯುವ ಮಳೆಯು ಬಾಯಾರಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಸಾಯುತ್ತದೆ, ನಾವು ತಿನ್ನಲು ಏನೂ ಇಲ್ಲ. ನಾವೆಲ್ಲರೂ ಸಾಯುತ್ತೇವೆ, ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಪಂಚ ಅಥವಾ ನಾಗರಿಕತೆಯು ಕೊನೆಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ. ನಾವು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ನೀರನ್ನು ನಾವು ಉಳಿಸಬೇಕು.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-07-30
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Englisch

Is used to notify that the table caption has changed; this property should not be used. accessible-table-caption-object should be used instead

Kanaresisch

ಟೇಬಲ್ ನ ಶಿರೊನಾಮ ಬದಲಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಸಲು ಬಳಸಲಾಗಿದೆ; ಈ ಗುಣಲಕ್ಷಣವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬಾರದು. ಇದರ ಬದಲು ನಿಲುಕಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದಾದ-ಟೇಬಲ್-ಶಿರೊನಾಮ ಆಬ್ಜೆಕ್ಟ್ ಅನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬೇಕು

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-08-15
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Englisch

Your will power may be rewarded today as you confront a very tricky situation. You should not lose head while making a very emotional decision. Unexpected bills will increase financial burden. You will have difficulty in getting your point across to people who matter the most in your life.

Kanaresisch

ಅನಗತ್ಯ ಒತ್ತಡ ಮತ್ತು ಚಿಂತೆ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಜೀವನದ ರಸವನ್ನು ಕುಯ್ಯಲು ಮತ್ತು ಒಣಗಲು ಬಿಡಬಹುದು. ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ತೊಡೆದುಹಾಕಲು ಉತ್ತಮವಾದದ್ದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಮಸ್ಯೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾತ್ರ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2019-04-06
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Englisch

All the social issues arising here is because of the lack of national integration. We all should understand the need and requirement, real meaning and purpose of this national integration. We should live and think equally as well as follow all the rules and regulations by the Indian government for the ultimate development of our country.

Kanaresisch

ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಸಮಸ್ಯೆಗಳು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಹುಟ್ಟುವ ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಏಕೀಕರಣ ಕೊರತೆ ಆಗಿದೆ. ನಾವು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಅಗತ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆ, ನಿಜವಾದ ಅರ್ಥ ಮತ್ತು ಉದ್ದೇಶವನ್ನು ಈ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಏಕೀಕರಣದ ಅರ್ಥ ಬೇಕು. ನಾವು ವಾಸಿಸುವ ಮತ್ತು ಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ನಮ್ಮ ದೇಶದ ಅಂತಿಮ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಗೆ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ನಿಯಮಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ನಿಬಂಧನೆಗಳು ಅನುಸರಿಸಬೇಕು.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-09-09
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Englisch

Library is a collection of books. There many libraries in the whole world.in the same time we also have a library . We should maintain silence when we are in a library . We can borrow books from libraries. We can tell library also as a study corner.

Kanaresisch

ಲೈಬ್ರರಿ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳ ಸಂಗ್ರಹವಾಗಿದೆ. ಇಡೀ world.in ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅನೇಕ ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯಗಳು ನಾವು ಒಂದು ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯ ಅದೇ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ. ನಾವು ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಆಗ ನಾವು ಮೌನ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸಲು ಬೇಕು. ನಾವು ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯಗಳಿಂದ ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳು ಸಾಲ ಪಡೆಯಬಹುದು. ನಾವು ಅಧ್ಯಯನ ಮೂಲೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಹ ಗ್ರಂಥಾಲಯದ ಹೇಳಬಹುದು.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-02-26
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Englisch

