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English

Curriculum vitae

Indonesian

Curriculum vitae

Last Update: 2014-02-26
Usage Frequency: 13
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Curriculum

Indonesian

Kurikulum

Last Update: 2011-08-18
Usage Frequency: 3
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Core curriculum

Indonesian

Kurikulum

Last Update: 2012-10-18
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Number of courses (driver education curriculum) 5 hours

Indonesian

kursus kpp (kurikulum pendidikan pemandu) 5 jam

Last Update: 2012-09-03
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Technology could facilitate disseminating ideas about local cultures to students and provide schools the possibility to teach some curriculum in a local language.

Indonesian

Teknologi dapat memfasilitasi penyebaran pengetahuan mengenai tradisi lokal kepada pelajar maupun sekolah, sehingga memungkinkan pengajaran beberapa kurikulum dalam bahasa lokal.

Last Update: 2016-02-24
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

One of the reasons why schools in Aikmel district in East Lombok have a high average of UN outcome is due to the school principal role who runs an excellent internal teacher performance monitoring system. The principal seriously implements internal supervision by forming a curriculum development team to conduct supervision containing senior teachers.

Indonesian

Salah satu alasan mengapa sekolah di Kecamatan Aikmel di Lombok Timur memiliki rata--rata hasil UN yang tinggi adalah memiliki kepala sekolah yang menjalankan dengan baik sistem pengawasan kinerja guru secara internal. Kepala sekolah serius menerapkan pengawasan internal dengan membentuk tim pengembang kurikulum untuk melakukan pengawasan yang berisi guru senior.

Last Update: 2017-09-24
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Looking at the various phenomena that happen on students todayare very concerned about even very disturbing government, communities,parents, and even teachers so that character education curriculum isdeveloped and applied in the education unit.

Indonesian

Melihat berbagai fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa saat ini sangat memprihatinkan bahkan sangat mengganggu pemerintah, masyarakat, orang tua, bahkan guru sehingga kurikulum pendidikan karakter dikembangkan dan diterapkan di unit pendidikan.

Last Update: 2018-03-14
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
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English

gremDear Sir . I am writing thisn letter in order to apply as a contract manager .I am interested in it and I would like to apply for that position. I am Imam rifqi abdillah . I graduated from stimart”amni” semarang with GPA 3,33.i am certain that I would be able to work in your instution due to the fact that I am dynamic and willing to work hard . I will welcome any critics for being better. And since I do not like to take risks. I Will Try to anything on time. Herewith I enclouse curriculum vitae .copy of transeript,bachelor certificate, identity card and my recent photo fulfil your requirements for your furher consideration . I will be happy to meet you at your convenience and provide my additional information. I look forward to hearing you soon .

Indonesian

Dear Sir . I am writing thisn letter in order to apply as a contract manager .I am interested in it and I would like to apply for that position. I am Imam rifqi abdillah . I graduated from stimart”amni” semarang with GPA 3,33.i am certain that I would be able to work in your instution due to the fact that I am dynamic and willing to work hard . I will welcome any critics for being better. And since I do not like to take risks. I Will Try to anything on time. Herewith I enclouse curriculum vitae .copy of transeript,bachelor certificate, identity card and my recent photo fulfil your requirements for your furher consideration . I will be happy to meet you at your convenience and provide my additional information. I look forward to hearing you soon .

