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Englisch

Tamilisch

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Englisch

Raw materials

Tamilisch

மூலப் பொருள்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2012-02-06
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Wikipedia

Englisch

Food materials used as medicine

Tamilisch

உணவு பொருட்கள் மருந்து பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-11-25
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

S14: Keep away from... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)

Tamilisch

Please take the official translations! You find them here: http: // europa. eu. int/ eur- lex/ lex/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do? uri=CELEX: 32001L0059: EN: HTML

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2011-10-23
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

The state of matter in which materials are not fluid but retain their boundaries without support, the atoms or molecules occupying fixedsentence

Tamilisch

the fields are prepared by ploughing

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2013-01-21
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

So Firaun went away and gathered his schemes,* then came. (* 72000 magicians and their materials.)

Tamilisch

அவ்வாறே ஃபிர்அவ்ன் திரும்பிச் சென்று, (சூனியத்திற்கான) சூழ்ச்சிக்காரர்களை ஒன்று திரட்டிக் கொண்டு, மீ; ண்டும் வந்தான்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-07-03
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

It is not for a prophet to take prisoners before he has subdued the land. You desire the materials of this world, but God desires the Hereafter. God is Strong and Wise.

Tamilisch

(விஷமங்கள் அடங்க) பூமியில் இரத்தத்தை ஓட்டாத வரையில் (விரோதிகளை உயிருடன்) சிறைபிடிப்பது எந்த நபிக்கும் தகுதியில்லை நீங்கள் இவ்வுலகத்தின் (நிலையில்லா) பொருள்களை விரும்புகிறீர்கள். அல்லாஹ்வோ மறுமையில் (உங்கள் நலத்தை) நாடுகிறான். அல்லாஹ் (ஆற்றலில்) மிகைத்தோனும், ஞானமுடையோனாகவும் இருக்கின்றான்.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2014-07-03
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA OF LPG 1 CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name : LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS Chemical Classification : Hydrocarbon Mixture Synonyms: LPG, Propane, Butane, Propylene, Trade Name : LPG Purofax, Bottled Gas. Formula C3H8, C4HI0 (Mixture) C.A.S.NO. PROTECTED 85 7 UN. No. 1075

Tamilisch

எல்.ஜி.ஜி 1 சிமிகல் ஐடெண்டிட்டி இரசாயன பெயர்: லிக்யூஃபைட் பெட்ரூம் கேஸ் கெமிக்கல் வகைப்படுத்தல்: ஹைட்ரோகார்பன் கலவை ஒத்த: எல்பிஜி, புரொப்பேன், ப்யூட்டேன், ப்ரபிலீன், வர்த்தக பெயர்: எல்பிஜி ப்ரோரோஃபாக்ஸ், பாட்டிலில் அடைக்கப்பட்ட நீர். ஃபார்முலா C3H8, C4HI0 (கலவை) CASNO. பாதுகாக்கப்பட்ட 85 7 UN. எண் 1075

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2019-01-25
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

as discussed,HBL material shifting from our store to HBL site inside the ca

Tamilisch

ஆன்லைன் இலக்கண சரிபார்ப்பு

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-10-27
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

In contrast to paper, papyrus has an uneven surface that visibly retains the original structure of the ribbon-like strips that make it up. As the papyrus is worked, it tends to break apart along the seams, leading to long linear cracks and eventually falling apart. Roman portraiture fresco of a young man with a papyrus scroll, from Herculaneum, 1st century AD The word "paper" is etymologically derived from papyrus, Ancient Greek for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean societies for writing long before paper was used in China.[1] Papyrus is prepared by cutting off thin ribbon-like strips of the interior of the Cyperus papyrus, and then laying out the strips side-by-side to make a sheet. A second layer is then placed on top, with the strips running at right angle to the first. The two layers are the pounded together into a sheet. The result is very strong, but has an uneven surface, especially at the edges of the strips. When used in scrolls, repeated rolling and unrolling causes the strips to come apart again, typically along vertical lines. This effect can be seen in many ancient papyrus documents.[2] Paper contrasts with papyrus in that the plant material is broken down through maceration or disintegration before the paper is pressed. This produces a much more even surface, and no natural weak direction in the material which falls apart over time.[3] It is lucky chance that the date of CE 105 was recorded, because Cai Lun, the official involved, who seems to have introduced some improvements in paper manufacture, worked at the palace as a eunuch. Yet just because the new technology was not trumpeted at the time does not mean that it had no effect. On the contrary: up to this point China was lagging behind those Mediterranean societies where papyrus was used and where light, inexpensive scrolls could be created. But thereafter the advantage swung the other way, since papyrus, which is composed of organic material not as highly processed as paper, was prone to splitting and deterioration at a much greater rate; this may be why vellum eventually came to dominate, especially in the harsher climate of Northern Europe. Paper, by contrast, gave a good, uniform writing surface that could be smoothly rolled and unrolled without damage, while remaining relatively durable.[4]

