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English

what is the place to be

Hindi

place ka kya matlab hai

Last Update: 2018-01-16
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Here is the best place Con

Hindi

यहा कोन सी जगह अच्छी है

Last Update: 2016-10-15
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Reference: Anonymous

English

i know there are times when i amactually hard to be with

Hindi

मुझे पता है कि एक ऐसा समय है जब वास्तव में im मुश्किल है

Last Update: 2019-11-27
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English

The great contribution which Mahatma Gandhi made in the 20th century is well known. The struggle against colonialism was a very important feature of a greater part of this century. It was of the greatest importance from the perspective of justice and democracy. Mahatma Gandhi not only made a very important contribution to this struggle against colonialism but in addition blazed a new trail by insisting with all his moral force that struggles for justice and truth should be based on non-violence. This proved to be an inspiration for many other struggles against injustice in various parts of the world including those led by Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela. The other most defining feature of the 20th century related to the two world wars. As the world belatedly realized the importance of avoiding such disasters in future the importance of Gandhiji’s insistence on nonviolence as one of the most basic precepts of life became even more important. It was also realized by perceptive observers that the roots of colonialism, as well as world wars, can be traced to never-ending greed and the conflicts created by this greed. Here again the insistence by Gandhiji on simplicity and voluntary frugality as a way of life and as one of the basic principles of life tied up very neatly with his commitment to non-violence. Unlike other political leaders of the world he never tried to promise more and more to the people of his country but instead devoted himself to spreading the principles of nonviolence, simplicity and limited needs as a desirable way of life. He moved the economic debate beyond the narrow and familiar capitalism versus communism debate and instead concentrated on basic principles like simplicity, justice, prioritising the needs of the poorest, decentralisation, creation of local self-reliant economies and villages to the extent it is practical, respecting labour, protecting sustainable livelihoods while discouraging avoidable luxuries and parasitic pursuits and protecting livelihoods. The danger of jobless growth does not exist in the Gandhian scheme of things with its insistence on technologies being in tune with the needs of protection of local livelihoods and skills instead of following the ruthless logic of unencumbered capitalist growth. Gandhiji may not have used the words environment protection but the kind of economy he visualized is the one in which the base of environment protection can be created. If the root cause of colonialism (or neo-colonialism and continuing imperialist ambitions) and wars lies in greed, then it follows that to avoid these we need an economy and a way of life based on limited needs, voluntary and happy acceptance of frugality and commitment to nonviolence. Thus in the Gandhian vision we have a framework in which a wide base for realizing the most important objectives of peace and environment protection can be realized while at the same time meeting the essential needs of all people in sustainable ways. Mahatma Gandhi would have made many great contributions with these ideas and thinking in the emerging post-colonial and post World War II world if he had lived for another 15 years or so but his life was very tragically cut short by an extremely stupid and narrow-minded assassin and his co-conspirators who had absolutely no understanding of how much the world, and not just the nation, needed the broad vision of Gandhiji in those critical years. It would have been very interesting to see Gandhiji with his far-reaching ideas and tremendous moral force reaching out to the world troubled by the Cold War and the arms race. In independent India he would have had the support of his nation and its government in reaching out to the wider world which he did not have under the colonial government. All that is the history of lost opportunities. But coming to the present times the most defining feature of the 21st century is that there is nothing less than a survival crisis caused by a number of very serious environmental problems on the one hand and accumulation of weapons of mass destruction on the other. As the world gropes without much hope and with an increasing sense of futility for the entrenched leadership to find solutions for these pressing problems before it is too late, genuine hope can emerge if there are strong grassroots efforts for peace and environment protection. To reach out to more and more people these grassroots efforts should also be based on meeting the needs of all people on a sustainable basis. In this effort to reconcile the three objectives of peace, environment protection and justice based on satisfaction of needs of all people, the ideas of Gandhiji can be very useful, particularly as these are supported by his impressive record of living a life based on these principles and leading several struggles and campaigns based on these. Hence while his contribution during the century of his life was great indeed, his contribution in the next century when the world is threatened by a man-made survival crisis could be even higher as a well-thought-out application of his ideas to resolving present-day serious existential crisis could be of great value.

Hindi

c / 20 वीं सदी में महात्मा गांधी ने जो महान योगदान दिया, वह सर्वविदित है। उपनिवेशवाद के खिलाफ संघर्ष इस सदी के एक बड़े हिस्से की एक महत्वपूर्ण विशेषता थी। यह न्याय और लोकतंत्र के दृष्टिकोण से सबसे बड़ा महत्व था। महात्मा गांधी ने न केवल उपनिवेशवाद के खिलाफ इस संघर्ष में बहुत महत्वपूर्ण योगदान दिया, बल्कि इसके साथ ही अपने सभी नैतिक बल के साथ एक नया रास्ता भी बनाया, जिसमें कहा गया था कि न्याय और सत्य के लिए संघर्ष अहिंसा पर आधारित होना चाहिए

Last Update: 2019-08-31
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English

