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Advertisements and Our Life In Hindi Essay

Hindi

essay advertisements and our life in hindi

Last Update: 2016-02-21
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English

Their main quality is the depiction of the Dogra life in a realistic manner .

Hindi

डोगरा जनजीवन के विशिष्ट पहलुओं का यथावत् चित्रण इनकी विशेषता है ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
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Reference: Anonymous

English

The first three weeks of life in a new - born camel is the most critical period .

Hindi

नवजात ऊंट के लिए पहले तीन सप्ताह सबसे नाजुक अवधि है ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
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English

But to our ordinary materialised consciousness all this does not exist because it is hidden from us by our preoccupation with our existence in a little corner of the material universe and with the petty experiences of the little hour of time which is represented by our life in a single body upon this earth .

Hindi

परन्तु हमारी साधारण जड़तापन्न चेतना के लिये इस सबका अस्तित्व ही नहीं है क्योंकि यह हमसे छुपा हुआ है और इसके छुपे होने के कारण यह है कि हम इस स्थूल विश्व के एक छोटे - से कोने में अपनी ही सत्ता में व्यस्त हैं और इस भूतल पर एक ही शरीर में कुछ थोड़े - से काल के लिये जो हमारा जीवन चलता है उस अल्प - जीवनकाल के क्षुद्र अनुभवों में ही ग्रस्त हैं ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
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Reference: Anonymous

English

It is the shaking off of the last hold on us of the cosmic ignorance and our firm foundation in the Truth of things , in a consciousness infinite and eternal and inviolable by obscurity , falsehood , suffering or error .

Hindi

इसका मतलब यह है कि हमारे ऊपर विराट अज्ञान का जो प्रभुत्व है उसके अंतिम जूए को उतार फेंकना और जगद्विषयक सत्य में तथा अन्धकार , असत्य , दुःख या भ्रम से अभेद्य एक असीम एवं सनातन चेतना में दृढ़ रूप से प्रतिष्ठित होना ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
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English

But it does not become what we specifically call Yoga until the motive becomes in a certain degree clairvoyant , until it sees that union is its object and that love is the principle of union , and until therefore it tries to realise love and lose its separative character in love .

Hindi

परन्तु जिसे हम विशेष रूप से योग का नाम देते हैं वह चीज यह तब तक नहीं बनता जब तक कि इसका प्ररेक भाव कुछ - न - कुछ पारदर्शी नहीं हो जाता , तब तक नहीं बनता जब तक कि इसका प्रेरक भाव कुछ - न - कुछ पारदर्शी नहीं हो जाता , जब तक यह यह नहीं देखता कि इसका लक्ष्य है मिलन और मिलन का मूलतत्त्व है प्रेम , अतः जब तक यह प्रेम को उपलब्ध करने और अपने पृथक्कारी स्वरूप का प्रेम में खो देने का यत्न नहीं करता ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

For here in the works of life in the earth - nature is the very heart of the difficulty that has driven Philosophy to its heights of aloofness and turned away even the eager eye of Religion from the malady of birth in a mortal body to a distant Paradise or a silent peace of Nirvana .

Hindi

कारण , यहां पृथ्वी - प्रकृति में प्राण के कर्मों में ही उस कठिनाई का असली मर्म छिपा है जिसके कारण दर्शन एकाकिता के शिखरों की ओर झुक गया है तथा धर्म की आतुर दृष्टि भी मर्त्य - शरीरगत जन्म की व्याधि से दूरस्थ स्वर्ग या निर्वाण की नीरव शान्ति की ओर फिर गयी है ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

But if all works are to be done with the same forms and on the same lines as they are now done in the Ignorance , our gain is only inward and our life is in danger of becoming the dubious and ambiguous formula of an inner Light doing the works of an outer Twilight , the perfect Spirit expressing itself in a mould of imperfection foreign to its own divine nature .