Tamilisch

Tamil

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-10-13
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 3
Qualität:

Referenz: Manikandan1975
Warnung: Enthält unsichtbare HTML-Formatierung

Englisch

fiyancy material

Tamilisch

fiyancy பொருள

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2018-09-01
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

INSPECT THE F RECEVED MATERIAL LOT

Tamilisch

கடைசல் திருப்பு வேலை இந்தி வழிமுறைகளை

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-04-10
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
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Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

Sample Written Program For INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 1 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY PROGRAM The following safety policy is provided only as a guide to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910 and 1926, as well as to provide other helpful information. It is not intended to supersede the requirements of the standards. An employer should review the standards for particular requirements which are applicable to their individual situation and make adjustments to this program that are specific to their company. An employer will need to add information relevant to their particular facility in order to develop an effective, comprehensive program. 2 Industrial Safety Program For (Company Name) TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC Safety & Health Policy Statement Safety & Health Goals New Employee Orientation Safety & Training Employee Responsibilities Accident Investigation/Reporting Personal Protective Equipment Safety Rules Safety Committee Emergency Action Plan Safety Discipline Employee Confirmation 3 SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY STATEMENT XYZ Manufacturing Company believes that NO JOB OR TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY. If a job represents a potential safety or health threat, every effort will be made to plan a safe way to complete the task in a safe manner. Every procedure must be a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures by management and all other associates will not be tolerated. If a worker observes any unsafe or unprotected exposure, which may pose a potential threat to their safety & health, he or she must inform management immediately. If a job can not be done safely…………..It will not be done. Every employee is entitled to a safe and healthful place in which to work. _______________________ President 4 SAFETY & HEALTH GOALS The following goals have been established for XYZ Manufacturing Company: (1) Provide workers with a safe work environment. (2) Conduct routine/regular workplace inspections. (3) Provide Personal Protective Equipment. (4) Develop and implement safe work procedures and rules. (5) Provide on-going safety training (6) Enforce safety rules and appropriate discipline. (7) Provide on-going property conservation practices. 5 NEW EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION All new employees must attend our Safety Orientation Session prior to starting work within their assigned area. This session will be conducted under the direction of the Safety Director and in coordination with Human Resources. Upon completion of the Safety Orientation Session, each new employee will be required to acknowledge that they have received, understand, and will abide by the XYZ Company Safety Program. All participants must sign a statement verifying that they have completed the session. This report will be filed in the employee’s personnel file. The following topics will be covered in the Safety Orientation Session:  Company History  Safety Program/Policy & Work rules  Responsibilities  Safety Education/Training  Safety Audit/Inspections  Accident Reporting/Investigation Requirements  First Aid & Bloodborne Pathogens  Personal Protective Equipment  Tool & Equipment Use  Material Handling  Lockout-Tagout  Machine Guarding  MVR Requirements  Hazard Communication  Emergency Action  Return-to-work & Light Duty Assignments All new hires will be provided an opportunity to ask any question that pertains to their job duties and employment at XYZ Manufacturing Company. 6 SAFETY & TRAINING All in-house Safety & Training sessions will be coordinated by (Name of Safety Director). Foremen and Assistant Foremen are required to be trained in Accident Investigation Procedures by the Safety Director. Operators of forklift trucks are to be trained in-house in accordance with federal/state requirements. Operators must attend classroom instruction as well as “behind the wheel training”. All employees who work with, or are exposed to, hazardous chemicals are to be trained in Hazard Communication, in accordance with federal and state regulations. All employees who don respirators are to be trained in accordance with federal and state regulations. Those individuals who don respirators are required to have annual physicals. Machine operators and maintenance personnel are to be trained in Lockout/Tagout procedures. Individual locks/keys will be assigned to those individuals participating in the LOTO program. All employees who don Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) will be trained in the proper use of such equipment. First-aid training and Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) training will be conducted by (Name of Hospital) and the local chapter of the American Red Cross. Machine/Equipment operators are to be trained in-house. Emphasis is to be placed on point of operation guarding. No employee is allowed to operate a machine unless it is properly guarded. Employees who operate company vehicles are required to participate in an in-house Defensive Driving Program. 