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Hindi

मैं चाहता हूं कि आप मेरे सपनों में नहीं थे

Last Update: 2017-10-08
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

Hindi

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

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INTRODUCTION: ABOUT GOA Goa is popularly known as the Pearl of the orient and tourist paradise. It is located in India's coastal belt on the western called the Konkan coast. It has an alarming scenic beauty. The architectural work done Goan Temples, Churches and old houses has brought great laurels to Goa. Some of these characteristics make Goa to be occupied by tourists. It is the most preferred option by the people who are planning their holidays. Goa as compared to other states is not greatly populated but compared in terms of tourists it is the most populated place in India. Apart from attracting tourists from all over India, it also attracts tourists of foreign background. During the months of November, December and January Goa is heavily crowded. The real essence of Goa lies in its rich history, unique culture and the original natural beauty. Peaceful Goan lifestyle and adventure sports also draw the attention of the travelers within and outside India. All kinds of tourists are expected to visit Goa. REASONS WHY TOURISTS VISIT GOA Beaches There are more than 36 beaches in Goa, each one is known for its own distinctiveness. North Goa beaches are most popular amongst the tourists while South Goa beaches are now gaining popularity because of its peacefulness. Sun Tourist visit Goa for loads of vitamin D which they have while having sun bath and also have drinks for complete relaxation from stress. They also visit Goa for relaxation for body. Massage Tourist visit Goan beaches for massage centers. Not just that, but to get some immunity and treat body with pure minerals. Natural views Goan view can be best viewed while travelling on the bike. The Sandy beaches, coconut trees waterfalls truly add flavor to the goan natural view. Lush green fields, majestic forests train track, long roads and cool breeze make up for the perfect natural view. Architecture & Culture Goa is also famous for its heritage and its architecture. In goa you will find traditional mixture of Portuguese and goa. This offers a unique feature to witness a pure blend of Portuguese and goan culture in architecture of villas, forts houses and churches. Water Sports Tourist are offered water sports like surfing, para sailing waterscooter etc. these water sports add up towards attracting tourists to Goa Sea food Sea foods like Mackrels, Tiger prawns, King Fish, have separate delicacies in the hearts of tourists.. Party Destination The young are attracted towards Goa as it is a party destination. Many parties are organized during Christmas new years and it's a tourist hotspot to celebrate these eves in goa. These parties usually go up for couple of days. Liberal Female tourist visit Goa as they find it to be most liberal compared to other places in India. In Goa you can feel free to dress up. Economical Goa is affordable for everyone. That's the reason why tourist find it most attractive as compared to other places in India. Fairs and festivals Goa is famous for its carnival attracting tourist to goa during this time. Casinos People visit Goa for Casinos. People who enjoy gambling with chilled drinks and music find Goa to be a perfect place. The Main Attractions Beaches Goan coastline spread over 125 kms and is the home of over 50 picturisque and beautiful beaches. These beaches attracts tourist from all round the globe. Candolim Beach, Baga Beach, Sinquerim Beach, Bambolim Beach, Arambol Beach, Vagator Beach, Benaulim Beach, Palolem Beach, Agonda Beach, Mobor and Cavelossim beaches are famous and an increasing number of tourists visit these beaches every year. Calangute Beach - Queen of Goa beaches, Colva Beach- Pride of Salcete Dona Paula, Miramar(Gaspar Dias)- A lovely golden beach and Anjuna beach are some of the famous beaches in Goa. Scenic beauty Goa has number of other scenic options. One such attraction is Waterfall. Goa lies between Sahyadri hills and Arabian Sea. Goa is full of beautiful springs, lakes, and waterfalls. While traveling to these places one gets to see the natural beauty of Goa. Dudhsagar Water Falls, Kesarval Springs, Mayem Lake, Arvalem Waterfall, Kuskem Waterfall are some of the famous water falls in Goa. Churches Goa is well known for its Churches. Churches in goa well known for its architecture. During the Portuguese regime there were many churches built and now have become world heritage site. Royal Chapel of St Anthony, Church of The Carmelites, Church of St.Francis of Assisi, Our Lady of Immaculate Conception, Basilica of Bom Jesus, Chapel of St.Catherine, Reis Magos Church, Church of Our Lady of Rosary in Goa Se Cathedral, to name few of them. Temple In olden times when Portuguese invaded Goa. In every village of Goa there was a temple and a lord to worship for each village. These temples still exist giving each village a distinct feature to differentiate. For example, Mangeshi Temple of Mangeshi village. Goan temple architecture is a mixture of Portuguese and Maratha style like Mandapa of Goa temples. Mangeshi Temple, Sri Kamakshi Temple, Sri Vithal Temple, Sri Shantadurga Temple in Kavlem are some of the famous temples in Goa. Mosque Jama Masjid and Safa Masjid at Ponda are the famous mosques in Goa. Wild life centuries Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife, Sanctuary,Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Mollem National Park, Bondla wild life Forest, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, are some of the famous wild life centuries. Monuments & Forts Chapora Fort, Fort Aguada, Teracol Fort, Reis Magos Fort, Mormugao Fort, Rachol Fort, Naroa Fort, Corjuem Fort,Cabo De Rama Fort in Goa Other attractions There are plantations like Savoi Plantation, Sahakari Spice Farm, Tropical Spice Plantation, Pascol Spice Village which attracts tourist. There are caves and other natural beauties of Goa that attracts whole lot of domestic and foreign tourist. Tourist also visit the heritage homes like Sarah Fernandes. In Goa adventure sports attracts a number of tourists. It's one of the few places in India known to have adventure sports facilities.People also visit Goa for medical purpose also Impact of tourism in Goa It helps in the preservation of National Heritage and Environment. Helps in developing Infrastructure. It helps in creating job opportunities and in the development of economy. Most of the rich and famous metropolises are investing in Goa which has pushed up land prices and has created overcrowding. Garbage is one of the problem in Goa and there is no proper infrastructure to deal with it. Tourist places are piled up with garbage because of the increased number of tourist in Goa. As a result Goa is facing a major problem of solid waste management. Most of the tourist prefers to visit places in the North which has resulted in the exceeding carrying capacity. Goa's tourism belt is getting overcrowded. Overexploitation of beaches due to the tourism related activities. Suggestions: Provide Information Centre to the inbound tourists Promote Real Goa and not the commercialized version of Goa The protection of the environment can be achieved by proper planning and management of various spatial entities viz. Water resources, land, settlements, forests etc. in the most effective manner. Strengthen the basic infrastructure at beaches, temples, churches, monuments and other tourist spots, including parking and changing rooms/toilets and proper illumination from safety and security point of view, besides regular and timely disposal of garbage generated by hotels, shacks and others Scope to develop ecotourism along the Ghats, hills and wildlife sanctuaries, and adventure tourism Encourage agro-eco-tourism Souvenirs and mementos prepared by village artisans and craftsmen, offer tremendous scope for branding the local products, help the rural economy to grow There are overcrowded beaches in north Goa like Calangute beach, Baga beach, Candolim beach, Anjuna beach but there are more beautiful beaches down south so can focus to arrange tours and travels for the less crowded beaches for example Keri Beach, Velsao Beach, Palolem beach, Majorda beach, Senabatim beach, Uttrda Beach and so on. Tour guides should properly be trained to accompany tourist to the places of special significance. Should be trained to explain significance of religious places also inform them about religious services which are being offered there.