Hindi

परंतु यदि सभी कर्म वैसे ही आकार - प्रकार के साथ और वैसी ही पद्धति के अनुसार करने होंगे जैसे वे अब अज्ञान में किये जाते हैं , तो हमारी प्राप्ति केवल आन्तरिक होगी और इस बात का भी भय रहेगा कि कहीं हमारा जीवन बाह्य क्षीण ज्योति के कार्यों में लगी अन्तर्ज्योति का एक संदिग्ध ओर अस्पष्ट सूत्र ही न बन जाय ओर परिपूर्ण आत्मा अपनी दिव्य प्रकृति से भिन्न या विजातीय अपूर्णता के सांचे में ही अपने - आपको प्रकट न करती रहे ।

Last Update: 2020-05-24
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Time is the most valuable thing on this earth; nothing can be compared with it. Once it goes, never be back. It always runs only in forward direction and not in backward direction. Everything in this world depends on time, nothing happens before time. Everything requires some time to get done. If we have not time, we have nothing. Loss of time is considered as the worst thing on this earth because wasting time, wastes us and our future. We never acquire lost time again. If we have lost our time, we have lost everything. Most of the people value their money more than the time however it is true that nothing is as valuable as time. It is time which gives us money; prosperity and happiness however nothing in this world can give time. Time can only be used; one can never buy or sell it. Most of the people live their life in useless way. They enjoy their time by only eating, playing or other lazy activities with their friends. In this way they spend days and years. They never think that what they are doing, in what ways they are living their time, etc. Even they never regret their ways of time wasting and never become sorry. Indirectly they have lost their lots of cash and most importantly the time which they never get back. We should learn from the mistakes of others as well as should inspire from the success of others. We should use our time in doing some useful works so that time may bless us, not destroy.

Hindi

nibandh मराठी veleche mhatva

Last Update: 2016-07-17
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Fukuyama Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History?, The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind?, Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next?, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

Hindi

Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History?, The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind?, Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next?, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

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Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footergoogle translet