7 All production, shipping, and warehouse employees are required to attend a 4 hour in-house safety training session on an annual basis. This partial day session is held each January in the conference room. The Safety Director will decide the topic material; however each annual session is to place emphasis on material handling and machine guarding. All employees, at time of hire, are to be trained in Emergency Action and proper evacuation of building in case of an emergency. Each employee is to be given instruction/training on where to exit and where to locate in the event of an emergency. Foremen and Assistant Foremen are to meet with the Safety Director on a quarterly basis to discuss training needs and goals. 8 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Each employee is responsible to follow established polices and procedures. Regular attendance is required of all. Following directions is critical. Responsibility does not end with just taking care of you. Unsafe working conditions and acts must be reported to management. It is the responsibility of each employee to work in a professional and safe manner. 9 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION/REPORTING All injuries/illnesses must be reported to management as soon as possible. It is the policy of XYZ Manufacturing Company to have all injuries/illnesses investigated by Foremen or Assistant Foremen within 24 hours of incident. A formal Accident Investigation Form (available from the Safety Director) must be forwarded to the Safety Director as soon as possible. It is important that all incidents be reported, no matter how slight. Any property/liability loss claim must also be reported to management as soon as possible. The Safety Director will conduct a loss investigation of all property/liability claims. 10 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes all clothing and accessories designed to protect against workplace hazards. In some situations the only available protection for employees will be the use of PPE and often in emergencies, PPE will be required for the safety of the workers. As required by federal and state regulations, personal protective equipment is essential for the protection of eyes, ears, face and other body parts when working around hazardous machinery and equipment. All PPE must meet established standards (ANSI, NIOSH, OSHA, etc). All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided by XYZ Manufacturing Company. Employees are not allowed to provide their own PPE unless authorized by the Safety Director. As a general rule, only company provided PPE is allowed. Hazard Assessments have been completed throughout the production and warehouse areas of XYZ Manufacturing Company. PPE is required in the following areas: Warehouse All employees and visitors are required to wear approved hard hats and eye protection. Steel-toed shoes/boots required of warehouse workers. Welding Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Approved hard hats required of all welders. Approved hearing protection required of all welders. Welders are also required to don approved PPE in the form of goggles, helmet, leather coat, apron, steel-toed work boot, gloves, no cuff pants and other 11 equipment as deemed necessary by the Safety Director. Mechanical ventilation is required at all welding stations. Paint Shop All employees and visitors are required to wear approved eye protection. Spray painters are required to wear company provided work clothing (disposable shirt/pants). Approved respirators are required during those times when spray painting, mixing, or clean-up is taking place. Steel-toed boots/shoes required of paint sprayers. All spray painting is to be conducted within the paint spray booth. Mechanical ventilation system is to be in operation when spray painting takes place. General Production Areas Approved eye protection required of all who enter shop. Visitor glasses (eye protection) are available in main office as well as next to loading dock door and warehouse entrance. XYZ Manufacturing Company will reimburse employee (maximum - $100) each 24 months for the purchase of approved steel-toed boot/shoe. XYZ Manufacturing Company will provide prescription eye wear (approved safety eye protection) for those individuals requesting same. See Safety Director for additional information. 12 SAFETY RULES All safety rules must be obeyed. Failure to do so will result in strict disciplinary action.  All injuries must be reported as soon as possible.  No horseplay, alcohol, or drugs allowed on premises.  No alcohol usage allowed during lunch break.  PPE must be worn as prescribed by management.  All tools/equipment must be maintained in good condition.  Only appropriate tools shall be used for specific jobs.  All guards must be kept in place.  No spliced electrical cords/wiring allowed.  Only authorized personnel can operate forklift vehicles.  Smoking allowed only in lunchroom.  Seat belt use required of all drivers/passengers.  All OSHA Safety Standards will be followed for job processes requiring respiratory protection. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Lockout/Tagout of energized equipment will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROGRAM.  