Last Update: 2017-09-09
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) is one of the State-Owned enterprises in the Department of Transportation engaged in the airport services and airport related services in Western part of Indonesia. Angkasa Pura II has earned the trust of the Government of the Republic Indonesia to manage and develop the business of the Airport of Jakarta Cengkareng that has changed its name to Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta International Airport and Halim Perdanakusuma Airport since 13 August 1984.The track records of Angkasa Pura II over 30 years have shown incredible business progress and enhancements through the addition of several infrastructures and facilities as well as service improvements in the airports under its management.Angkasa Pura II operates 13 airports, namely Soekarno-Hatta (Jakarta), Halim Perdanakusuma (Jakarta), Kualanamu (Medan), Supadio (Pontianak), Minangkabau (Padang), Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II (Palembang), Sultan Syarif Kasim II (Pekanbaru), Husein Sastranegara (Bandung), Sultan Iskandar Muda (Banda Aceh), Raja Haji Fisabilillah (Tanjungpinang), Sultan Thaha (Jambi) , Depati Amir (Pangkalpinang) and Silangit (Tapanuli Utara).In the face of this ever intense global competition today, every company is expected to have a competitive advantage, from various aspects. Competitive advantage will bring the company on top of the competition.As one of the State-owned Enterprise, PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) has a vision To become leading and professional world-class airport management company with priority towards safety, security and comfort of the customers and to optimize business growth. Angkasa Pura II is expected to continuously growing, as the Company’s effort to become leading and professional world-class company.In realizing the services improvement of Soekarno Hatta International Airport, we open career opportunity for the best Candidates to join as a fixed term employee (PKWT) with 1 year contract period for the following position.Customer ServicesRequirements*.Male / female*.Attractive look*.Minimum height 165 cm for male and 160 cm for female*.Have proportional posture and ideal weight*.Minimum possess Associate degree in any major*.Maximum 25 years old by May 1, 2016*.Minimum GPA 2.75*.Proficient in English*.Doesnt have parent who working as PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero) active employee*.Fixed term positions available*.Placement: Soekarno-Hatta International AirportRequired Documents*.Curriculum vitae*.Full body photograph in .jpeg format*.Cover letter addressed to VP of Human Capital PT Angkasa Pura II (Persero)

Indonesian

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2016-05-31
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Kitas/ working permit Requirements:Persyaratan Kitas/ Izin Kerja TKA1.KTP Direktur2.SIUP (Izin usaha tergantung jenis usaha)3.Domisili Perusahaan4.TDP5.NPWP6.SK Kehakiman7.Akte Pendirian8.Surat Wajib Lapor Ketenagakerjaan UU No.79.Struktur Organisasi10.Kop Surat Perusahaan11.KTP salah satu Karyawan wni sebagai pendamping TKA 12.Calon Tenaga Kerja Asing/ TKA:a.Copy Paspor berlaku minimal 18 Bulanb.Copy Curiculum Vitae/ CV (Resume)c.Copy Ijazah terakhird.Foto Background Merah13.Syarat Tambahan untuk perpanjangan Kitas:a.Kitasb.Paspor Terbaruc.Imtad.Dpkk Lama & DPKK Barue.RPTKAf.Lapor Keberadaang.STMh.SKPPSi.SKTT14.Tambahan untuk Guru Asing:a.Rekomendasi DiknasNote:untuk perusahaan yang belum memiliki RPTKA wajib melampirkan dokumen perusahaan AsliDaftar Paket Kitas & Izin Kerjayang didapat:Kitas Procedure 1.RPTKA2.Recomendasi IMTA3.IMTA4.Telex (hanya untuk TKA Baru)5.Kartu KITAS6.STM7.SKPPS8.SKTT9.Lapor Keberadaan Orang Asing(hanya untuk kitas lebih dari 6 Bulan

Indonesian

googKitas/ working permit Requirements:Persyaratan Kitas/ Izin Kerja TKA1.KTP Direktur2.SIUP (Izin usaha tergantung jenis usaha)3.Domisili Perusahaan4.TDP5.NPWP6.SK Kehakiman7.Akte Pendirian8.Surat Wajib Lapor Ketenagakerjaan UU No.79.Struktur Organisasi10.Kop Surat Perusahaan11.KTP salah satu Karyawan wni sebagai pendamping TKA 12.Calon Tenaga Kerja Asing/ TKA:a.Copy Paspor berlaku minimal 18 Bulanb.Copy Curiculum Vitae/ CV (Resume)c.Copy Ijazah terakhird.Foto Background Merah13.Syarat Tambahan untuk perpanjangan Kitas:a.Kitasb.Paspor Terbaruc.Imtad.Dpkk Lama & DPKK Barue.RPTKAf.Lapor Keberadaang.STMh.SKPPSi.SKTT14.Tambahan untuk Guru Asing:a.Rekomendasi DiknasNote:untuk perusahaan yang belum memiliki RPTKA wajib melampirkan dokumen perusahaan AsliDaftar Paket Kitas & Izin Kerjayang didapat:Kitas Procedure 1.RPTKA2.Recomendasi IMTA3.IMTA4.Telex (hanya untuk TKA Baru)5.Kartu KITAS6.STM7.SKPPS8.SKTT9.Lapor Keberadaan Orang Asing(hanya untuk kitas lebih dari 6 Bulanle terjemah bahasa sunda

Last Update: 2016-03-28
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

The Department of Education of the government of Puerto Rico recently eliminated five books from the eleventh grade curriculum of the public school system: Antología personal, by José Luis González; El entierro de Cortijo, by Edgardo Rodríguez Juliá; Mejor te lo cuento: antología personal, by Juan Antonio Ramos; Reunión de espejos, an anthology of essays edited by José Luis Vega (all Puerto Rican authors); and Aura, by Carlos Fuentes from Mexico.