Hindi

Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footer

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AS YOU LIKE IT HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PLAY Introduction to Shakespeare When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder That such trivial people should muse and thunder In such lovely language. D. H. Lawrence Quote (1885 - 1930) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in Startford-on-Avon... 1402 Words | 4 Pages As You Like It, Characters in As You Like It, Poetry, Metre (poetry) Essay in Hindi | PASSPORT APPLICATION FORM | Government of INDIA,Ministry of External Affairs | | | Service Required Application Reference Number 12-0003296889 Applying For FRESH Type of Application NORMAL Type of Passport Booklet NORMAL Validity Required 10 Years Applicant Details Applicant's Name ANURAG CHOUDHARY... 349 Words | 1 Pages Hindi essay © Nordic School of Public Health ISSN 1104-5701 ISBN 91-7997-151-2 MPH 2006:18 Dnr U12/02:142 Master of Public Health – Essay – Title and subtitle of the essay HYGIENE, EATING HABITS AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG CHILDREN IN THREE NEPALESE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS Author Kerstin Westbacke Author's... 2275 Words | 11 Pages Maxillary central incisor, Deciduous teeth, Canine tooth, Tooth Essay on Pet Animal in Hindi Night of the Scorpion Night of the Scorpion is a poem by ‘Nissim Ezekiel’. 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Emerson said, toward the end of his writing career, "I have taught one doctrine, namely, the infinitude of the private man." That's why we begin our study of American transcendentalism with this essay. His basic philosophical faith (one shared by many Americans) is that the ultimate source of truth is within ourselves. We recognize truth outside ourselves, in nature or in others, and the key word here is "recognize," even if only very dimly. We are often not "in touch" with ourselves or trust ourselves enough to find these truths and so must often depend on others, books, etc. to express it for us, but it is somehow within us. Now, there's no particular empirical evidence for this; Emerson is making a great intuitive leap of faith, and you either believe (because you've experienced it to some degree) or you don't. It is this concept of what some critics call the "imperial self" which lies at the heart of romanticism, both positively and negatively. However, this is not necessarily self-centered, because the truth which lies within is universal, shared and recognized by all (if they only knew it) and generated by Self (God, Over-soul, whatever). All we can really know is within us, but we must assume that other people have the same potential as we do--and assume that they do, in fact, exist (although you really can't prove it!) Presumably, trusting oneself means much more than that; it means trusting that somehow or other we have an innate wisdom which is a projection of the god within, and that every person has that wisdom, although few have much access to it. Those few we often call poets and prophets (but never politicians!) and we cherish the insights into our own truths that we glimpse through them. Theoretically, then, to believe in our selves and our deep capacity to understand and recognize truths is to believe in every self, though we have no access to any other self besides us. Practically it may be another matter, but Emerson is a bit of an idealist and not terribly practical (we can't all be everything!) One characteristic of Emerson's essays is the gaps he leaves the reader to fill (or to flounder in); it is probably their greatest strength (because you may personalize what you read) and greatest weakness (it can be confusing). For example, at the beginning of the essay he speaks of verses he has read which are original, but he does not tell you what those verses are. You have to imagine what "original" might be. His emphasis is not on these particular verses, or even the definition of originality in poetry, but a discussion on originality and recognizing your own ability to be original and not imitative. After all, he can't say what would be original for you, could he? But he wants you to imagine what that might be. This will happen repeatedly through the essay. Try your best to fill those blanks in ways that make sense to you and your experience, and if you can't, ignore them and keep going. One problem you may find with this essay is that you feel that he is hitting you over the head with the same idea over and over, like a big hammer labeled "believe in yourself." I'm sure you wished to cry out, "ok Ralphie, I've got it, I've got it!" He makes sure that you consider the implications of this idea in every way possible. It doesn't matter if there are gaps in what you understand; he'll catch up with you somewhere or other in the essay. A little overkill, perhaps. Why? Whom is he trying to convince? Perhaps himself as well as his reader. But the message seems to be one that we all need, especially today when the ever-present media assaults us with ideas and images of how we should live and what we should believe. Remember that we are reading this 150 years later or so. What seemed like a rather novel idea then has deteriorated into a cliche, embedded in just about every self-help "psychology" book in the local mall bookstore that you can find. It is hard for us to see the original force of this in 1838, when people felt far less secure about themselves, as individuals and as Americans (whatever that was). In many ways, this is as much a cultural/intellectual declaration of independence as it is an exhortation to believe in yourself. Its major power today is probably directed toward the younger reader, struggling with the very powerful forces toward conformity that seem endemic in American high schools. However, it also works in a class like this, where I am, in a sense, forcing you to express your ideas and not giving you such an easy way out as taking notes on what wisdom I might have to impart. Emerson had his own personal reasons for writing this. He was deeply insecure in many ways (aren't we all?), and a rather revolutionary speech about religion that he delivered at the Harvard Divinity School about