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Hazard Communications will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM. 13  All OSHA Safety Standards concerning Forklift Safety will be followed. *SEE SEPARATE WRITTEN FORKLIFT SAFETY PROGRAM. *These sample written safety programs can be found on the Frankenmuth Safety Services Website. They can be downloaded as a PDF or Microsoft Word file. 14 SAFETY COMMITTEE The primary purpose of the Safety Committee is to promote safety awareness and reduce the potential for injury/loss throughout XYZ Manufacturing Company. The Safety Committee is to be chaired by the Safety Director and include representatives from each department (total number of committee members not to exceed five individuals). Members can be volunteers or appointed. Membership is limited to two terms (1 year each) during any four year period. Meetings are to be scheduled, when possible, for the same day each month (2nd Tuesday of each month – 2:00 p.m.). All meetings are to take place in the conference room. Each meeting should have a set agenda and minutes of each meeting recorded. A copy of the minutes shall be forwarded to the Executive Vice-President within 48 hours of meeting. Each Safety Committee Meeting shall include a review of the prior month’s minutes as well as a review of the prior month’s injury/illness log and investigations of losses/claims. Past injuries/claims/losses need to be reviewed for any patterns or trends. General functions of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Identifying workplace hazards (2) Enforcement of Safety Rules (3) Measuring safety performance (4) Reducing frequency/severity of injuries (5) Creating safety policies (6) Developing and monitoring safety programs Specific tasks of the Safety Committee can include: (1) Conducting self-inspections of the workplace 15 (2) Review employee reports of hazards (3) Assist in safety training (4) Creating safety incentive programs (5) Publish/distribute safety newsletter (6) Inspect PPE (7) Post safety posters/slogans on bulletin board (8) Identify Light Duty Jobs The Safety Committee of XYZ Manufacturing Company was formed to promote safety throughout our organization. The benefits of a Safety Committee are numerous and XYZ Manufacturing believes that this is a forum for problem solving. The Safety Committee has an open door policy and welcomes suggestions. 16 EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN The Emergency Action Plan (EAP) is in place to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergency. At the time of an emergency, all employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some emergencies total and immediate evacuation will be necessary. In other emergencies only partial evacuation may be necessary. When a fire is detected it is necessary that the fire alarm pull station be activated as soon as possible. The fire alarm will notify the emergency response team who will perform assigned duties. The activation of the alarm will also notify the local fire department. In the event of bomb threat, toxic chemical release, hazardous weather, or other emergencies – notification will be made over the public address system. In the event of fire, bomb threat, or toxic chemical release; employees are to proceed to the nearest available and safe exit and leave the building as soon as possible. Floor plans (maps) and exits have been posted in each department. It is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Shop and Warehouse employees are to meet in the __________ Parking Lot on _______ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of _________ and ________ Street. Office employees are to meet in the __________ Parking lot on __________ Street. Secondary location is the intersection of __________ and __________ Street. 17 In the event of Weather emergencies all employees (and visitors) are to evacuate their assigned area and report to the lower level bomb shelter. Again, it is of critical importance that all employees and visitors are accounted for. Supervisors within each area shall take a head count at the designated meeting areas. It is the responsibility of each supervisor to advise fire and police departments of any missing persons. There will be evacuation training each April and October (full evacuation to designated areas). 18 SAFETY DISCIPLINE Management personnel at all levels are responsible for taking action when a violation is observed. If a violation is observed, they must take action immediately to correct the violation and enforce this disciplinary policy. Employees who fail to follow safety rules and regulations established to protect them and their fellow employees endanger themselves and others. Visitors and contractors on site are also required to abide by the safety rules and regulations. The following procedures will be followed when a violation is observed: FIRST VIOLATION* Verbal warning with written confirmation in personnel file. SECOND VIOLATION* Written warning and ½ day suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). THIRD VIOLATION* Written warning and one week suspension (written confirmation in personnel file). FOURTH VIOLATION* Termination (written confirmation in personnel file). 19 *As warranted by type of violation (use of drugs/alcohol, criminal activity, etc.) termination of employment may take place after any such violation. EMPLOYEE CONFIRMATION OF SAFETY PROGRAM This is to certify that I, ___________________________________, have read and will observe the safety practices as outlined in this booklet and other rules presented to me during my employment with XYZ Manufacturing Company. I understand that the safety practices listed are not the only procedures and/or rules that I will be called upon to follow. I also understand that it is a requirement of my employment that any injury/illness be reported to my supervisor immediately. SIGNED _________________________________________ WITNESS ________________________________________ DATE _______________________ This form to be filed in personnel file The information and suggestions contained in this material have been developed from sources believed to be reliable. However, Frankenmuth accepts no legal responsibility for the correctness or completeness of this material, or its application to specific factual situations.

