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Englisch

Developed

Tamilisch

வளர்ந்த நாடுகள்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-10-02
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Wikipedia

Englisch

c was developed byu bjarne stroustrup in 1979

Tamilisch

சி அடிப்படை என்ற பொருளை வாய்ப்புள்ள

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-08-18
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Wikipedia

Englisch

We have indeed developed these women with an excellent development.

Tamilisch

நிச்சயமாக (ஹூருல் ஈன் என்னும் பெண்களைப்) புதிய படைப்பாக, நாம் உண்டாக்கி,

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-07-03
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Wikipedia

Englisch

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning.

Tamilisch

1956 ஆம் வருடம் பெஞ்சமின் ப்ளூம் கற்றல் முக்கியமான அறிவார்ந்த நடத்தை அளவுகள் ஒரு வகைப்பாடு உருவாக்கிய கல்வி உளவியலாளர்கள் ஒரு குழு தலைமையில்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-12-24
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

In this window you will find predefined regular expressions. Both regular expressions you have developed and saved, and regular expressions shipped with the system.

Tamilisch

இந்த சன்னல்திரையில் உங்களால் முன்வரை வழக்கமான தொடரினை கண்டுப்பிடிக்கலாம். உங்களால் இரண்டு வழக்கமான தொடரிலும் முன்னேற்றம் மற்றும் சேமிக்க இயலும்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-10-23
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

This check box specifies KMouth tries to use the KTTSD speech service prior to calling the speech synthesizer directly. The KTTSD speech service is a KDE daemon which gives KDE applications a standardized interface for speech synthesis and is currently developed in CVS.

Tamilisch

This check box specifies KMouth tries to use the KTTSD speech service prior to calling the speech synthesizer directly. The KTTSD speech service is a KDE daemon which gives KDE applications a standardized interface for speech synthesis and is currently developed in CVS. NAME OF TRANSLATORS

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-10-23
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

From April, the headlights on all new two-wheelers will stay on once the ignition is turned on, be it day or night. The Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways had made it compulsory that new bikes be equipped with Automatic Headlamp On (AHO) from next month. AHO, similar to daytime running lamps in cars, is found to be effective in improving the visibility of the vehicle by attracting the attention of road users and improving their response time. According to government data, two-wheelers accounted for nearly 30% of all accidents in Karnataka in 2015. The vehicles were involved in 13,155 of the 44,011 accidents. Data from the National Crime Records Bureau showed that 32,524 of the 1.4 lakh people who died in accidents were two-wheeler riders. While the feature has become common in developed countries over the past 10 years, the Indian government decided to enforce it only last year. Meanwhile, flummoxed owners of new vehicles are quarrelling with representatives in bike showrooms, asking them to install a switch to kill the headlights. “Pedestrians and people coming from the opposite side gesture at me to turn off the headlight. I got irritated and went to the showroom, seeking an explanation. I came to know about the rule only later,” said Alok Jhadav, who bought a new bike with AHO last month. Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari had agreed to consider AHO for two-wheelers after a research organisation pushed it as one of the measures to enhance road safety. Based on directions from the Justice Radhakrishnan committee, the ministry issued a notification in March 2016, making AHO mandatory for all two-wheelers from April 2017. The ministry has also made Bharat Stage IV engines mandatory for all new vehicles from the same date. Another major decision is the uniform crash test for all vehicles, which will come into effect from April 2018.