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hindi essay about visit to old age home I was on my way to visit a home for the aged during a school trip, wondering how I would feel when I saw them and how they live away from their families. I have heard and read a lot about the good care of old people on TV and magazines but this painted a much nicer picture than the reality I found. We spoke to the patients and heard about the food they are given and the place they live in and I found their plight tragic. One old man cried as he told us how he used to sacrifice everything for his children and his children's gift to him in return was to throw him in the old-age home, never to visit him. They all long to return to their homes and live with their family. They feel cheated after all the years of love and care they had given to their children, but their children seems to have left them to their fate. Allah has instructed man on the treatment of his parents in the Holy Qur'an many times, and respect for parents is one of the good deeds to enter paradise. Our parents sacrificed everything for our happiness and future. So it is improper to act as if they deserve no respect and love. Every person who puts a parent in a home for the aged should ask: How will I feel if my children did the same to me when I am old? Shocking From Ms H.A. Al Ktheery, Abu Dhabi. Old age is a time when we need the love and care of our loved ones most. However, in our country some old people are put in homes for the aged and are conveniently forgotten by their children. While the government has built special homes for the elderly and provide them the care they need, it is no substitute for one's own home. These homes are for those who are childless and do not have anyone to look after them. Surprisingly, in the homes for the aged, there are many inmates who are put there as their children find them a burden. I remember a photograph published in a newspaper about some of these old people and reading about an old woman who said she was thrown out of the house by her son just to please his wife! While an old handicapped man was put in one of the homes by his son to get rid of the burden of looking after him. I am shocked at these happenings. ************************************************ Rights due to the Parents in Old Age None can deny the parents favor upon their children. The parents are the underlying reason for the existence of the child. They have reared him in his babyhood and experienced painstaking efforts to provide full comfort and sound well-being. Your mother had you in her womb while you were a parasite there sharing her food and whole being for nine months. In this context, Allah says: "And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship..." (31:14) It is a preliminary stage followed by incubation and breast feeding for two years marked by peculiar fatigue and hardships. The father, on his part, is meanwhile also fully engaged catering for his child and bringing him up, not sparing any sort of instructions or guidance he could provide his child with; the child, meanwhile, a helpless creature neither harmful nor useful to himself. Allah has always enjoined that children should be good and thankful to their parents and He says: "And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years ; give thanks to Me and to your parents, unto Me is the final destination."(31:14) "... And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honor. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: "My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was small."(17:23,24) The right of parents upon you is to do good with them. You should be good to them physically as well as monetarily, and also with your words and your actions. You should be obedient to them unless in it there is disobedience to Allah or there is some harm to you. Be kindhearted to them and serve them as they need your help. In their old age, in case of any ailment or weakness, never consider them a burden on you neither speak to them harshly, because one day you will also become as old as they are. You will be a father as they are your parents and, if life permits, soon you will be an old man before your children just like your parents became old before you. So you will be needing the help of your children as your parents need you today. If you are doing good to your parents then you must have the good news of a great reward and a better showing from your children, because whoever remained good to his parents, his children will also be good to him; and whoever annoyed his parents, will also be annoyed by his children. It is the process of recompense that deeds provide the results accordingly " as you sow, so will you reap. Allah has ranked the rights due to the parents high next only to His and the Prophet"s, Allah says: "Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents..." (4:36) And Allah also says: "...give thanks to Me and to your parents... (31:14) Being dutiful to one"s parents assumes priority even over Jihad (fight in the cause of Allah) as is narrated in the tradition of Ibn Mas"ud(R.A.) when he asked the Prophet (peace be upon Him) : "Which deed is most beloved by Allah" "He said, "Observing prayer in time." And next to that" He said: "Being dutiful to one's parents." And next to that" He answered: "Jihad (fight in the cause of Allah)." This Hadith (Prophetic saying) reported by Bukhari and Muslim points directly to the significance of the rights due to one's parents. Unfortunately, most people have forgotten these rights, instead disobedience and severance of ties have risen to harden the hearts, and even they contempt and detest their parents;especially in old age. Some people have even deemed themselves superior to those two old good creatures. A recompense is sure in store for those disobedient children, sooner or later. Definitely, our aged parents, now that they cannot look after themselves, need all our attention at home, the home they reared us in; and definitely NOT AN OLD AGE HOME !

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वृद्धाश्रम के लिए यात्रा के बारे में हिंदी निबंध

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Goकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1. ogle Translator

Hindi

google traslaterकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1.

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google traslaterकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1.