Tamilisch

தமிழ் தொழில்துறை பாதுகாப்பு பற்றிய கட்டுரை

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-03-05
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 7
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym
Warnung: Enthält unsichtbare HTML-Formatierung

Englisch

We are having around 1200mm length of SS316L raw material stock for Ø130.00mm.

Tamilisch

நாம் Ø130.00mm க்கான SS316L மூலப்பொருள் பங்கு 1200mm நீளம் சுற்றி கொண்ட.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2017-03-04
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

material safety data sheet

Tamilisch

பொருள் பாதுகாப்பு தரவு தாள்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-10-17
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

1.Do you think consumer should avoid over packed products or it is responsibility of producer to avoid extra packaging of products?" Give your views or any relevant example with your own experience. Over packaging of products has become a trend in today's competitive world. Producers are trying to attract consumers with attractive packaging of their products, not bothered about its negative impact not only on our environment but the users as well. It should be the responsibility of the producers to limit the wastage of the resources in the form of un-necessary packaging. The cost of over packaging is actually added to the product sold. In fact, at times it is seen the packing cost and durability is more that the product itself. The type of packaging found in pharmaceutical industries can be taken as an example here. Pills and tablets are found to be packed in much bigger and colourful strips than needed. Does this increase the sale of medicine? No. Such packaging is of no concern to the consumers. But, the cost of medicine would have definitely been lesser if sold in a simple outlook. Further, the material used is mostly non-disposable which adds to the environmental pollution to a great extent. Snacks and other food items packaged in eye-catchy shimmering colored packets are consumed in a large scale by everybody. These packets are really difficult to dispose as they emit poisonous gas if burnt and if not can be seen to contaminate water somewhere. Producers should realize the importance of using materials like paper and stick to simple packaging. Packaging as seen increases the cost of the product and also makes our environment unhealthy. So, this packaging boom should be checked on a serious note by the producers. Moreover, the producers should be restricted with predefined rules and parameters set by the government. It is also recommended that an awareness among the users that quality of the product is important rather than the attractive packaging.

Tamilisch

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-09-27
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym
Warnung: Enthält unsichtbare HTML-Formatierung

Englisch

What do we mean by glut of paper product, is it having any effect on the environment. by it we mean excessive abundant supply of paper in the market. Large volumes of paper fibre have been recycled in worldwide. Recovery of paper for recycling has increased in recent years due to widespread expansion of paper collection and sorting (e.g., community-based curb side collection, sorting, and office wastepaper collection). The increase in collection and sorting has a directly or indirectly a response to availability of landfills; long-term environmental, economic, and human health problems associated with land- fills and waste increments; and increasing costs of waste disposal. By collecting and sorting material for recycling, disposal costs have been avoided. However, expansion of collection and sorting programs has led to cheaper and more abundant supplies of recovered paper, providing the market incentive for industrial expansion of paper recycling. Prices for recovered paper vary over time and by category of recovered paper: old newspapers and mixed papers have the lowest prices, pulp substitutes and high grades of recovered paper have the highest prices, and old corrugated containers intermediate prices. As a result of increased collection and recovery it is called as “glut” in recovered paper markets. The paper industry has responded to the market signal of sustained low prices for recovered paper by increasing the use of recycled fibre relative to virgin fibre. Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant increase in paper recycling rates in response to market conditions. At a time when record numbers of people are recycling, those who want to recycle used newspapers will now have to pay a hefty fee as a result of a newspaper glut. Since the rate of recycling the paper products is increasing which earlier used to be for free? The newspaper glut also stems from the lack of businesses and retailers stocking recycled paper products. More than half of the waste paper generated in the city is thrown out as opposed to being recycled. That's out of about 1 million tons annually. This glut is increasing due to no use of recycled paper by the newspaper agency and the various universities. This would lead to lower down in the prices of the recycle newspaper and in turn newspaper collector are also stopping in doing their business since no profit is turning in. Well, serious regulations have to be made by the government regarding the issue.

Tamilisch

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Letzte Aktualisierung: 2016-08-05
Nutzungshäufigkeit: 1
Qualität:

Referenz: Anonym

Englisch

RESISTANCE TO BORER COMPLEX INFESTATION IN SUGARCANE CLONES V. Baskaran, M. Shanmuganathan, K. Annadurai, R. Chandrasekaran and R. Nageswari Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani 639 115 Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India E mail: varadharajbhaskaran@gmail.co.in INTRODUCTION Sugarcane is an important cash crop of India being grown in an area of 5.12 mha. With annual production of 341 m mt, with the productivity of 69.84 t/ha (Sugar India, 2015). In Tamil Nadu the area under sugarcane is about 3.36 mha. with a production of 5.12 million tonnes. The average yield of the promising cane in Tamil Nadu is 106 million t/ha. Sugarcane borers are the major pests and consequently reduce quality and quantity of cane and cane sugar. Most of the high sugar content sugarcane varieties are susceptible for borers viz., early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus (Snellen) and internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur) which cause 20 % crop loss in field and 15% in sugar recovery (Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002). Among various technologies involved for increasing the yield and qualitative attributes, the inherited characters play a vital role. A need for more number of early maturing sugarcane varieties with high sugar content having high yield potential with resistant or moderately resistant to major borer pests. At present, no sugarcane variety is completely resistant to any of the sugarcane borer pests. Adoption of high yielding varieties with better quality attributes is the cheapest technology (Mukunda Rao et al. 2003). The sugarcane varieites Co 86032, CoSi (Sc) 6, CoC 24, CoV 94101, CoV 92102, Co 94008 and Co 94012 are the popularly grown varieties, often succumbs to pest and diseases, of which the borers cause a major loss in cane yield and loss of sugar per cent (Thirumurugan et al. 2004). Koenar (1976) stated that selection of resistant varieties against borers was an effective and economical control measure. The present study was conducted to find out the resistance level in different sugarcane clones against borer infestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS An experiments were conducted in randomized block design with three replications at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India during 2014-15. Fourty three sugarcane clones were planted in 5m x 5m row with 0.8 m spacing. All the recommended cultural practices were adopted uniformly except plant protection. Observations on early shoot borer and internode borer incidence were recorded at 15 days intervals. The infestation levels in clones of sugarcane were assessed and graded. Sugarcane clones were categorized based on the degree of resistance/susceptibility according to resistance scale given by Rao and Krishnamurthy (1973). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Sugarcane clones The first set of field experiments revealed that early shoot borer infestation and per cent of dead heart was minimum in Si 2011-355 (4.17 %) and maximum in Si 2011-349, Si 2011-415, Si 2011-598 and Si 2011-631 (8.70 %). The internode borer damage was recorded minimum in Si 2011-359 (8.0 %) and maximum (37.5%) in Si 2011-371. Table 1. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2011-349 8.70 LS 26.09 MS Si 2011-355 4.17 LS 12.50 LS Si 2011-359 4.00 LS 8.00 LS Si 2011-371 8.33 LS 37.50 MS Si 2011-415 8.70 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-417 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-423 4.00 LS 28.00 MS Si 2011-426 4.35 LS 13.04 LS Si 2011-513 8.33 LS 20.83 MS Si 2011-589 7.41 LS 18.52 MS Si 2011-597 4.17 LS 25.00 MS Si 2011-598 8.70 LS 30.43 MS Si 2011-617 8.00 LS 32.00 MS Si 2011-621 4.55 LS 22.73 MS Si 2011-631 8.70 LS 17.39 MS Si 2011-633 4.35 LS 34.78 MS TNAU Si 7 8.00 LS 28.00 MS Co 86032 8.33 LS 29.17 MS Average 6.71 23.83 In the second set of experiment among the twenty six clones, Si 2012-329 (6.00 %) and Si 2012-38 (39.40 %) recorded the minimum and maximum dead heart damage due to early shoot borer respectively. The internode borer damage was 