Tamilisch

transulate

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-07-07
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Sample Written Program For INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 1 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY PROGRAM The following safety policy is provided only as a guide to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 and 1926, as well as to provide other helpful information. It is not intended to supersede the requirements of the standards. An employer should review the standards for particular requirements which are applicable to their individual situation and make adjustments to this program that are specific to their company. An employer will need to add information relevant to their particular facility in order to develop an effective, comprehensive program. 2 Industrial Safety Program For (Company Name) TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC Safety & Health Policy Statement Safety & Health Goals New Employee Orientation Safety & Training Employee Responsibilities Accident Investigation/Reporting Personal Protective Equipment Safety Rules Safety Committee Emergency Action Plan Safety Discipline Employee Confirmation 3 SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY STATEMENT XYZ Manufacturing Company believes that NO JOB OR TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY. If a job represents a potential safety or health threat, every effort will be made to plan a safe way to complete the task in a safe manner. Every procedure must be a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures by management and all other associates will not be tolerated. If a worker observes any unsafe or unprotected exposure, which may pose a potential threat to their safety & health, he or she must inform management immediately. If a job can not be done safely…………..It will not be done. Every employee is entitled to a safe and healthful place in which to work. _______________________ President 4 SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS The following goals have been established for XYZ Manufacturing Company: (1) Provide workers with a safe work environment. (2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections. (3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment. (4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and rules. (5) Provide on-going safety training (6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline. (7) Provide on-going property conservation practices. 5 NEW EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION All new employees must attend our Safety Orientation Session prior to starting work within their assigned area. This session will be conducted under the direction of the Safety Director and in coordination with Human Resources. Upon completion of the Safety Orientation Session, each new employee will be required to acknowledge that they have received, understand, and will abide by the XYZ Company Safety Program. All participants must sign a statement verifying that they have completed the session. This report will be filed in the employee’s personnel file. The following topics will be covered in the Safety Orientation Session:  Company History  Safety Program/Policy & Work rules  Responsibilities  Safety Education/Training  Safety Audit/Inspections  Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements  First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens  Personal Protective Equipment  Tool & Equipment Use  Material Handling  Lockout-Tagout  Machine Guarding  MVR Requirements  Hazard Communication  Emergency Action  Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Manufacturing Company. 6 SAFETY & TRAINING All in-house Safety & Training sessions will be coordinated by (Name of Safety Director). Foremen and Assistant Foremen are required to be trained in Accident Investigation Procedures by the Safety Director. Operators of forklift trucks are to be trained in-house in accordance with federal/state requirements. Operators must attend classroom instruction as well as “behind the wheel training”. All employees who work with, or are exposed to, hazardous chemicals are to be trained in Hazard Communication, in accordance with federal and state regulations. All employees who don respirators are to be trained in accordance with federal and state regulations. Those individuals who don respirators are required to have annual physicals. Machine operators and maintenance personnel are to be trained in Lockout/Tagout procedures. Individual locks/keys will be assigned to those individuals participating in the LOTO program. All employees who don Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) will be trained in the proper use of such equipment. First-aid training and Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) training will be conducted by (Name of Hospital) and the local chapter of the American Red Cross. Machine/Equipment operators are to be trained in-house. Emphasis is to be placed on point of operation guarding. No employee is allowed to operate a machine unless it is properly guarded. Employees who operate company vehicles are required to participate in an in-house Defensive Driving Program. 7 All production, shipping, and warehouse employees are required to attend a 4 hour in-house safety training session on an annual basis. This partial day session is held each January in the conference room. The Safety Director will decide the topic material; however each annual session is to place emphasis on material handling and machine guarding. All employees, at time of hire, are to be trained in Emergency Action and proper evacuation of building in case of an emergency. Each employee is to be given instruction/training on where to exit and where to locate in the event of an emergency. Foremen and Assistant Foremen are to meet with the Safety Director on a quarterly basis to discuss training needs and goals. 8 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Each employee is responsible to follow established polices and procedures. Regular attendance is required of all. Following directions is critical. Responsibility does not end with just taking care of you. Unsafe working conditions and acts must be reported to management. It is the responsibility of each employee to work in a professional and safe manner. 9 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION/REPORTING All injuries/illnesses must be reported to management as soon as possible. It is the policy of XYZ Manufacturing Company to have all injuries/illnesses investigated by Foremen or Assistant Foremen within 24 hours of incident. A formal Accident Investigation Form (available from the Safety Director) must be forwarded to the Safety Director as soon as possible. It is important that all incidents be reported, no matter how slight. Any property/liability loss claim must also be reported to management as soon as possible. The Safety Director will conduct a loss investigation of all property/liability claims. 10 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and accessories designed to protect against workplace hazards. In some situations the only available protection for employees will be the use of PPE and often in emergencies, PPE will be required for the safety of the workers. As required by federal and state regulations, personal protective equipment is essential for the protection of eyes, ears, face and other body parts when working around hazardous machinery and equipment. All PPE must meet established standards (ANSI, NIOSH, OSHA, etc). All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided by XYZ Manufacturing Company. Employees are not allowed to provide their own PPE unless authorized by the Safety Director. As a general rule, only company provided PPE is allowed. Hazard Assessments have been completed throughout the production and warehouse areas of XYZ Manufacturing Company. PPE is required in the following areas: Warehouse All employees and visitors are required to wear approved hard hats and eye protection. Steel-toed shoes/boots required of warehouse workers. Welding Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Approved hard hats required of all welders. Approved hearing protection required of all welders. Welders are also required to don approved PPE in the form of goggles, helmet, leather coat, apron, steel-toed work boot, gloves, no cuff pants and other 11 equipment as deemed necessary by the Safety Director. Mechanical ventilation is required at all welding stations. Paint Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Spray painters are required to wear company provided work clothing (disposable shirt/pants). Approved respirators are required during those times when spray painting, mixing, or clean-up is taking place. Steel-toed boots/shoes required of paint sprayers. All spray painting is to be conducted within the paint spray booth. Mechanical ventilation system is to be in operation when spray painting takes place. General Production Areas Approved eye protection required of all who enter shop. Visitor glasses (eye protection) are available in main office as well as next to loading dock door and warehouse entrance. XYZ Manufacturing Company will reimburse employee (maximum - $100) each 24 months for the purchase of approved steel-toed boot/shoe. XYZ Manufacturing Company will provide prescription eye wear (approved safety eye protection) for those individuals requesting same. See Safety Director for additional information. 