Hindi

Goकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1. ogle Translator

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trancelateGuidance and Counselling- definition, principles, functions, difference Journal Published: June 26, 2014 Definitions of guidance Guidance is a process through with an individual is able to solve their problems and pursue a path suited to their abilities and aspirations. (Brewer) Guidance is a facilitative service, which provide aids to pupils and staff To help pupils determine the courses most appropriate to their needs and abilities To find instructors who will be more sympathetic to their individual requirements and seek out activities which will help them to realize their presentation ( McBaniel) Guidance is an aspect of educational programme which is concerned especially with helping the pupil to become adjusted to her present situation and to plan his future in line with her interests, abilities and social needs. (Hamrin and Erikson) Meaning of guidance Guidance is all round assistance to individual in all aspect of his or her development. It makes use of the science of psychology to determine the attitude, interest , intelligence, personality and the discipline of the education for providing right and suitable assistance. It has the characteristic of It is a process of helping or assisting an individual to solve their problems. It help them to identify where to go, what to do and how to do for post accomplishment of their goals. It is a continuous process which start right from childhood , adolescence and continues over in old age. It is assistance to the individual in the process of development rather than direction of that development. It is a service meant for all: its regular service which is required for every student, not only for abnormal students. Guidance is an organized service not in incidental activity of the school. Guidance is more an art than science. Guidance is centered around the needs and aspiration of students. Principles of guidance According to Crow and Crow there are 14 significant principles for guidance they are Every aspect of person’s complex personality pattern constitutes a significant factor of his total displayed attitudes and form of behavior. Guidance service which are aimed at bringing about desirable adjustments in any particular area of experience must take in to account, the all round development of the individual. Although all human beings are similar in many respect, individual difference must be recognized and considered in any effort aimed at providing help or guidance to a particular child. The functions of the guidance is to help a person Formulate and accept stimulating , worthwhile and attainable goals of behavior Apply the goals to conduct his behavior. Existing social, economic and politic unrest is giving rise to many maladaptive factors that require the cooperation of experienced and thoroughly trained guidance workers and the individuals with the problem. Guidance should be regarded as a continuing process of service to an individual from young childhood through adulthood. Guidance service should not be limited to the few who give observable evidence of its need, but should be extended to the all person of all ages who can benefit there from either directly or indirectly. Curriculum materials and teaching procedure should evidence a guidance point of view. Parents and teachers have guidance appointed responsibilities. To administer guidance intelligently and with as thorough knowledge of the individual as is possible , programs of individual evaluation should be conducted and accurate consultative records of progress should made accessible to guidance workers. An organized guidance programme should be flexible according to the individual and social needs. The responsibilities for administration of guidance programme should be centered in a personally qualified and adequately trained person, working cooperatively with his assistance and other community welfare and guidance agencies. Periodical appraisal should be made for existing guidance programmes. Guidance touches every phase of an individual’s life pattern. Specific guidance problems on any age level should be referred to persons who are trained to deal with particular areas of adjustment. Difference between guidance and counseling Guidance is mainly preventive and developmental where as counseling is remedial as well as preventive and developmental. Intellectual attitudes are the raw material of guidance but emotional rather than pure intellectual attitude are the raw materials of counseling process. In guidance decision making operable at intellectual level, where as in counseling it operate at emotional level. In educational context, counseling service is one among various service offered by guidance programme. Functions of guidance and counseling Guidance and counseling have three fold functions namely adjustmental , orientataional and development. Adjustmental They help the student in making the best possible adjustment to the current situation in the educational institution in the home and the community. It enable the student to accept the things which they cannot change in life and differentiate what they can change and cannot change in life. Orientational They orient the student in the problem of cancer planning, educational programming and direction towards long term personal aims and values. Developmental It is concerned with helping the people to achieve self development and self realization. Need of guidance and counseling The need for guidance and counseling can be summarize as To help is the total development of the students. To arise students in leading a healthy life by abstaining from whatever is deterious to health. To help the proper selection of educational programme. To select career according to their interest and abilities. To help students in vocational development. To develop readiness for change and to face challenges. To help freshers to establish proper written. To identify and motivate students of the weaker society. To help the students to overcome the period of turmoil and confusions. Ensure proper utilization of time –spend outside the class. To help in tackling problems arising out of student exploration and co-education. To minimize the indiscipline. To motivate youth for self employment

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trancelate

Last Update: 2016-12-13
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Gold Income Plan Hello Sir. My name is _______. I am from TATA AIA Life. Today, I want to share with you some interesting philosophy of Indian people while accumulating wealth for themselves and how they will leave behind abundance of wealth as a legacy to generations to come. At this juncture of discussion, I would like to ask you few questions, hope you will answer with due respect. Sir. Can you please tell me, which is the most preferred investment of Indian Household? (Probable answers: Bank FD, Land, Gold etc – if not probe for and derived for Gold) GOLD!!... Hmmm… GOLD!.. Absolutely right sir. GOLD! Indeed … the philosophy and tend towards wealth creation of Indian household is more on GOLD. Tell me, when Indian people got an opportunity to invest and create wealth, why their preferences are more lean towards the accumulating Gold? (Probable answers would be: One of the most important and catching point is emotions) We buy Gold because there are many traditional and family emotions are attached. As per our Hindu mythology buying of Gold on certain Days i.e. Dhanteras, Pushpa Nakshatra etc. is believed to be SHUBH (Beneficiery) investment. Family emotions; it is a tradition of India to give away Gift of Gold to newly wedded bride, daughter when she is marry, or any other instances the first priority of the family is to invest in GOLD. Another reason to buy Gold is; leaving a legacy for generations to come. Above all it believes to be safe and secure way of accumulating wealth as well as it has power of liquidity; in any stage of contingency in life, it can be sold immediately and can be accumulated cash out of it. Another question, I would like you to ask is, do we buy Gold altogether? (Probable answer would be no.) Answer would be: we buy gold in intervals such as family ceremonial occasions. So, generally our tendency is to accumulate Gold installments. Now when we know the power of accumulating GOLD and Standard of Gold and how we accumulate it, do you know or have any idea about such product that gives a guaranteed 30 years Gold Standard returns other than Gold? Let me present to you a Gold Standard Plan by TATA AIA, Gold Income Plan. This Gold Income Plan has meant for Standard Gold Return. It is a product that gives you protection against Inflation Rate of interest. All Guarantee….!!!!  It will give you a Guaranteed Gold Standard Return for the coming 30 years i.e. 2046. Return Guarantee…. (for 10 or 15 Years)  Safety and Security of your Investment Guarantee….  Wealth Accumulation Guarantee…  Legacy creation Guarantee….  Only pay for 5 years or 12 years (Choose as per requirements)  Get Lump sum return at 12 or 15 years. Guarantee….  Enhance your protection with Riders. Guarantee…  Protection against Inflation. Guarantee….  Get Tax Benefit while accumulation phase and also at Guarantee return phase… Guarantee…. By getting known these… Would you like to pay by cash or cheque? (upon closing) Have Gold Income Years Ahead. Thank you.