this time (asserting the doctrine of the God within) caused a tremendous uproar and criticism from people he respected. There would be no job for him at Harvard! He had left the ministry a few years earlier and had lost his young wife to tuberculosis after 18 months of marriage. He didn't really have a career at that point; he just had the ideas he believed passionately and thought needed to be heard. He was involved in a very deep career crisis (which many of us can relate to). There simply was no way to earn a living doing what his heart told him that he must do--to write and to speak. Except, as it turned out, there were ways to realize his dream, as long as he didn't lose his faith in himself. The rhetoric of this essay shows signs of his years in the pulpit; it's like he's demanding you to listen and to go out and act. But he may well be exhorting himself just as much as, if not more than, his readers. What he wanted to do--to establish himself a place as a writer and thinker--was extraordinarily difficult to do outside of an institution like the church or the university (so what else has changed!), and it would take all the nerve he could summon. And after all, he was no kid; he was 35 years old and counting. It all sounds so simple: just make up your mind to trust your deepest instincts and go for it! I know it isn't that simple--and in fact, so did Emerson, and seeing the problems inherent in such a personally energizing idea kept him busy writing for some time. If you look carefully, you can see some awareness of this conflict in the essay, but it doesn't really blossom forth for a while. For one thing, he gives a lot of credit to innate goodness, and almost totally ignores the very crucial environmental shaping factors. He and his readers were raised in an extremely "moral" environment, and though they might rebel against church doctrine, they were deeply "indoctrinated" with those moral codes. This is not necessarily the case in the "murder capital of the world"! Another problem is the extreme "masculinity" of the essay--one of his favorite words is "manliness." I can just visualize this very assertive and muscular male as an underlying ideal (was Emerson insecure about that too? Probably, since writers/thinkers/preachers were considered rather feminized by his society, unlike those competitive, money-making businessmen so idealized by his compatriots.) I don't believe that self-trust is a male-marked trait, although I suspect that he does believe it (though, bless his heart, he doesn't really know it!). I know, I'm reading this from my own perspective, but as Emerson would say, isn't that the only way you can read? Actually, I think you can try to place yourself in another context, but that must be a work of imagination to some degree (I can try, anyhow; I'll just substitute woman for man and you can do whatever you like!) Emerson doesn't just keep preaching the same doctrine though, you may be relieved to hear, or at least not with the same simplistic fervour. There is a flip side to this: as exciting and energizing it may be to follow your deepest instincts and do/say what you think is right, it's also depressing to think that maybe all we can know is what is within us. In a sense, we may be imprisoned within our own perceptions and experiences, and can never really know what might be true. We can't even be sure if anyone or anything else exists, because all we can know is what's in our little individual heads. Emerson will come to see this, as well as the many limitations on our power that are imposed by circumstances and environment, which he calls Fate. He gets a lot more interesting when he confronts these conflicting forces. Wouldn't it be nice if all we had to do is "trust ourselves" and follow our own stars? Actually, it's rather amazing what people can accomplish if they do just that. However, that's not the whole story, and Emerson knew it, especially after life dealt him a few more tough blows--like his beloved 5 year old son dying of scarlet fever. Self-reliance can look like a pretty puny doctrine in light of a tragedy like that, but it did sustain him (although perhaps in a modified form).. So the important thing is not whether Emerson is right or wrong here. He's both--and we are to draw from the essay what means the most to us. That's one reason it's written as it is. Buried in there are sentences which strike right to the heart of readers, and suggest all kinds of possibilities for them. For example, many students trying to see their way ahead in life have found great comfort in this metaphor: The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks. See the line from a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself, and will explain your other genuine actions. You could interpret this in several ways. When you look at your life, especially when you are young, if you follow your "inner gyroscope" and do things and take courses that just "feel right," it might look to others (parents in particular) as if you just can't make up your mind and are zigzagging all over the place. The coherence will be an inner one, perhaps not even visible to you, but over time, it will probably make sense, just as you have to zigzag when sailing to reach a point most directly. One difference, of course, is that you (unlike the sailor) often haven't a clue where or what that "point" might be, and have to trust that by following your instincts and strengths, you'll actually reach some kind of point. I find that rather profound, as I look at my own life, and the decisions that I made that didn't make a lot of sense, perhaps, to others and seemed inconsistent, but that were in fact quite consistent with who I was and what I wanted to be, although I hadn't a clue what that might be (I never dreamed I'd end up teaching, etc.!) OK, that's my personal testimony (although I'll admit, I cruised past that passage when I was in college and needed to read it most)--you'll have your own, I imagine. If you'll be patient with Emerson (and his vocabulary and greater reading knowledge), he is likely to speak very personally to you, if not on this reading then maybe on another. Besides, just think of all the money you can save on those self-help books and therapy groups by going right to the source! ;