12 SAFETY RULES All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict disciplinary action.  All injuries must be reported as soon as possible.  No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises.  No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break.  PPE must be worn as prescribed by management.  All tools/equipment must be maintained in good condition.  Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs.  All guards must be kept in place.  No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed.  Only authorized personnel can operate forklift vehicles.  Smoking allowed only in lunchroom.  Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.  All OSHA Safety Standards will be followed for job processes requiring respiratory protection. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Lockout/Tagout of energized equipment will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Hazard Communications will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM. 13  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Forklift Safety will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN FORKLIFT SAFETY PROGRAM. *These sample written safety programs can be found on the Frankenmuth Safety Services Website. They can be downloaded as a PDF or Microsoft Word file. 14 SAFETY COMMITTEE The primary purpose of the Safety Committee is to promote safety awareness and reduce the potential for injury/loss throughout XYZ Manufacturing Company. The Safety Committee is to be chaired by the Safety Director and include representatives from each department (total number of committee members not to exceed five individuals). Members can be volunteers or appointed. Membership is limited to two terms (1 year each) during any four year period. Meetings are to be scheduled, when possible, for the same day each month (2nd Tuesday of each month – 2:00 p.m.). All meetings are to take place in the conference room. Each meeting should have a set agenda and minutes of each meeting recorded. A copy of the minutes shall be forwarded to the Executive Vice-President within 48 hours of meeting. Each Safety Committee Meeting shall include a review of the prior month’s minutes as well as a review of the prior month’s injury/illness log and investigations of losses/claims. Past injuries/claims/losses need to be reviewed for any patterns or trends. General functions of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Identifying workplace hazards (2) Enforcement of Safety Rules (3) Measuring safety performance (4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries (5) Creating safety policies (6) Developing and monitoring safety programs Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace 15 (2) Review employee reports of hazards (3) Assist in safety training (4) Creating safety incentive programs (5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter (6) Inspect PPE (7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board (8) Identify Light Duty Jobs The Safety Committee of XYZ Manufacturing Company was formed to promote safety throughout our organization. The benefits of a Safety Committee are numerous and XYZ Manufacturing believes that this is a forum for problem solving. The Safety Committee has an open door policy and welcomes suggestions. 16 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN The Emergency Action Plan (EAP) is in place to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergency. At the time of an emergency, all employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some emergencies total and immediate evacuation will be necessary. In other emergencies only partial evacuation may be necessary. When a fire is detected it is necessary that the fire alarm pull station be activated as soon as possible. The fire alarm will notify the emergency response team who will perform assigned duties. The activation of the alarm will also notify the local fire department. In the event of bomb threat, toxic chemical release, hazardous weather, or other emergencies – notification will be made over the public address system. In the event of fire, bomb threat, or toxic chemical release; employees are to proceed to the nearest available and safe exit and leave the building as soon as possible. Floor plans (maps) and exits have been posted in each department. It is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Shop and Warehouse employees are to meet in the __________ Parking Lot on _______ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of _________ and ________ Street. Office employees are to meet in the __________ Parking lot on __________ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of __________ and __________ Street. 17 In the event of Weather emergencies all employees (and visitors) are to evacuate their assigned area and report to the lower level bomb shelter. Again, it is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Supervisors within each area shall take a head count at the designated meeting areas. It is the responsibility of each supervisor to advise fire and police departments of any missing persons. There will be evacuation training each April and October (full evacuation to designated areas). 18 SAFETY DISCIPLINE Management personnel at all levels are responsible for taking action when a violation is observed. If a violation is observed, they must take action immediately to correct the violation and enforce this disciplinary policy. Employees who fail to follow safety rules and regulations established to protect them and their fellow employees endanger themselves and others. Visitors and contractors on site are also required to abide by the safety rules and regulations. The following procedures will be followed when a violation is observed: FIRST VIOLATION* Verbal warning with written confirmation in personnel file. SECOND VIOLATION* Written warning and ½ day suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). THIRD VIOLATION* Written warning and one week suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). FOURTH VIOLATION* Termination (written confirmation in personnel file). 19 *As warranted by type of violation (use of drugs/alcohol, criminal activity, etc.) termination of employment may take place after any such violation. EMPLOYEE CONFIRMATION OF SAFETY PROGRAM This is to certify that I, ___________________________________, have read and will observe the safety practices as outlined in this booklet and other rules presented to me during my employment with XYZ Manufacturing Company. I understand that the safety practices listed are not the only procedures and/or rules that I will be called upon to follow. I also understand that it is a requirement of my employment that any injury/illness be reported to my supervisor immediately. SIGNED _________________________________________ WITNESS ________________________________________ DATE _______________________ This form to be filed in personnel file The information and suggestions contained in this material have been developed from sources believed to be reliable. However, Frankenmuth accepts no legal responsibility for the correctness or completeness of this material, or its application to specific factual situations.