3.80 per cent in Si 2012-329 which was the minimum among the clones of sugarcane. Table 2. Borer complex infestation on dead heart basis and internode damage basis in early maturing sugarcane clones Clones Dead heart (%) Reaction Internode borer damage (%) Reaction Si 2012-03 24.37 MS 46.69 MS Si 2012-04 24.07 MS 40.00 MS Si 2012-07 23.17 MS 36.03 MS Si 2012-09 19.60 MS 24.18 MS Si 2012-16 19.03 MS 51.85 S Si 2012-20 18.67 MS 26.60 MS Si 2012-31 16.70 LS 24.70 MS Si 2012-32 16.63 MS 24.20 MS Si 2012-34 11.47 LS 22.00 MS Si 2012-38 39.40 MS 17.20 MS Si 2012-62 23.23 MS 16.10 MS Si 2012-39 11.20 LS 38.89 MS Si 2012-40 11.63 LS 34.07 MS Si 2012-47 12.07 LS 27.78 MS Si 2012-64 6.60 LS 37.14 MS Si 2012-70 14.80 LS 28.89 MS Si 2012-72 11.50 LS 42.13 MS Si 2012-76 13.07 LS 57.50 MS Si 2012-78 8.40 LS 7.60 LS Si 2012-83 24.67 MS 25.30 MS Si 2012-512 11.27 LS 11.40 LS Si 2012-523 7.70 LS 6.20 LS Si 2012-328 10.60 LS 10.00 LS Si 2012-329 6.00 LS 3.80 LS Si 2012-339 16.87 MS 14.80 LS Si 2012-346 12.77 LS 10.40 LS SED 1.90 6.14 CD (0.05 %) 4.07 10.80 CD (0.01 %) 5.65 16.63 The maximum sugar yield recorded 14.75 t/ha in Si 2011-355 and minimum 10.36 in Si 2011-415. The clone Si 2011-359 recorded higher cane yield of 131.40 t/ha and minimum 93.67 t/ha in Si 2011-631 (Table 3). Table 3. Effect of sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2011-349 112.4 12.65 10.87 2. Si 2011-355 123.5 10.98 14.75 3. Si 2011-359 131.4 12.46 12.17 4. Si 2011-371 121.8 9.84 12.18 5. Si 2011-415 105.2 12.71 10.36 6. Si 2011-417 110.8 10.77 16.70 7. Si 2011-423 107.6 10.53 11.59 8. Si 2011-426 104.4 12.16 11.00 9. Si 2011-513 120.2 13.69 13.62 10. Si 2011-589 128.3 11.81 11.56 11. Si 2011-597 99.4 11.89 11.74 12. Si 2011-598 123.3 12.84 14.66 13. Si 2011-617 136.3 12.39 13.50 14. Si 2011-621 95.5 11.21 11.84 15. Si 2011-631 93.6 12.22 10.50 16. Si 2011-633 120.7 12.73 12.62 17. TNAU Si 7 115.7 11.58 14.73 18. Co 86032 127.4 13.25 14.76 CD (P=0.05) 23.1 0.14 0.41 Table 4. Effect of maturing sugarcane clones on plant growth characters, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield and cane yield. S.l. No. Early and mid late maturing clones Cane yield t/ha CCS % Sugar yield (t/ha) 1. Si 2012-03 147.0 12.35 18.15 2. Si 2012-04 127.0 12.25 15.59 3. Si 2012-07 153.6 12.43 19.09 4. Si 2012-09 149.3 12.41 18.52 5. Si 2012-16 115.6 12.12 14.01 6. Si 2012-20 135.0 12.26 16.55 7. Si 2012-31 131.3 12.21 16.03 8. Si 2012-32 139.6 12.29 17.15 9. Si 2012-34 142.0 12.32 17.49 10. Si 2012-38 125.0 12.13 15.16 11. Si 2012-62 121.4 12.12 17.52 12. Si 2012-39 142.2 16.70 12.20 13. Si 2012-40 120.6 11.59 12.63 14. Si 2012-47 120.6 11.00 12.26 15. Si 2012-64 145.5 14.62 12.32 16. Si 2012-70 140.8 17.56 12.21 17. Si 2012-72 160.5 11.74 12.29 18. Si 2012-76 120.4 14.66 12.74 19. Si 2012-78 131.4 17.50 9.67 20. Si 2012-83 120.6 11.84 12.65 21. Si 2012-512 142.5 10.50 10.98 22. Si 2012-523 120.2 14.75 12.46 23. Si 2012-328 128.3 14.73 9.84 24. Si 2012-329 99.4 14.76 12.71 25. Si 2012-339 123.3 15.94 10.77 26. Si 2012-346 136.3 13.79 10.53 CD (0.05 %) 25.16 37.74 4.93 The maximum sugar yield of 19.09 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-07 and minimum sugar yield of 14.01 t/ha was recorded in Si 2012-16. The clone Si 2012-07 recorded higher cane yield of 153.60 t/ha and minimum 9.67 in Si 2012-78. The clone Si 2012-72 recorded higher cane yield of 160.50 t/ha and minimum 99.4 t/ha in Si 2012-329 (Table 4). References Mukunda Rao, Ch. K.R. Tagore, M. Vijay kumar, M. Jayaprakash and R. Raghavaiah (2003). Relative behaviour of sugarcane clones under soil moisture / drought during formative stages. Co-operative sugar 34(8): 643-646. Rao and Krishnamoorthy Rao, 1973. Studies on loss in yield of sugarcane due to shoot borer , Indian Sugar, 22: 867-868. Sardana and Amerika singh, 2002. Integrated Pest Management in Sugarcane, Co-operative sugar, 33 (5): 393-407. Sugar India, 2015. Statewise yield of sugarcane in India, P.84. Thirumurugan, A, S.Inayathullah Shah abd S.R. Venkatachalam (2004). Relative performance of selected genotypes for early season and their response to the borers. SISSTA Sugar Journal 26, P.43-47.