RENTAL AGREEMENT This Deed of Rental Agreement made and executed at Bangalore on this 17th day of September 2019, (17/09/2019), by between: Mr. KRISHNAMURTHY, Aged about 66 years, S/o. Mr. Anjinappa, Residing at Prasannahalli, Ward No. 1, Devanahalli Town, Devanahalli Taluk, Bangalore Rural District – 562 110. Here in after referred to as Owner. 1) Vejala Sravankumar, aged about 20 years, S/o. Srinivas Rao, Mr. RAMACHANDRA. K, residing at Nanadanam Palace, Horamavu, BANGALORE – 43. 2) Mr. Nithin Anand, ged about 20 years, S/o. SV Anand Kuamr, residing at No. 125, 3rd Main, 4th Cross, 6th Stage, Beml Layout, Thubralli, White Field, BANGALORE – 560066, 3) Mr. Vernan W.D.Souza, aged about 20 years, S/o. Mr. Vinod M.D Souza, residing at Joscel, Thalehithlu, Kemmannu, Udupi Taluk & Dist., 4) Mr. S. Jaswanth, aged about 21 years, S/o. Mr. K.B. Sadha Shivappa, Residing at Flat No. G-5, P.V. Paradise Apartment, K.R. Puram, BANGALORE – 36. All are studying in Aakash Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Prasannahalli, Devanahalli. Herein after referred to Tenants of other part. Hereinafter called the Tenants (which term shall be taken to mean and they their heirs, executors, legal representatives and assignees) of the SECOND PART. Whereas, that in consideration of the rent hereinafter referred and the Rental Agreement hereinafter contained, the Land lord hereby grant the immovable property mentioned in the schedule herein under, to the Tenants for a rent on the following terms and conditions: NOW THIS AGREEMENT WITNESSETH AS FOLLOWS:- 1. The Lessee shall pay a monthly Rent of Rs. 16,000/- (Rupees Sixteen Thousand Only) in equal proportion of Rs. 4,000/- each, on or before 12th day of every English calendar month. 2. The Lessee has deposited with the Lessor Rs. 40,000/- (Rupees Forty Thousand Only) by way of cash as security deposit which sum the lessor hereby acknowledges, the said sum shall not carry interest and refundable to the Lessee at the time of vacating the said “House Premises”. 3. The Tenancy being the English calendar month commencing from 01.08.2019, up to March 2020 from the date of this agreement and it can be renewed for further period with mutual consent of owner & Tenants. 4. The Tenants shall keep the house premises in good and Tenants able condition. 5. The Tenants shall not sub-let the premises or use the said premises without consent of the owner. The Tenants should not alter or make additions to the said premises without consent of the owner. 6. The owner or his agent shall have the right to enter upon the schedule premises at any time with prior information, either to inspect the premises for satisfying themselves the schedule premises is being held in accordance with these presents or for carrying out any works/repairs connected with other portion. 7. The Lessee shall use the schedule premises for residential purpose and shall not use it for any objectionable purpose and shall not sublet, sub – lease etc., 8. The Lessee shall pay the Electricity charges to the concerned authorities regularly. 9. It is hereby agreed between the parties that 1 months notice on either side is required for the termination of this Tenancy agreement. SCHEDULE All that piece and parcel of the residential House in ground floor situated at Prasannahalli, Ward No. 1, Devanahalli Town, Devanahalli Taluk, Bangalore Rural District – 562 110, consisting of Three Bed Rooms, One Kitchen, One Hall, both room and Toilets with electricity & Water facility. In witness whereof the OWNER and the TENENT have affixed their respective signatures to this agreement of rent on the day, month and the year as mentioned earlier before the following witnesses. WITNESSES:- 1. OWNER 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. TENANTS

Kanaresisch

ಬಾಡಿಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಂದ 2019 ರ ಸೆಪ್ಟೆಂಬರ್ 17 ರಂದು (17/09/2019) ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಬಾಡಿಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಂದದ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವನ್ನು (17/09/2019) ನಡುವೆ: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣಮೂರ್ತಿ, ಸುಮಾರು 66 ವರ್ಷ ವಯಸ್ಸಿನವರು, ಎಸ್ / ಒ. ಶ್ರೀ ಅಂಜಿನಪ್ಪ, ಪ್ರಸನ್ನಹಳ್ಳಿ, ವಾರ್ಡ್ ನಂ 1, ದೇವನಹಳ್ಳಿ ಟೌನ್, ದೇವನಹಳ್ಳಿ ತಾಲ್ಲೂಕು, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ - 562 110. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾಲೀಕ ಎಂದು ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ. 1) ವೆಜಲಾ ಶ್ರವಣಕುಮಾರ್, ಸುಮಾರು 20 ವರ್ಷ, ಎಸ್ / ಒ. ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ್ ರಾವ್, ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಮಚಂದ್ರ. ಕೆ, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನ ಹೋರಮಾವಿನ ನಾನದನಂ ಅರಮನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ - 4

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2019-09-18
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Englisch