Indonesian

Departemen Pendidikan pemerintah Puerto Riko baru-baru ini mencabut lima buah buku dari kurikulum kelas sebelas sistem sekolah negeri: Antología personal, oleh José Luis González; El entierro de Cortijo, oleh Edgardo Rodríguez Juliá; Mejor te lo cuento: antología personal, oleh Juan Antonio Ramos; Reunión de espejos, sebuah antologi esai yang diedit oleh José Luis Vega (ketiganya merupakan penulis Puerto Riko); dan Aura, oleh Carlos Fuentes dari Mexico.

Last Update: 2016-02-24
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

The Federation of Teachers also condemned the decision and stated that it "reflects ignorance about the social reality that our students live in, and a backward-looking vision of modern literature as part of the academic curriculum."

Indonesian

Federasi Guru juga mengutuk keputusan itu dan menyatakan bahwa hal itu “mencerminkan ketidak tahuan tentang kenyataan sosial di zaman dimana para siswa tinggal, dan sebuah keterbelakangan visi kesusasteraan modern yang adalah bagian dari kurikulum akademik.”

Last Update: 2016-02-24
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Batam, September 15th 2014 Attention To: HRD PT. CITRO TUBINDO ENGINEERING Kabil, Batam Riau Island Dear Sir/Madam, I have read from your advertisement at Batam Pos on September 12th 2014 that your company is looking for employers to hold some position. Based on the advertisement, I am interested in applying application for Buyer position. My name is Wardianto, I am twenty Six years old. I have graduated from Department of History, Social faculty, Padang State of University on March 2011. I have good motivation for progress and growing, eager to learn, and can work with a team (team work) or by myself. I have experienced 2 years been production Supervisor at Multinational Company. Beside that I posses adequate computer skill and have good command in English (oral and written). With my qualifications, I confident that I will be able to contribute effectively to your company. For your consideration, herewith I enclose my : 1. Copy of Bachelor Degree (S-1) Certificate and Academic Transcript. 2. Curriculum Vitae. 3. Identity Card Copy. I would express my gratitude for your attention and I hope I could follow your recruitment test luckily. I hope you will consider me and invite me to take a test and interview Sincerely, Ega Gusti email : Egagusti88@gmail.com