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The chemical composition of black liquor is important in multiple effect evaporation because of the scaling potential. The five elements present in black liquor are sodium, sulphur, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It also contains non-process elements viz. silica, potassium and chlorides. The organic constituents of black liquor originate from raw material and include ligneous materials, hydroxyl acids, degraded carbohydrates, low molecular weight organic acids and extractives (fatty acids and resins). The organics are combines chemically with sodium hydroxide in the form of sodium salts.

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Ambujammal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2015) S.Ambujammal Born S.Ambujammal January 8, 1899 chennai(Madras), India Residence kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India Other names Ambujam Ammal Occupation freedom fighter, Treasurer of the Women’s Swadeshi League,Vice-President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee , social worker Spouse(s) S Desikachari Ambujammal Desikachari nee Srinivasa Iyengar was an Indian independence activist and women's rights activist. A Gandhian, she participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and served as Vice-President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee. Ambujammal was awarded the Padma Shri in 1964. Early life and education[edit] Ambujammal was born on January 8, 1899 to S. Srinivasa Iyengar and his wife Ranganayaki. Srinivasa Iyengar was one of the foremost leaders of the Indian National Congress in the Madras Presidency and had served as the President of the Swaraj Party. Ambujammal's maternal grandfather was Sir V. Bhashyam Aiyangar, the first native Indian to be appointed Advocate-General of the Madras Presidency. Ambujammal married S Desikachari in 1910. He was an advocate from Kumbakonam. Early on in her life, she was fascinated by Gandhiji’s ideas, especially his constructive socio-economic program. This interest was fanned by her contact with Sister Subbalakshmi, Dr Muthulakshmi Reddy, and Margaret Cousins. Ambujammal qualified as a teacher and taught at Sarada Vidyalaya girls school part-time. She was a committee member of Sarada Ladies’ Union from 1929 to 1936. She worked very closely with Sister Subbalakshmi. In 1929, she was nominated Treasurer of the Women’s Swadeshi League, Madras. This League was a non-political wing of the Congress, implementing Gandhi’s social and economic programs. She joined a number of women who donated their jewelry to support the national movement – on Gandhiji’s request. She was a strong proponent of Swadeshi, and embraced Khadi. Her entry into political life was in 1930, during the civil disobedience movement. She joined the Salt Satyagraha, and courted arrest. In 1932, she was hailed as the “Third Dictator” of the Congress, and led the Satyagrahis to boycott foreign cloth. She was arrested and sentenced to six months of imprisonment. A thorough Congresswoman, she was part of the Managing Committee of the Hindi Prachar Sabha from 1934 to 1938. She did a lot of propaganda work for Hindi. As part of her activities with the Hindi Prachar Sabha, she attended the All-India Congress Session in Bombay in 1934. She stayed at Wardha Ashram with Gandhi from November 1934 till January 1935. As part of the role as Secretary of the Mylapore Ladies Club (a post she held from 1936), she conducted Hindi classes. She was a significant part of the Women’s India Association (WIA), taking the post of Secretary from 1939 to 1942 and that of Treasurer from 1939 to 1947. With the WIA, the issues she worked of were: Abolition of Child Marriage, Polygamy, and the Devadasi system; and bringing about legislation to protect the rights of women and their property rights. On behalf of the WIA, she was nominated to the Madras Corporation. In 1947, during the All-India Women’s Conference in Madras, she was nominated as the Chairperson of the reception committee. A dedicated social worker, she was the President and Treasurer of the Srinivasa Gandhi Nilayam from 1948, an institute she founded. It provided free coaching to poor girls, had a free dispensary, and also provided training and employment to women in its printing press. An associate of Vinoba Bhave, Ambujammal toured Tamil Nadu with him to publicise the Bhoodan movement in 1956. Ambujammal was not in favour of too much industrialization; she believed in the Village Self-Sufficiency model – as advocated by Bhave. She was the Vice-President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee from 1957 to 1962, and the Chairman of the State Social Welfare Board from 1957 to 1964. Ambujammal was a notable scholar in Hindi and Tamil. She has written three books about Gandhi in Tamil. In 1964 Ambujammal won the padma shri award.

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ABSTRACT Application of recycled materials in the building industry is essential for permanently sustainable development of each country. The use of primary sources and materials is becoming unbearable both economically and ecologically, and therefore it is necessary to seek the possibility of reuse of those materials once their durability expired This project deals with the Comparative study of flexural behavior of fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates with quarry dust replacement. For reducing cost of concrete and also to meet the demand, locally available waste materials such as quarry dust and recycled materials have been utilized in concrete. The aim of this project is to study enhancement of flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity due to the addition of POLYPROPYLENE fibres and recycled aggregates in concrete and the replacement of crusher dust in concrete. The compressive strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust. The split tensile strength of concrete reaches the maximum value at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers and same behavior is observed while replacing completely with recycled aggregates and quarry dust The flexural strength of concrete beams attains max value of 54kN ultimate load at a replacement level of 0.5% of fibers. The load deflection behavior shows a ductile behavior at 0.5% of fiber replacement level. The stiffness and energy absorption capacity at ultimate load are more in the 0.5% of fibre proportion. Hence it is concluded that recycled building waste can be effectively used as a fully replacement for natural aggregate.

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