Tamilisch

தமிழ் தொழில்துறை பாதுகாப்பு பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-03-05
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 31
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym
Warnung: Enthält unsichtbare HTML-Formatierung

Englisch

Having a pet of your own is one of life's greatest pleasures.A pet gives us love and affection that we so deeply desire in our lives.Among pets the most popular is the dog.Dog has been man's best friend for ages and there is no animal which is as faithful and sincere as a dog. I have a pet dog named Rocky.It belongs to the Dobermann Pinscher breed. It is black in colour with a shade of golden fur on its neck and chest.It was only 1 month old when Dad brought it home.The first time I saw it , I was just thrilled with joy.It looked like a soft black ball and was so cute.The bonding that developed there has since then,continued unbroken. Slowly but steadily ,Rocky grew in confidence and came to be a part of our family.It plays with me and accompanies me in my morning walks.The very sight of it's bright eyes and wagging tail brightens up my day.Despite being playful and friendly , it is very obedient and takes my instructions without any complaints.I have taught it certain things and he has proved to be a quick learner.Also it is a very fierce customer when it comes to guarding the house.The sight of a stranger at night brings out the soldier in Rocky and he starts barking ferociously, to scare him away. Rocky is allowed entry into our home, but it never jumps on the sofa, or destroy anything.It was wonderful toilet habits and loves to be bathed and groomed regularly.He normally eats vegetarian food but also loves fish. Once a week, I feed him meat.He also relishes bread , biscuits and cakes.He loves playing with the ball and the both of us spend a lot of time during the vacations, playing with my bat and ball. Rocky's presence adds meaning to my life.It has not only given me a friend to be cared by and to care for, but also has made me a more responsible and mature individual.But I know that a dog's life span is very short, so very soon it would have to leave me .Yet I keep praying to God to let it be with me forever