Indonesian

google translete

Last Update: 2015-02-17
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Abstract This article examines the different circumstances under which infant and adult learners develop speaking skills. We will see the facilities or difficulties in both cases in order to focus on the real possibilities of adults to develop a high level of speaking proficiency. We will see what the role of the teacher is in order to improve the learners’ skills, the features of oral communication that need to be improved and which strategies can be used to overcome the difficulties. Key words : speaking skills, adult learning, oral communication, teaching strategies. Resumen Este artículo analiza las diferentes circunstancias en las que niños y adultos desarrollan las destrezas orales. Veremos las facilidades y dificultades en ambos casos para así centrarnos en las posibilidades reales que tienen los adultos de alcanzar un alto nivel de competencia oral. Veremos también cual es el papel del profesor en este contexto, para mejorar las capacidades de los alumnos, y ver cuáles son los elementos de la comunicación oral que hay que mejorar y qué estrategias se pueden aplicar para superar las dificultades. Palabras clave : destrezas orales, aprendizaje de adultos, comunicación verbal, estrategias de enseñanza. If we think of the period in our lives when we learned to speak our first language, and the moment in which we started to make huge efforts to speak our second/foreign language we find significant differences. In the former case, we may have fond memories of what our parents told us; and in the latter, it suddenly becomes a frustrating experience that seems to bring imperfect results. For adults, learning to speak a new language is in many cases far from satisfactory simply because they feel they need to cope with many different aspects at one time, and that seems to be impossible in real conversations. I wonder if it is possible to acquire a high level of speaking proficiency in adults; I wonder if it is possible to make adult learners improve their speaking skills, and the most important thing for teachers: how? The first question we have to consider in order to reach a conclusion is whether learning at infancy is different from learning at adulthood; which are the circumstances that differentiate them and if those conditions inevitably lead to obvious and hopeless results. Only bearing in mind what we can expect of a particular type of learner, we can focus on how to improve their speaking skills. It is obvious that there are marked differences between children learners and adult learners and that they cannot acquire the second language under the same circumstances. Consequently, the results will be also different. Concerning children and the early age at which they learn to speak, we can say that they enjoy certain advantages that make them outstanding learners. They have surprising linguistic abilities due to optimal moment in which they find themselves for language learning, this is to say, at this moment their brain is characterized by a certain plasticity that allows some abilities to develop with ease during a period of time, after which it becomes really difficult for these abilities to be developed (Fleta, 2006: 53), or using Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 87 Klein’s words ‘between the age of two and puberty the human brain shows the plasticity which allows a child to acquire his first language’ (Klein, 1986: 9). Therefore, children are special learners for their natural and innate abilities to acquire a language. According to Fleta, one of these special abilities is ‘filtering sophisticated information about language properties from birth’ (Fleta, 2006: 49), in other words, children have an enormous ability to integrate difficult information in an easy and unconscious way from the beginning of their development. They are able to acquire and integrate complex data without being aware of it, whereas other learners, at other ages, would find it arduous to achieve. Moreover, apart from this special gift children have for assimilating difficult information, we can mention some of their other qualities, such as their capacity for perceiving and imitating sounds. Some studies have showed that ‘young infants are especially sensitive to acoustic changes at the phonetic boundaries between categories’ (Kuhl, 2004: 832). Also, children are especially good at predicting syllable chunks: ‘infants are sensitive to the sequential probabilities between adjacent syllables’ (Kuhl, 2004: 834) which makes children with a surprising instinct as far as language knowledge is concerned . Finally, students also acquire the ability of ordering words within a sentence (grammar rules) unconsciously: ‘there is some evidence that young children can detect non-adjacencies such as those required to learn grammar’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836). All in all, we can say that children learn the language without being aware of it when they ‘are exposed to the right kind of auditory information’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836), this is, children learn the language through communication and interaction and thanks to that they acquire all the abilities they can potentially develop. On the other hand, concerning adults we observe how difficult is that they can acquire certain native sounds; their pronunciation will be, on many occasions, foreign-like which is due to their difficulty in distinguishing and producing some sounds after the so called ‘critical period’. In that respect, some authors claim that adult learners cannot acquire a phonological development (Lightbown and Spada, 2006: 69). However, other researchers defend the opposite. Wolfgang Klein, in his book Second Language Acquisition (1986) stated that ‘the apparent facility with which children learn a second language is often attributed to biological factors, but an alternative explanation might be that, unlike adults, children have no need to fear the loss of their social identity’ (Klein, 1986: 6). Authors such as Klein argue that phonological facilities of children are not bound to biological reasons, but to psychological ones. In that respect, adults feel attached to their native identities, to their original social identities, which is what prevent them from achieving perfection in L2 pronunciation. Klein confirmed that ‘suitably motivated adults are capable of mastering to perfection the pronunciation of the most exotic languages’ (Klein, 1986: 10). Therefore, we conclude