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अनुमोदन के लिए मसौदा पत्र putup कृपया

Last Update: 2016-12-13
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Reality shows have captured the world’s imagination ever since Allen Funt’s ‘Candid Camera’ showed the candid reactions of unsuspecting people to funny pranks played on them. This was in the 1940s. The audience was highly entertained by the plight of ordinary people caught in awkward situations. Interesting scripts and whacky ideas ensured that reality shows had their fan following. Today there are many kinds of reality shows like talent hunts, (Indian Idol, Nach Baliye, Jhalak Dhiklaja, Sa Re Ga Ma, etc) Game shows (Kaun Banega Crorepati), celebrity shows (Big Brother, Big Boss), makeover shows, prank shows (MTV Bakra), job hunts (The Apprentice, On the Lot), dating shows (For Love or For Money, Perfect Match, New York), social experiments (Wife Swap), Adventure/Fear based shows (Fear Factor, Who Dares Wins), dance shows, etc. One of the first reality shows in India was Channel V’s talent hunt for an all girls’ music band. The result was ‘Viva’. It is another matter that the band had a short life with the five members eventually going their separate ways. The talent hunt was avidly watched by scores of TV viewers who shared the emotions of the participants which were on public display. Reality Shows Image Source : upatoibaptist.com The laughter, the tears, the agony and finally the celebration of triumph…it was all eagerly lapped up by the audience. Soon, the floodgates opened to a slew of shows on various television channels which were quick to spot and exploit the potential of these shows to raise their TRPs. ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’, hosted by the charismatic superstar, Amitabh Bachchan, resurrected a flagging Star TV’s fortunes and made it the No. 1 TV channel in India. It also boosted Bachchan’s moribund career. More shows proliferated transforming the destinies of many people by giving them a platform to showcase their talents. Surprisingly, many of the winners turned out to be young boys and girls from the hinterland of India. It revealed the immense talent that had hitherto lain untapped in obscure corners of the country. Star One’s Lakme Fashion House provided a never- before opportunity for aspiring fashion designers. They had to design a garment and the best designer would win an assignment with Donatella of Versace, one of the world’s top designers. Jade Goody, who was accused of making racist remarks to Shilpa Shetty in the Big Brother celebrity reality show, was an obscure dental assistant in the UK who went on to become a reality TV star and celebrity in her own right. When she died of cervical cancer at the age of 27 recently, many people mourned her and even the British PM, Gordon Brown, commiserated her untimely demise. She was one who milked the system to the utmost by even allowing a TV channel to film her death. And what about Shetty herself, a Bollywood actress with a flagging career, who hit the big time after being declared the winner of the show? People seem to be drawn to reality shows because it shows people like themselves caught in real life situations and emoting without any pretence. It may be a kind of voyeurism but the audience identifies with the participants of these shows and feels it is also a part of the action. But these shows have generated a lot of criticism. The public voting system is not seen as a very authentic way to gauge true talent. People have also questioned some of the antics of the participants and the judges. In some cases where children were the contestants the comments of the judges were seen as harsh and humiliating.

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मेरा प्रिया रियलिटी शो पर निबंध

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Fukuyama Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History?, The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind?, Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next?, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

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Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History?, The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind?, Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next?, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

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English

, just like they are some type of magnet. They are famous as a great ingredient on different meals and salads, but they are also very beneficial for the treatment of certain conditions such as thyroid gland issues, headaches and other. Almost everything that we needed are already in nature, these natural remedies are still good and sometimes better that formulated ones. These natural medications mostly don’t have any bad side effects. Among these common natural remedies we have is the cabbage. Cabbages are most commonly found in plates of salad. But, did you know that there are other uses of cabbage other than food consumption? Cabbage leaves are said to pull out the issues from our bodies just like a magnet. They can be used in: Pain due to breastfeeding This is familiar among breastfeeding mothers. When they have strong pain because of breastfeeding, they put compress from fresh cabbage leaves onto the breasts and the pain will go away, and immediately after that they feel relief. You can do this during the day and at night, it is not important what part of the day or night will be. ~ Carefully rinse the leaves with cold water then cut the stem from the center of each leaf. ~ Try fitting then to your breasts but without covering your nipples. ~ Place the leaves inside your bra. ~ Let the leaves stay for about 20 min or until the leaves become warm. Repeat if you feel the need. Thyroid gland issues Many people around the world suffer from thyroid gland, especially is familiar among women. This gland is exceptionally important because its hormones aid growth, metabolism functioning, and the functioning of the organs in the digestive system. If you have a problem with your thyroid gland and look for a solution to heal it, so it can restore its normal functioning, put cabbage leaves on the place of your throat where the gland is located. ~ It is important to cover the leaves with a bandage or a shawl, so they don’t fall. ~ You need to sleep with the compress and you can remove it in the morning. Swellings Sometimes you could hit your hand or leg and the place starts immediately to swell, so you should wrap the area with fresh cabbage leaves. As we mentioned above it is important to tighten them with a bandage, so they don’t fall. The same goes for your ankle or if you have problems with swollen legs. It is recommended to sleep with the compress if you want to achieve the best possible results from this treatment. Headaches What you should do is it to apply a compress from fresh cabbage leaves onto the temples and onto the upper part of the head. Put a cap or a hat to keep the leaves from falling. The post After Reading This, You Will Surely Start Putting Cabbage Leaves On Your Chest And Legs! appeared first on .