Tamilisch

I have a pet dog named Rocky.It belongs to the Dobermann Pinscher breed. It is black in colour with a shade of golden fur on its neck and chest.It was only 1 month old when Dad brought it home.The first time I saw it , I was just thrilled with joy.It looked like a soft black ball and was so cute.The bonding that developed there has since then,continued unbroken. Slowly but steadily ,Rocky grew in confidence and came to be a part of our family.It plays with me and accompanies me in my morning walks.The very sight of it's bright eyes and wagging tail brightens up my day.Despite being playful and friendly , it is very obedient and takes my instructions without any complaints.I have taught it certain things and he has proved to be a quick learner.Also it is a very fierce customer when it comes to guarding the house.The sight of a stranger at night brings out the soldier in Rocky and he starts barking ferociously, to scare him away. Rocky is allowed entry into our home, but it never jumps on the sofa, or destroy anything.It was wonderful toilet habits and loves to be bathed and groomed regularly.He normally eats vegetarian food but also loves fish. Once a week, I feed him meat.He also relishes bread , biscuits and cakes.He loves playing with the ball and the both of us spend a lot of time during the vacations, playing with my bat and ball. Rocky's presence adds meaning to my life.It has not only given me a friend to be cared by and

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-11-07
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

google translaWhat is Taekwondo? Tae Kwon Do (also known as Taekwondo) is the art of self defense that originated in Korea. It is recognized as one of the oldest forms of martial arts in the world, reaching back over 2,000 years. The name was selected for its appropriate description of the art: Tae (foot), Kwon (hand), Do (art). Tae Kwon Do in the United States The introduction of Tae Kwon Do in the United States began during the 1950’s when a handful of pioneering master instructors travelled to America to spread the art. Throughout the next few decades Tae Kwon Do grew in popularity, not only as a martial art, but as an international sport. In 1973, Korea hosted the first Tae Kwon Do World Championships. In that same year, the World Tae Kwon Do Federation was established as the international governing body for the sport aspects of Tae Kwon Do. Today the WTF counts 120 separate countries as its members, representing 20 million practitioners. These numbers earn Tae Kwon Do the distinction of being the most practiced martial art in the world. Tae Kwon Do first gained acceptance as an Olympic sport when it appeared as a demonstration event in the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. Tae Kwon Do became a full medal sport competition beginning in 2000 at the Sydney Olympics. History of Tae Kwon Do One of the earliest clues of Tae Kwon Do’s existence is a mural painted on the wall of a tomb that was built in the Korean kingdom of Koguryo, between 37 BC and 66 AD. The drawing shows two unarmed figures facing each other in a Tae Kwon Do style stance. Additional drawings in the tomb show figures performing blocks and wearing uniforms similar to those used in modern day Tae Kwon Do training. The advancement of Tae Kwon Do and its techniques developed as the country of Korea developed. There are examples and history of Tae Kwon Do training in virtually all the records of the different kingdoms that existed within the country throughout the centuries. The highest form of the ancient art was achieved in the kingdom of Silla. This tiny kingdom constantly faced attacks and opposition from larger and stronger areas. As a result the ruler of the kingdom, King Jin Heung, established an elite group of warriors called the “Hwarang” or “Flower of Youth”. The Hwarang consisted of the sons of nobles within the kingdom. They were carefully selected and formally trained in all aspects of military skills including unarmed combat, which at the time was known as Tae Kyon. It is significant that the Hwarang were taught not only the importance of developing their bodies, but their minds and spirits as well. In addition to fighting techniques, the young warriors were instructed in history, poetry, and philosophy. The entire body of study was known as Hwarang Do. The Hwarang gained skills not only for battle, but for daily life. This relates directly to modern Tae Kwon Do training, which provides self defense skills as well as improved character, self-discipline, and confidence that can be applied to any task. Following the Silla dynasty came the Koryo dynasty (935 AD - 1352 AD) from which Korea takes its name. Martial arts practice, known as Subak Do, became popular as an organized sport with detailed rules. The royal family sponsored competitions and demonstrations, and martial arts became deeply rooted in Korean culture.ter