that although the cases of adults speaking a second language without any accent are not very common, this does not mean that it is impossible to acquire a native-like pronunciation. Also, besides phonological issues, we can talk about the capacity of adults to acquire any other kind of linguistic faculties, more related to structural relations (UG). In that sense, there are authors that doubt the validity of Lenneberg’s Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) by assuring that even adults have access to the well known Universal Grammar. While Lenneberg claimed that only before puberty learners had UG available, authors such as S. W. Felix defended by evidence that adult L2 learners also benefit from the UG principles: ‘If child and adult learners use different modules for the purpose of language acquisition, then we would expect adult learners to be unable to attain grammatical knowledge that arises only through the mediation of UG. If, in contrast, adults do attain this type of knowledge, then, we have reason to believe that UG continues to be active even after puberty’ (Felix, 1988: 279). Therefore, we can conclude that adults are also able to master a proficient use of the second/foreign language, not only in grammatical issues but also in phonological ones, which makes us believe that we can improve adult learners’ speaking skills. Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 88 Once we know that adults can be biologically and psychologically prepared to have a native-like proficiency in the second language, we should move on to the second language teaching context in order to achieve our aim of improving adult learners’ skills. In that respect, we should reflect on the teachers’ role in this situation and what they can do to be successful with their learners. Teachers therefore need to analyse the students’ needs, face their problems and find fruitful solutions that help them develop their speaking abilities. S. Pit Corder, in his chapter called ‘Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching’, in Introducing Applied Linguistics (1973) defended the important role of linguists who identify the problems of the learners and find solutions for them. Corder added that specialists’ role is to formulate the appropriate questions in order to define problems that need to be faced. Using his words, ‘the formulation of the questions, the identification of the problems and the specification of their nature presupposes linguistic theory. The nature of the problem is defined by the theory which is applied to it. The solution to a problem is only as good as the theory which has been used to solve it’ (Corder, 1973: 138). In this direction he said that in language teaching there are two appropriate questions teachers should make: what to teach and how to teach, ‘these are the problems of content and method, or, using an industrial analogy, the problem of product and process design respectively’ (Corder, 1973: 139). Therefore, if teachers wish to know how to improve speaking skills, what they need to ask themselves first is what they are going to teach, and how. On the one hand, let us consider the first question: what . If we need to improve speaking skills we need to know which skills or which features learners need to develop. In that respect, there are several authors that stated different goals or different dimensions that speakers needed to achieve. Goodwin, for instance, established several goals for a proper pronunciation. She called them ‘functional intelligibility, functional communicability, increased self-confidence, and speech-monitoring abilities’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118). She argued that learners should be able to speak an intelligible foreign language, that is to say, listeners need to understand the learner’s message without huge efforts; learners also need to be successful in a ‘specific communicative situation’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); they need to ‘gain confidence in their ability to speak and be understood’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); and finally, they need to monitor and control their own production by paying attention to their own speech. Goodwin specified those abilities that learners need to acquire through certain linguistic features that can be practiced: Intonation, rhythm, reduced speech, linking words, consonants and vowel sounds, word stress, etc. These are concrete speaking aspects in which learners should be trained in order to improve their speaking skills. Similarly, other authors such as Anne Lazaraton suggest that oral communication is based on four dimensions or competences: grammatical competence (phonology, vocabulary, word and sentence formation…); sociolinguistic competence (rules for interaction, social meanings); discourse competence (cohesion and how sentences are liked together); and finally, strategic competence (compensatory strategies to use in difficult situations), (Lazaraton, 2001: 104). According to Lazaraton learners should develop all these abilities to acquire a high oral level of the foreign language, but she adds that in recent years, with the influence of the communicative approach, more importance is given to fluency, trying to achieve a balance with the traditional accuracy. Moreover, apart from what pedagogically and theoretically should be taught, many researchers are presently analysing real problems that learners face: ‘fluent speech contains reduced forms, such as contractions, vowel reduction, and elision, where learners do not get sufficient practice’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103); use of slang and idioms in speech since students tend to sound ‘bookish’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103), stress, rhythm, intonation, lack of active vocabulary, lack of interaction pattern rules… Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 89 Once speaking goals have been determined, next step consists of questioning how they are going to be achieved. For designing a concrete methodology teachers need to adopt a theoretical perspective, they need to reflect on the linguistic approach that will be used in their teaching. Many authors, following the up-to- date trend of the Communicative approach, defend the interactive role of speaking and promote its teaching from a communicative perspective stressing meaning and context. In Goodwin’s words: ‘In “Teaching Pronunciation” the goal of instruction is threefold: to enable our learners to understand and be understood, to build