Hindi

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2016-07-03
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English

I am given to understand that, my beauty is unmatched, and so is my value in money. It is believed that I am the treasure for the elite rich of any society. A diamond is, I believe a very expensive stone, and, as for me -I am a complete set of several diamonds neatly set in platinum.' Regarding my birth, I am not at all aware of the time and the place, but I remember my younger days when I was being set in the platinum frame. When each diamond was being cut and polished, I very distinctly remember many of the little ones screeched in pain, but when they were all set together into one big piece of jewellery, it became a beautiful set - that is ME. Yes I do agree there is no gain without pain, so, only after all the diamonds bore the pain of being cut to size, the result was the beautiful ME. After being made to completion, I was placed in a case of maroon velvet and packed up. Now, I consist of six different items of jewellery i.e. one necklace, two bangles, two earrings, and one ring. When I am fixed in slot set for me in one big box, and I see my reflection in the glass in front of me, even I wonder at my excellent beauty and shine and dance with joy in my heart. I am settled in a jewellery shop in an area called Connaught Place. Here, I lie sometimes in the showcase, at other times in a Godrej Safe in the shop. Inside the Safe, I am believed to be secure, but believe me I get suffocated there and my prayers go out to God to send a customer quickly, who would take me out of this congestion. However, when i am set in the showcase outside enjoy myself. I can see people coming in and going out, discussing jewels and other things of importance and most of all enjoy people coming to see me and praise me. This praise boosts my spirit and feels that after all life is not really bad here even in the shop. All this makes me feel fresh and alive till, I am once again put inside the locker of the Godrej Safe. This continued to be my routine life and to be honest at times I even wondered why I had to be so beautiful and expensive that I have to bear the pain of a long boredom, and no one wants to buy me and give me a new lease of life elsewhere. While these thoughts were growing at me, at last, one day, I found my way to the hearts of a family. One fine day while I was inside the safe, a family called by the name of Taneja came to the shop. They asked my master if he could show them something in diamonds. This request of the Tanejas helped me come out of the safe as, at that time, I was the only diamond set at the shop. As soon as I was placed in front of the family, their young daughter, a bride-to-be jumped at me and requested her parents who were with her, to buy me forthwith. Since they had come to buy jewellery for her trousseau, the deal was struck at once and lo! and behold! at last I had found my rightful place in the beautiful neck, ears and arm of the lovely girl Vijayata. My present status, as I write this is that, I am a part of the girl's dowry and waiting to adorn the young girl when she becomes a bride. It is my proud privilege to belong to such an elite family - and that also to none other than their lovely daughter, and still further, of being a part of her trousseau. I am eagerly waiting for the big day when Vijayata will don me and people will admire me and appreciate me. It is by now certain that, there is no second to me in any jewellery shop at least in Delhi - that is not my version, that is what I often heard the customers at the shop say to my master. Now, my dear owner is keeping me safe inside her locker, once again to feel suffocated, though the pleasure of having this cute owner duly compensates for my troubles and woes. I have to remember all the time that, this is all in store for someone who is the best.

Hindi

हीरे की आत्मकथा

Last Update: 2016-06-26
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English