Tamilisch

Google Translater

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-09-12
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters Introduction Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’. He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father. The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform. Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore, Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to Christianity in Bengal. Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from 63 64 very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for himself in the field of art and poetry. The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man. There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new vision of the poet about life. i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of nature which is full of human significance. ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for his definition of beauty. iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality that its real significance is discovered. Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in the west which makes a brute of a man. After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life, Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by 65 the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent Moon and Chitra. Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility proved to be the theme. 2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of ‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition. In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such 66 thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established – even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage. Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral, in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison – house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of union. India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man, man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had 67 become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in undisturbed union with God. We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense. 2.3 Soul consciousness The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man – it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle of unity that there is in every man. All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that 68 transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great ‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition. Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God and gives rise to the earnest prayer, ‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69 expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as the supreme one. 2.4 The problem of Evil The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is. We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach, whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to distinguish between what we immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments, purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being, that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great; very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all. Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain 70 appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable. The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy. NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays ,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’ (1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now (1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ; thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the 71 extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and exact . In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings ,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and at the same time ,his travel narrative

Tamilisch

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-05-25
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Englisch

Epidemiology Frequency In developing countries, the predominant cause of VVF is prolonged obstructed labor (97%). VVFs are associated with marked pressure necrosis, edema, tissue sloughing, and cicatrization. The frequency of VVF is largely underreported in developing countries. The magnitude of the fistula problem worldwide is unknown but believed to be immense. In Nigeria alone, Harrison (1985) reported a vesicovaginal fistula rate of 350 cases per 100,000 deliveries at a university teaching hospital. The Nigerian Federal Minister for Women Affairs and Youth Development, Hajiya Aish M.S. Ismail, has estimated that the number of unrepaired VVFs in Nigeria is between 800,000 and 1,000,000 (2001). In 1991, the World Health Organization identified the following geographic areas where obstetric fistula prevalence is high: virtually all of Africa and south Asia, the less-developed parts of Oceana, Latin America, the Middle East, remote regions of Central Asia, and isolated areas of the former Soviet Union and Soviet-dominated eastern Europe.[13, 14] In contrast to developing countries, countries that practice modern obstetrics have a low rate of UGFs and VVF remains the most common type. Less frequently, UGFs may occur (1) between the bladder and cervix or uterus; (2) between the ureter and vagina, uterus, or cervix; and (3) between the urethra and vagina. Of note, a ureteric injury is identified in association with 10-15% of VVFs. The majority of UGFs in developed countries are a consequence of gynecological surgery. Consequently, the incidence may change as surgical management changes. The incidence of VVF in the United States is debated. Although most authors quote an incidence rate of VVF after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) of 0.5-2%, others suggest only a 0.05% incidence rate of injury to either the bladder or ureter. So if injuries to the bladder and ureters occur in roughly 1% of major gynecologic procedures, and approximately 75% are associated with hysterectomy, and if there are about 500,000 hysterectomies performed each year then about 5,000 women will experience an injury. Lee, in a series of 35,000 hysterectomies, found more than 80% of genitourinary fistulas arose from gynecological surgery for benign disease. Uncomplicated TAH accounted for more than 70% of these surgeries. The indications for these TAH surgeries excluded the more complex diagnoses, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, and carcinoma; instead, they were performed primarily for diagnoses such as abnormal bleeding, fibroids, and prolapse. In approximately 10% of cases of VVF, obstetrical trauma was the associated etiology. Radiotherapy and surgery for malignant gynecologic disease each accounted for 5% of cases. Notably, a rise in incidence of UGFs paralleled the switch in policy toward the preference of performing a total hysterectomy over a supracervical hysterectomy.

Tamilisch

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-05-13
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Englisch