Hindi

आत्म स्वतंत्रता निबंध

Last Update: 2015-05-24
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English

You don't have permission to access /en/English/Hindi/It-seems-that-Microorganisms-are-both-friends-as-well-as-foe-of-human-beings.-But-it-is-certainly-true-that-we-cannot-live-without-their-association-in-our-metabolism.-They-play-a-central-role-in-the-lives-of-not-only-humans-but-also-animals-and-plants.-Most-of-the-organisms-are-harmless,-most-are-beneficial-for-our-life-and-biological-metabolism,-at-the-same-time-many-causes-diseases-in-humans,-plants-as-well-as-animals.-This-type-of-mixed-behavior-is-observed-when-we-think-of-microorganisms-and-our-biological-association-with-them.-The-question-is-obvious-microorganism-are-our-friends-or-enemies?-This-question-can-be-answered-by-comparing-both-the-attitudes-of-microbes.-The-one-who-is-more-is-the-answer.-Now-let-us-look-at-the-causes-of-microorganism.-We-fight-with-bacteria-when-they-infect-us-and-our-immune-system-stimulates.-We-use-enzymes-of-many-bacteria-when-we-digest-our-food.-We-use-many-micro--nutrients-and-vitamins-as-synthesized-by-bacteria-which-are-present-in-our-colon.-The-deterioration-of-food-by-microbes-leads-to-unsafe-food-our-consumption.-The-quality-of-such-food-is-very-bad-and-we-cannot-consume-them.-At-some-level-animals-can-consume-them-but-it-is-always-a-risk-due-to-presence-of-toxins-in-such-food.-It-means-when-bacteria-eat-their-own-food-and-accumulates-by-products-like-toxins-these-are-harmful.-But-when-we-are-the-habitat-of-microbes-and-the-association-is-symbiotic,-we-both-are-beneficial.-It-means-they-had-their-own-way-to-live-and-we-had-our-own-biological-ways-to-respond-to-certain-foreign-matters-like-bacteria.-Apart-from-this-extreme,-the-centre-is-association-of-both-in-which-both-are-beneficial,-and-they-are-not-termed-as-foreign-matter-by-our-immune-system.-Many-bacteria-are-aggressively-infecting-our-system-and-this-leads-to-fighting-between-the-two.-They-had-their-weapons-like-endo-toxins-and-other-enzymes-and-try-to-survive-with-our-system.-We-react-to-such-actions-using-our-immune-system.-The-one-which-is-stronger-survives.-Therefore-in-this-case-it-cannot-be-the-question-of-friends-or-foe,-it-is-natural-that-all-happens-and-is-genetically-coded.-This-is-nothing-with-friendship-or-enemy,-this-is-simply-the-rule-of-evolution-and-a-part-of-Darwins-Concept-of-survival-of-the-fittest,-and-this-is-natural-selection.-If-so,-then-what-are-symbiotic-associations-or-friendship-with-microbes!-The-activities-of-bacteria-which-we-call-as-friendly-behavior-is-nothing-but-a-give-and-take-system-in-which-both-are-jointly-running-in-the-race-of-natural-selection-or-for-their-own-survivals-alike-aggressive-infections-which-is-one-sided-race.-When-to-look-further-deep,-we-will-find-one-more-surprising-thing-and-that-is-we-as-Humans,-Animals-and-plants-are-more-dependent-on-microbes-than-they-are.-It-can-be-possible-for-microorganism-to-survive-in-saprophytic-conditions,-it-can-be-possible-for-microbes-to-live-without-any-association-with-Humans-but-this-is-not-true-for-us.-We-may-fail-to-survive-in-absence-of-many-bacteria-which-helps-us-in-our-metabolic-activities-with-their-enzymatic-reactions.-This-means-they-are-friends-but-not-completely.-They-are-our-friends-when-we-are-strong-and-are-associated-with-them-in-a-way-where-we-also-return-them-things-like-we-can-be-their-host-and-then-can-help-us-with-enzymes.-“They-are-friends-when-we-are-strong”-has-a-sense,-this-is-observed-with-many-bacteria-turning-violent-and-infecting-us-even-when-they-are-in-symbiotic-associations.-Such-Bacteria-are-called-as-“Opportunistic-pathogens”.-The-best-example-is-E.coli.-E.coli-is-the-bacteria-which-lives-in-our-gut-and-provides-useful-vitamins-like-B2-and-B12-to-us-and-in-return-utilizes-our-system-and-a-place-to-live.-We-act-as-their-host.-But-this-scenario-is-in-existence-only-when-we-are-strong-immunologically.-The-moment-we-are-infected-with-other-pathogens,-they-take-a-u---turn-and-infect-us-too-like-an-enemy-never-before.-Many-bacteria-like-LAB---Lactic-acid-bacteria-are-important-group-of-food-processing-and-production.-They-ferment-food-for-us-which-is-easily-metabolized-then.-Examples-are-yoghurt,-Sausages,-they-also-have-probiotic-properties.-The-primary-metabolism-by-LAB-is-conversion-of-carbohydrates-into-acids.-This-inhibits-growth-of-other-food-deteriorating-bacteria.-This-way-they-are-enemy-of-their-own-group-“Bacteria”.-Therefore-this-is-true-that-no-one-is-enemy-and-no-one-if-friend-when-it-is-comes-to-natural-selection-and-struggle-for-existence.-This-is-what-is-called-as-natural,-where-everyone-has-to-act-for-his-own-propagation-and-growth.-Things-happen-(within)-so-naturally-that-we-get-time-to-think-of-it,-as-“if-they-are-friends-or-enemy”.-The-totality-of-all-is-nature-which-many-times-act-in-a-way-which-can-be-irrespective-to-what-we-assume-and-what-we-think.-But-not-always!paragraph on this server.