Importance of Sanskrit Language On September 16, 2013 By Vivek Murarka Category: Important India Sanskrit Language has been the most important medium in lending continuity to Indian civilization. In its heyday it was spoken and used in all regions of India including the Dravidian south. While Tamil has maintained a more or less independent literary tradition, all other languages in India have taken freely from Sanskrit vocabulary and their literature is permeated with the Sanskrit heritage. Sanskrit is perhaps the oldest language in the world to be recorded. Classical Sanskrit which developed from the Vedic held sway from about 500 BC to about 1000 AD. In Independent India it is listed among the languages of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution though it is not the official language of any state. The hymns of the Rig Veda are the seeds of Sanskrit literature. Orally handed down for long, these hymns not only served the purpose of religion but also as a common literary standard for the Aryan groups in India. After 1000 BC there developed an extensive prose literature devoted to ritual matters-the Brahamanas; but in these too there are examples of story-telling, terse and abrupt in style. The next milestone in the history of Sanskrit is the Grammar of Panini—the Ashtadhyayi. The form of the Sanskrit language as described by him became accepted universally and was fixed for all time. Probably, around the time Panini was codifying the Sanskrit language, the practice of writing began. In the field of secular literature Sanskrit epic poetry (mahakavya) was the next most important development. The story of the Mahabharata was handed down orally for at least a thousand years after the battle it celebrates before becoming relatively fixed in writing. Dvaipayana or Vyasa is recorded first to have sung of this fearsome struggle of his own time. Vaisampayana later elaborated the epic; Lomaharsana and Ugrasravas are supposed to have recited the complete Mahabharata which scholars call itihasa. The story of the battle of eighteen days between the Kauravas and the Pandavas on the battle¬field of Kurukshetra and the victory of the righteous was probably composed in the epic form not earlier than about 100 BC. The Ramayana traditionally ascribed to Valmiki whom Bhavabhuti and others call the ‘first kavi’, is considered to have been composed around the first century BC. On the face of it, it is the story of the adventures of Rama, but involved in this story are unforgettable conflicts of human passions. Asvaghosa’s (first century AD) are the earliest epics now available to show the full-fledged kavya technique. His Buddhacharita and Saundarananda present the Bud¬dhist philosophy of the shallowness of the world through the delights of poetry—the ornament of language and meaning. Later, in the fifth century AD, came Kalidasa with his Kumarasambhava which gives the story of the origin of Kartikeya, son of Shiva and Raghuvamsa, a portrait gallery of the kings of Rama’s line, illustrating the four ends, virtue, wealth, pleasure and release, pursued by different rulers. To the sixth century belongs Bharavi whose epic Kiratarjuniya presents a short episode from the Mahabharata as a complete whole. Rich description and brilliant characterization are matched by a heroic narrative style. Sanskrit literature shows a wide variety of forms and types. The dramatic literature has been dealt with in detail in the chapter on Drama. The katha tradition is exemplified in the Panchatantra, apparently written in the fourth century AD by Vishnusharman whose country was the Vakataka Empire (in the Deccan). Bana’s Kadambari (7th century AD) is a novel about the timidities and missed opportunities of youth leading to tragedy. In the eleventh century we have Goddhala’s Udayasundari, a campu (romantic) novel. The critic King Bhoja’s Srinagaramanjari is an entertaining ‘illustrating novel’ on the various types love. Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagara is a huge collection stories skillfully narrated. Kshemendra’s illustrating novels are bitter satires on corrupt bureaucracies and deceit and vice. Some of his works are Kalavilasa, Darpadalana and Desopadesa. The use of Sanskrit prose for scientific, technical and philosophical purposes is first exemplified by Patanjali’s, a commentary on Katyayana’s Vartikas on Panini’s grammar. After this time, and during the early centuries of the Christian era, much technical and scientific literature came into being, Aryabhata and Bhaskara wrote on mathematics and astronomy, Charaka and Susruta on medicine, Kautilya on politics and administration. Literary criticism is another field in which Sanskrit literature is rich. The oldest work of Indian literary criticism is Bharata’s Natya Shastra. Bhamaha (5th century AD) is the earliest individual critic whose work available; he sets out the genres as drama, epic, lyric, prose biography and (usually prose) novel besides discussing literary expression and what makes it beautiful. Dandin (7th century AD) adds to the genres campus or narration in mixed prose and verse, which became quite popular 1ater. Vemana, Rudrata, Anandavardhana, Kuntaka, Udbhata, Lollata and Dhananjaya are just some well-known critics who have analyzed and enriched the world of literary concepts. Bhoja (11th century) is one of the greats among Indian critics, giving us the largest number of references and quotations and showing a fine taste in selection and comment. The tradition of Sanskrit literature continued strongly and the number of Sanskrit works composed and preserved during the medieval period is also considerable. Rajasthan, Orissa as well as the South continued the Sanskrit literary tradition. Some names of note are Arnarachandra, Someswara, Balachandra, Vastupala, Princess Ganga, Ahobala, Dindima, and Gopala. The Kerala king Manaveda wrote the play Krishnagiti which is the prototype of Kathakali but with songs in Sanskrit. There were also satirical monologues and comedies, some of the famous writers being Nilakantha and Venkatadhvarin. The period of British rule exercised an unfavorable influence on Sanskrit. In spite of the appearance of English and the increasing use of modern Indian languages, however, literary composition in Sanskrit has continued on a moderate scale down to the present time. An important use to which the Sanskrit language is put at present is as a source of vocabulary for the modern languages. Sanskrit is able to provide on a large scale new technical terms which the modern languages are unable to find in their own resources.

Hindi

संस्कृत के महत्व पर संस्कृत निबंध

Last Update: 2016-01-12
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English