mango tree historyMangos orginated in Southeast Asia and India, where references to the fruit are documented in Hindu writings dating back to 4000 B.C. Buddhist monks cultivated the fruit and in fact, the mango is considered to be a sacred fruit in the region because is is said that Buddha himself meditated under a mango tree. The mango belongs to the same family as the cashew and pistachio nut. Mango seeds traveled with humans from Asia to the Middle East, East Africa and South America beginning around 300 or 400 A.D. Mangos sold in the U.S. are grown near the equator in countries like. Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Guatemala and Haiti. Mangos have been grown in the U.S. for a little more than a century, but commercial, large-scale production here is limited. Because mangos need a tropical climate to flourish only Florida, California, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico grow mangos. The United States Territory of Puerto Rico has been producing mangos commercially for the last 30 years. Currently about 4,000 acres of mangos are being cultivated for export, but the majority of this crop goes to Europe rather than the mainland United States. In the Coachella Valley of California, around 200 acres of mangos are being produced, with about half of these being certified organic. Slow, gradual growth in mango acreage is expected in California, where the competition for suitable land is fierce. Mangos are susceptible to frost, and farmers who own appropriate land are hesitant to switch from tried and true crops such as grapes and citrus. In Hawaii, the estimated space devoted to mangos is around 300 acres and nearly all of this fruit will be sold locally. Many mango varieties have been cultivated in South Florida, as part of a seedling program initiated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and spearheaded by David Fairchild, founder of USDA’s Section of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction. The program focused on introducing mango varieties to the region, with the goal of producing mangos that could be exported. Over time, new varieties were developed, and some of these were introduced to growers in other parts of the world. Today, many of the popular varieties of mango grown around the world were derived from this program in Florida, including the Tommy Atkins, Haden, Keitt, and Kent. In fact, the Haden was a seedling of the Mulgoba, a seedling brought to Florida by the USDA from India during the late 1800s. While the mango industry in Florida thrived for some time after the mango’s introduction, its commercial acreage peeked at 7,000 acres in the early 1900s. The mango industry in Florida has since been diminished by freezes, urbanization, hurricanes and competition from other countries. Today, it’s estimated that less than 1000 acres of mangos are still in production, and most of these mangos are destined for local farmers’ and specialty markets. Meanwhile, backyard trees in Florida continue to thrive and bring joy to residents across the southern part of the state. In addition to these backyard mangos, Fairchild Tropical Gardens, named after David Fairchild, continues to cultivate mango varieties and work with mango growers all over the world. Fairchild is known for its annual International Mango Festival, which draws thousands of mango lovers each year to its Miami-area location in a celebration of all things mango. For more information on David Fairchild, and the Fairchild Tropical Gardens, visit - See more at: http://www.themangofactory.com/history/mango-history-2/#sthash.fSEQPQC3.dpuf

Tamilisch

மாமரத்தின் வரலாறு

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-10-21
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Englisch

1. Forests provide valuable timber for dome tic and commercial use. Industries like paper, matt making, plywood, sports goods, lakh and furniture at directly based on raw materials derived from forest 2. Forests supply a number of minor produce which are utilised in different industries and domes* tic uses. These include lakh, gum and resins, tannin material, medicines, herbs, honey, spices, etc. 3. Forests offer employment to about 4 mil­lion people to earn their livelihood in forest based occupations, i.e., lumbering, sawing, furniture mak­ing, forest produce collecting, etc. 4. Auction of forests for commercial use fetches annual income to state exchequer. 5. Export of forest products earns valuable foreign exchange to the country. 6. Grazing of cattle in the forests helps in dairy farming and cattle rising. 7. Forests are the natural habitat for wild life and birds which attract tourists, holiday makers and hunters. These may be developed as very good picnic or tourist centers in the form of wild life sanctuaries and national parks which have good employment and income generating potential.

Tamilisch

காட்டில் மாசு தமிழ் கட்டுரைகள்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-09-12
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Englisch

In this project, a Quasi Z-source half bridge converter is proposed. The proposed converter employs an LC network between the DC source and inverter circuitry to achieve the boost as well as the inversion operation. The Quasi Z-source inverter acquire all the advantages of the Z-source inverter, which can realize buck or boost inversion and power conditioning in a single stage with improved reliability. In addition, the proposed Quasi Z-source inverter has the unique advantages of lower component ratings and constant dc current from the source. Many of the boost control methods have been developed for the Z-source inverter can be used by the Quasi Z-source inverter. The Quasi Z-source inverter has a wide range of voltage gain which is suitable for applications in photovoltaic systems, due to the fact that the solar cell's output widely vary with temperature and solar irradiation. A Quasi Z-source inverter prototype is built; experimental results are provided to verify and demonstrate the special features of the proposed circuit.