Hindi

पैरा

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English

Facebook! Sounds like “air, water and food”, right, without which you cannot survive?! Facebook, a social networking site, founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates, has developed from being limited to only the Harvard students to almost every person’s part of life in the world. The ease with which Facebook is used makes it No.1 in the field of social networking. If you are interested in knowing the history of Facebook then have a look it’s already there. Suggested Reading : Facebook Launches Hashtags To Its Service It is a common platform for everybody including people of all ages, religions, professions, interests, needs and many more. It binds people across the oceans and surely, you must have felt a sense of self-importance whenever you got a “like” on anything you share on Facebook. You know, there are more than 900 million Facebook users other than you. People are crazily connecting with anybody and everybody through this network and doing anything and everything through this networking site. It is the diversity of ways in which Facebook is used that has made everyone to “like” and “share” each others works. You can chat, play games, advertise, organize, show your interests, have a personal as well as a public or a limited audience talk with other people. Now, though it seems fascinating but it still has some drawbacks. ADVANTAGES Let us first consider some advantages of being a Facebook user. To connect with family, friends, work and colleges group It is the latest medium of connecting with your dear ones. You can even customize the settings to be “offline” or “online” for some selected ones and still chat with them easily. Facebook conversation does not even require money which is sometimes a reason for some people for not calling up their pals. Information Since you connect globally here, you get the news of the world. There are some pages and communities that are created on Facebook to keep a track of the latest updates in any specific field like sports, educational, political entertainment etc. Information about the people across the seas as well as the ones near you are also readily available to you. Whatever happens in anybody’s life they tend to update it through their “status”, or photographs. So, you are there and then informed about any such updates and thus Facebook proves to be very informative. Entertainment There are many ways in which Facebook can be used as a source of entertainment. First of all, the gossips that you have with your friends is the biggest way that could never leave you to bore. Then, there are videos of your interests, lots of interactive games, applications and quizes for fun. You can even invite your Facebook pals to play games or take the quizes. To find a date You have the freedom to browse the profiles of other people on Facebook until and unless they have not customized and hidden it from the public. Your access to their profiles can help you find people of your interests and you can easily send a “friend request” to them OR send a private message. So, if you describe yourself in a charming fashion in your profile, someone might wish to be your date! ;) Image and Video hosting You can use facebook to host your images and videos. You get a direct download link of whatever you upload. There is unlimited hosting and unlimited bandwidth. Facebook provides this free of cost, whereas other websites offer this service with limited bandwidth, and there are some that have this service a paid one. So, this is for a big benefit for all the bloggers and website owners.Right! Business Promotion Facebook is an intelligent place to market your products. The immensely increasing facebook users can be your future potential customers. Marketers can create a page for their products where they can have the images, videos and detailed descriptions about the products. The users will visit this page more than the official site of your products to get issues resolved and thus, this is a very good way to reach out to your customers. To find a job Through facebook you can easily contact the manager or create professional contacts with any number of hiring people. Keep updating your status regularly about your job requirements and someone will surely come up to help you. Video calling The tool for video calling of Facebook helps you to have a normal video chat, as the name specifies. Your distant relatives and friends can easily come close to you, as you are in front of each other “live”…. Many a times, you can have an interview or meeting with your professional counterparts and thus it helps in establishing relationships. As personal portfolio If you are an artist, then create a page for yourself and then create a portfolio where you can display your art and maintain the collection. A portfolio of all the memorable snaps can also be uploaded so that they are there as a backup. Social protest Facebook is such a powerful weapon that any kind of social issue can gain momentum and can create a wave of enthusiasm amongst the people that any other media cannot, in a short time. DISADVANTAGES Now, as we know that excess of anything is bad, Facebook also has some disadvantages that you need to take care of. Let us have a look. Breach to privacy and personal info Whatever safety measures you take to protect your profile, there will always be some hackers and stalkers looking to enter your profile and do unwanted things. Your personal photographs and videos that you upload can be easily stolen by them. So, it is better not to give too private information on the profile and not share pics that are too personal. Personal status published publicly just to seek attention It is a human tendency that people take more interest in others lives rather than their own. The same applies to Facebook too. Maximum of the people post their personal status publicly so that they can seek the attention of others. This misleads people and wastes a lot of time getting involved in such a thing. Fake Facebook profiles Sometimes people create fake profiles just for fun or to stalk on other people. There are millions of fake profiles existing there because some strange people create profiles for a non-human entity such as their “pets”. Many people enter into online personal relationships with wrong persons and that could lead to their ruin. People try to pose as someone else and try to fool others. Some businessmen add their own-created Facebook friends so as to show their customers how much they are in demand. This makes it very difficult for people who really desire to be safe on Facebook. Writing worthless things Facebook does not stop anyone from writing anything on places like “walls” of their own or their friends, comments, messages etc. This tends to waste a lot of time because many a times these kinds of things uselessly attract the attention of others and they cannot stop themselves from reading it and actually taking part in the conversation. Time consuming Facebook is an addiction. Once you join it, you are likely to spend most of your free time doing something or the other on Facebook. And it does not stops here. Some people even start compromising their family get-togethers and professional meetings for this Facebook. CONCLUSION Ultimately, you are the user. So, it depends on the way you use it that Facebook proves to be a Friend or an Enemy to you. Use it wisely and safely, so that at least the good purpose of Facebook is not lost. Read more at http://techsmaz.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-facebook-a-discussion/#AiD9XZUsHEA4QreA.99