The farmers are just another name for austerity and hard work. Ours is an agricultural based country where almost 70 per cent of the population still depends on agriculture. That is why you can find green farms spread over all across the country. In any weather, be it sweltering sun or freezing winters, the farmers in this country can be seen working in their fields round-the-clock. The entire life of the farmers is spent in cultivating their fields. Without any complain they remain engaged in their work. Farming is not at all an easy task, as it includes working in the fields round-the-clock, crop cultivation and planting, besides crop care, harvesting the crops and then selling the produced crops in the market. Cause to worry Even after working so hard in their farms, if the farmers of some parts of the country are compelled to commit suicide, it is a serious concern, which we should immediately pay attention to. We all know that India was earlier known as the golden bird, there was no dearth of food and money in the country, and the farmers were overall happy. That is also the reason why India has been known as an agriculture-based nation. But the things have completely changed now. The situation of the farmers has become so bad that they are forced to commit suicides. Surely this is a terrible scenario and a truth which we cannot ignore as it calls for an immediate attention. The history In India, the problems of farmers came to light in 1990 when the period of liberalization started. An important English-language newspaper, The Hindu started publishing reports of farmers committing suicides in its newspaper in that year. The initial reports came from Maharashtra where in Vidarbha region; a cotton farmer had committed suicide. Thereafter, the newspaper also published similar reports of farmers’ suicides coming from Andhra Pradesh. Reading these report, initially the people thought it was the problem of Vidarbha and its surrounding areas only and only the local government of that particular area was required to pay attention to the situation. However, when the emerging figures were monitored carefully, the situation was found to be worst. The horrible fact which came to light was that along with the farmers of Vidarbha, the farmers from Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, including other states in the country were found doing suicides. The most critical aspect of all this was that apart from small farmers, medium and large farmers had also committed suicide. According to the statistics, in the year 2009, total 17,368 farmers committed suicide and on an average the annual rate of farmers committing suicide is being recorded as 10,000 per annum currently. The solution In India, most of the farmers are poor and they do not have their own lands. They cultivate the lands of the landlords and moreover, also borrow money from them for seeds, fertilizer and other farming-related needs. Before they could repay their earlier debt, they start taking loan for the second harvest from them and in the meantime they have to face natural calamity such as floods and droughts as well. Even most of the time their crops get destroyed by worms and insects and this way they fail to repay their loans and hence commit suicide. In other words, the farmers in India commit suicide after getting upset by economic exploitation at the hands of the landlords and the moneylenders. It has also been seen at times that the farmers also commit suicide after they receive excessive yields in their fields. It is since the excessive yields result into the fall of minimum support price up to the extent that it becomes far below than the total amount invested by them and hence they fail to repay their debt. The government can implement a range of welfare schemes for the farmers, besides agricultural development plans to prevent the farmers from committing suicides. Moreover, it can also implement crop insurance schemes for the farmers, besides helping them by offering farming loans on minimal interest rates through cooperative banks. It can also provide them high-quality seeds, fertilizers and other agricultural equipments on minimal cost. Moreover, the government can also provide land to the landless farmers. Through these measures it can easily prevent the situations which compel the farmers to commit suicide. Conclusion: The issue of farmers committing suicide has now become a national problem. If this situation is not controlled early, it will get out of the hand. For the farmers it is urgently required to offer them high support prices as well as crop insurance. High support price for their crops is also required besides making available easy credit for themselves. These are the only ways through which the situation of farmers can be improved and they may be prevented from committing suicide Read more on Brainly.in - https://brainly.in/question/4

Kanaresisch

ರೈತರು ಸಂಯಮ ಮತ್ತು ಕಠಿಣ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮದ ಮತ್ತೊಂದು ಹೆಸರು. ನಮ್ಮದು ಕೃಷಿ ಆಧಾರಿತ ದೇಶವಾಗಿದ್ದು, ಸುಮಾರು 70 ಪ್ರತಿಶತದಷ್ಟು ಜನರು ಇನ್ನೂ ಕೃಷಿಯನ್ನು ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಅದಕ್ಕಾಗಿಯೇ ನೀವು ದೇಶಾದ್ಯಂತ ಹರಡಿರುವ ಹಸಿರು ಸಾಕಣೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ಯಾವುದೇ ಹವಾಮಾನದಲ್ಲಿ, ಅದು ಸೂರ್ಯನನ್ನು ಸುತ್ತುವಂತೆ ಅಥವಾ ಚಳಿಗಾಲವನ್ನು ಘನೀಕರಿಸುವಂತಿರಲಿ, ಈ ದೇಶದ ರೈತರು ತಮ್ಮ ಹೊಲಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಗಡಿಯಾರದ ಸುತ್ತ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡುವುದನ್ನು ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ರೈತರ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ಜೀವನವು ತಮ್ಮ ಹೊಲಗಳನ್ನು ಬೆಳೆಸಲು ಕಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಯಾವುದೇ ದೂರು ಇಲ್ಲದೆ ಅವರು ಟಿ

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Englisch

tarleshan1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Govern

Kanaresisch

1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may,

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