World Yoga Day International day of yoga is also called as the world yoga day. United Nations General Assembly has declared 21st of June as an International Yoga Day on 11th of December in 2014. Yoga in India is considered to be around 5,000 year old mental, physical and spiritual practice. Yoga was originated in India in ancient time when people were used of meditation to transform their body and mind. Launching a particular date of practicing yoga all across the world and celebrating as yoga day was initiated by the Indian Prime Minister to the United Nations General Assembly. Yoga is very necessary and beneficial for all human being if it is practiced by all on daily basis in the early morning. Official name of this day is UN International Yoga Day and also called as Yoga Day. It is a worldwide event celebrated by the people of all countries through practicing yoga, meditation, debates, meetings, discussions, variety of cultural performances, etc. International Day of Yoga 2015 (World Yoga Day) World Yoga Day or International Day of Yoga was celebrated by the people throughout the world first time on 21st of June in 2015, at Sunday. History of World Yoga Day Celebrating yoga day all over the world as World Yoga Day or International Day of Yoga on 21st of June every year was declared by the United Nations General Assembly on 11th of December in 2014. The declaration was done after the call by the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi to the United Nations General Assembly on 27th of September in 2014 during his address to the UN General Assembly. He call the United Nations General Assembly for adopting 21st of June as an International Yoga Day to get all the benefits of yoga for the people all around the world. Narendra Modi has said during his address to the UN General Assembly that “Yoga is an invaluable gift of India’s ancient tradition. It embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfilment; harmony between man and nature; a holistic approach to health and well-being. It is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help us deal with climate change. Let us work towards adopting an International Yoga Day.” The declaration of International Day of Yoga is the great moment for the India in the history. It took less than three months to be declared as the World Yoga Day by the United Nations General Assembly. Narendra Modi had called for it on 27th of September in 2014 which was finally declared on 11th of December in 2014. It was first ever in the history that the initiative of any country has been proposed and implemented in the UN body within 90 days. This resolution has been adopted under the Global Health and Foreign Policy by the General Assembly in order to provide a holistic approach to the people worldwide for their health and well-being. In order to create a great level of consciousness and positively changing the lifestyle of worldwide human population Indian PM, Mr. Narendra Modi has put his views for adopting a day especially for yoga while address to the United Nations General Assembly. He asked to the world leaders for adopting international Yoga day to deal with the declining health because of negative climate changes. Especially, he suggested 21st of June for adopting the International Day of Yoga as this day is the longest day in Northern Hemisphere regions as well as of great significance for people in many parts of the world. World Yoga Day Celebration The celebration of the event International day of yoga is supported by various global leaders. It is celebrated by the people of more than 170 countries including USA, China, Canada, etc. It is celebrated on international level by organizing the activities like yoga training campus, yoga competitions and so many activities to enhance the awareness about yoga benefits among common public all over the world. It is celebrated to let people know that regular yoga practice lead to the better mental, physical and intellectual health. It positively changes the lifestyle of the people and increase the level of well-being. All members, observer states, United Nations system organizations, other international organizations, regional organizations, civil society, governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and individuals get together to celebrate the International Day of Yoga in suitable manner according to the national priorities to raise the awareness about yoga. Objectives of World Yoga Day International Day of Yoga has been adopted to fulfill the following objectives: To let people know the amazing and natural benefits of yoga. To connect people to the nature by practicing yoga. To make people get used of meditation through yoga. To draw attention of people worldwide towards the holistic benefits of yoga. To reduce the rate of health challenging diseases all over the world. To bring communities much close together to spend a day for health from busy schedule. To enhance growth, development and spread peace all through the world. To help people in their bad situations themselves by getting relief from stress through yoga. To strengthen the global coordination among people through yoga. To make people aware of physical and mental diseases and its solutions through practicing yoga. To protect unhealthy practices and promote and respect the good practices to make health better. To let people know their rights of good health and healthy life style to completely enjoy the highest standard of physical and mental health. To link between protection of health and sustainable health development. To get win over all the health challenges through regular yoga practice. To promote better metal and physical health of people through yoga practice.

Hindi

अनुवाद पर सही व्याकरण

Last Update: 2015-10-29
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Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footergoogle translet

Hindi

Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footer

Last Update: 2015-10-21
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

essay Essay on Teacher Teacher is one who shapes up the whole life of the students through her knowledge, patience, love and care. Using this simply written essay and speech, make your kids and children know something about his/her teacher and role of a teacher in the life of every students. Teacher Essay 1 (100 words) A teacher is the person who shapes the future of everyone by providing best education to her/his students. Teacher plays a great role in the education of every student. A good teacher has many qualities and fully able to make his/her students successful in life. A teacher is very intelligent and know well that how to draw attention of students towards study. She uses creativity while teaching students so that students may concentrate. Teacher is a good conductor of knowledge having lots of patience and confidence who take responsibility of the future of students. Teacher knows the ability of each and every student and tries for them accordingly. Teacher Essay 2 (150 words) Teachers are great sources of knowledge, prosperity and enlightenment to which anyone can be benefitted for whole life. They serve as the real light in everyone’s life as they help students to make their ways in the life. They are the God gifted people in everyone’s life who lead us towards success without any selfishness. Really, we can call them as builders of the dazzling future of our nation through education. Teacher plays very essential role in the field of education who teaches students very nicely to be a person of good moral and behaviour. They make students academically superb and always encourage to do better in the life. They equip students with lots of knowledge, skills and positive attitudes so that students can never feel lost and go ahead. They help students to get sure about their goals of education through clear vision and ideas. Without teachers in the life one cannot grow mentally, socially and intellectually. Teacher Essay 3 (200 words) A teacher is a good person who takes very important responsibility of shaping up the lives of young ones and impressionable children. They get great feeling, pride and true joy in their life by teaching their students on the right path. They never do any type of partiality between good or bad students instead they always try to bring bad one on the right path through their lots of efforts. A good teacher is someone who spent their whole life in giving quality education to their students. They push all the students to do their best. They make learning process very interesting as well as creative. Teachers try their best to bring all the students on the right track by motivation them positively towards study. Good teachers leave good impression over their students. Teachers, sometimes award their students for their great works however sometimes punish them to let them understand that they did something wrong which is bad for their life. They make their students able to differentiate between right or wrong so that they can chose for right one in their life by fighting with wrong. Teachers understand that all students do not have same capacity to learn in the same way so they try to let them understand in their own way. Teacher Essay 4 (250 words) The teacher’s profession is considered as the best and ideal profession in this world as they provide selfless duty to shape someone’s life. Their committed work cannot be compared to anything. Teachers are those who always take care of their all students. They check their food habits, cleanliness level, behaviour to others, and concentration towards study. They check our nails weekly to maintain cleanliness and hygiene and prevent us from diseases. They organise health camp quarterly for us in the school campus where student’s weight, height, IQ level, blood pressure, heart rate, lungs capacity, blood check up, urine check up, chickenpox immunization, immunization for MMR, measles, DPT booster dose, polio drop, etc takes place to closely monitor and maintain the health records of us. Teachers are never bad, it is only their way of teaching which is different from each other and makes them different in the mind of students. They only want to see their students happy and successful. A good teacher never loses patience and teaches every student accordingly. Our teachers motivate us to wear clean clothes, eat healthy foods, avoid junk foods, care for parents, behave well with others, come to school at right time in proper uniform, never tell lie to anyone in life, react positively, take care of school property, take care of your books, copies, and other study material, always pray to God for better concentration on study, always discuss to your subject teacher about any confusion, do not argue with strangers and many more. on if i am a police

Hindi

मैं एक पुलिस हूँ पर निबंध

Last Update: 2015-09-26
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

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