Hindi

फेसबुक के लाभ और हानि पर निबंध

Last Update: 2014-12-09
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Reference: Anonymous

English

The main difference between a man and an animal is that man has some knowledge but an animal has no knowledge of anything. Knowledge is the godmother of all discoveries, explorations and inventions. Mostly man gains knowledge through observation and experimentation: At first man starts with certain hypothesis or theory and sometimes even without any premeditation, prerequisite or predetermination. In other words, he embarks upon a project just at random and the results are startlingly positive or negative. Einstein, for instance, was actually not working for discovering the atom when he stepped upon it just by chance. Even Newton’s sight of the falling apple and the thoughts that it generated in his mind which led to the discovery of the theory of gravitation were not for conceived by him. All the modern technology which has made certain nations so powerful economically and militarily is all based on knowledge. In countries like the USA research in all fields of science is done on regular basis and that is one of the underlying secrets of her success and matchlessness and invulnerability as a nation in the world, at least not to the extent of a crippling effect. India has also done great research in certain fields, as for instance, in the fields of information technology and telecommunications and she is now reaping rich harvest for this. So, in a nutshell we shall have to agree to what Bacon said four centuries ago that knowledge is power. All human progress and perhaps even man’s very existence on the globe depends upon his retention and growth of knowledge in various fields for positive and constructive purposes because if knowledge is used for negative purposes, it can play havoc with our life and existence on earth.

Hindi

ज्ञान शक्ति है

Last Update: 2014-11-07
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Reference: Anonymous

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