Tamilisch

அர்த்தமுள்ள

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-06-08
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Englisch

With the increase in cloud service providers, and the increasing number of compute services offered, a migration of information systems to the cloud demands selecting the best mix of compute services and VM images from an abundance of possibilities. Therefore, a migration process for web applications has to automate evaluation and, in doing so, ensure that Quality of Service (QoS) requirements are met, while satisfying conflicting selection criteria like throughput and cost. When selecting compute services for multiple connected software components, web application engineers must consider heterogeneous sets of criteria and complex dependencies across multiple layers, which is impossible to resolve manually. The previously proposed Cloud Genius framework has proven its capability to support migrations of single-component web applications. We present on the cloud migration support for multi-component web applications. In particular, we proposed an evolutionary migration process for web application user clusters distributed over the relevant to the workload patterns. Moreover, we present a solution space grows for workload; we developed a Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based approach to cope with computational complexities in a growing cloud market. Furthermore, a use case example proofs Cloud Genius’ applicability. english paragraph to tamil translation online

Tamilisch

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-06-06
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Englisch

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

Tamilisch

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2015-04-27
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Englisch

Low-flow shower heads sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energyLow-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water

Tamilisch

1.அவர்கள் குறைந்த ஆற்றல் குறைந்த பறிப்பு கழிப்பறைகள் மற்றும் உரம் கழிப்பறைகள் பயன்படுத்த குறைந்த ஓட்ட மழை தலைகள் சில நேரங்களில் ஆற்றல் திறன் மழை தலைவர்கள் என்று. வழக்கமான மேற்கத்திய கழிப்பறைகள் தண்ணீர் அதிக தொகுதிகளை பயன்படுத்த இந்த, வளர்ந்த நாடுகளில் உள்ள ஒரு வியத்தகு தாக்கத்தை

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-10-10
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Englisch

Have they not travelled in the land and seen how was the fate of those who were before them? They were more powerful than them, and they plowed the earth and developed it more than they have developed it. Their apostles brought them manifest proofs. So it was not Allah who wronged them, but it was they who used to wrong themselves.

Tamilisch

அவர்கள் பூமியில் சுற்றிப் பயணம் செய்து, அவர்களுக்கு முன்னால் இருந்தவர்களின் முடிவு என்னவாயிற்று என்பதைப் பார்க்கவில்லையா? அவர்கள் இவர்களைவிட வலிமை மிக்கவர்களாக இருந்தார்கள்; அவர்களும் பூமியில் விவசாயம் செய்தார்கள். இன்னும் இவர்கள் அதை (உழுது) பண்படுத்தியதை விட அவர்கள் அதை அதிகமாகவே (உழுது) பண்படுத்தியிருந்தார்கள். அவர்களிடமும் அவர்களுக்கான (இறை) தூதர்கள் தெளிவான அத்தாட்சிகளைக் கொண்டு வந்தார்கள்; அல்லாஹ் அவர்களுக்கு ஒருபோதும் அநியாயம் செய்யவில்லை. ஆனால், அவர்கள் தங்களுக்குத் தாங்களே அநியாயம் செய்து கொண்டார்கள்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-07-03
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Englisch

Have they not travelled the earth and seen how those before them ended up? They were more powerful than them, and they cultivated the land and developed it more than they developed it, and their messengers came to them with clear signs. God would never wrong them, but they used to wrong themselves.

Tamilisch

அவர்கள் பூமியில் சுற்றிப் பயணம் செய்து, அவர்களுக்கு முன்னால் இருந்தவர்களின் முடிவு என்னவாயிற்று என்பதைப் பார்க்கவில்லையா? அவர்கள் இவர்களைவிட வலிமை மிக்கவர்களாக இருந்தார்கள்; அவர்களும் பூமியில் விவசாயம் செய்தார்கள். இன்னும் இவர்கள் அதை (உழுது) பண்படுத்தியதை விட அவர்கள் அதை அதிகமாகவே (உழுது) பண்படுத்தியிருந்தார்கள். அவர்களிடமும் அவர்களுக்கான (இறை) தூதர்கள் தெளிவான அத்தாட்சிகளைக் கொண்டு வந்தார்கள்; அல்லாஹ் அவர்களுக்கு ஒருபோதும் அநியாயம் செய்யவில்லை. ஆனால், அவர்கள் தங்களுக்குத் தாங்களே அநியாயம் செய்து கொண்டார்கள்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-07-03
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