their confidence in entering communicative situations, and to enable them to monitor their speech’ (Goodwin, 2001: 131), also ‘pronunciation is never an end in itself but a means of negotiating meaning in discourse, embedded in specific sociocultural and interpersonal contexts’ (Goodwin,2001: 117). If we think of how this theoretical background will be applied in real teaching, we find that in traditional classes they focused speaking practice on the production of single and isolated sounds, whereas within the communicative approach, ‘the focus shifted to fluency rather than accuracy, encouraging an almost exclusive emphasis on suprasegmentals’ (Goodwin, 2001: 117). There is the key word, when communication is the main goal linguistic practice turns into longer structures, at the suprasegmental level; therefore, the training on individual sounds makes way for macro structures that affect interaction directly. The second part of how to teach, moves away from theory to approach real problems and their solutions. Several authors have stated that when learners face problems in speaking they need practical and concrete solutions to know how to behave and respond in order to overcome those difficulties. Mariani, in his article ‘Developing Strategic Competence: Towards Autonomy in Oral Interaction’ , recalls L1 strategies that native speakers use when they encounter communication problems, and suggests teaching those strategies to L2 learners: ‘just think of how often, in L1 communication, we cannot find the words to say something and have to adjust our message, or to ask our interlocutor to help us, or to use synonyms or general words to make ourselves understood’ (Mariani, 1994: 1). Mariani classifies those strategies according to the speakers’ behaviour: learners can either avoid certain messages because they don’t feel confident with their speaking skills (‘reduction strategies’), or make the most out of their knowledge and modify their message bearing in mind their weaknesses and strengths (‘achievement strategies’: borrowing, foreignizing, translating…(Mariani, 1994: 3). The author praises the latter by saying that achievement strategies are a very interesting way of developing learners’ language domain. Speakers who opt for this option make huge efforts to transmit a message by playing with the language to the extreme, which only brings beneficial consequences. In the second or foreign language classroom context, teachers should train learners to use and practice the different strategies that can help them face difficult situations. The only way of training students in this direction is by means of a bank of activities in which they become aware of the different possibilities that they can put into practice. Authors such as Goodwin or Lazaraton offer a varied list of exercises to be used in class: poems, rhymes, dialogues, monologues, role plays, debates, interviews, simulations, drama scenes, discussions, conversations… Therefore, coming back to the initial question proposed above, I think it is absolutely feasible to teach adults strategies to improve their speaking skills. Of course, that objective depends on many different factors that will affect the degree of acquisition, let us think of age, motivation, or even the context in which the language is learned: ESL versus EFL. In that respect, learners in a second language context will have numberless occasions to practice the language and that will undoubtedly influence their skills development. With reference to the foreign language context, authors such as Lazaraton admitted the difficulties learners Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 90 normally face: ‘homogeneous EFL classes, where all students speak the same first language and English is not used outside the classroom, present certain additional challenges for the teacher’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 110). As she said, teachers have considerable limitations in EFL classes such as lack of opportunities to use the language, lack of motivation in the learners, the number of students in the class, curriculum restrictions…(Lazaraton, 2001: 110), but there are solutions and strategies, as the ones previously mentioned, that should be put into practice. Mariani, in his article mentioned above , also makes a reflection on whether communication strategies should be teachable or not. He states the pros and cons by saying that training students on specific strategies can provide them with certain limitations and consequently hamper fluent communication: ‘we can hardly force them into a straightjacket of pre-selected strategies […] Most of us would agree that we should encourage spontaneity, creativity and originality in language use’ (Mariani, 1994: 7). However, on the other hand, he argues that if learners become aware of the different strategies they can flexibly use, they will finally integrate them either consciously or unconsciously, which will stretch their possibilities for communication. To sum up, as teachers can, and should, improve learners’ speaking skills and communication strategies, the only thing they need to do is to plan their teaching around two main questions: what they want to teach, which specific speaking features they want to develop in their learners; and how they want to do it.

Indonesian

bhs terjemahan Indonesia Ke inggris

Last Update: 2014-12-25
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

goegle terjemahan Abstract Purpose - The greatest competitive challenge facing companies today is said to be embracing change. The business environment is in constant flux and companies must grapple with a host of new realities. This backdrop of change has catalyzed a reassessment of traditional managerial concepts and practices. Aims to trace the evolution of a new management paradigm and identifies its main drivers. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides narrative and analysis. Findings - Assesses the implications of the change in management paradigms for the educational system, highlights needed adjustments in orthodox management education and lingering challenges for management education providers. Originality/value - Provides help in understanding the perspectives of the various business stakeholders that can help academics allocate resources and design programs that cater for the needs of managers in the 21st century. Keywords Change management, Management activities Paper type General review Introduction The dawn of the 21st century has brought with it an unprecedented wave of change. The days of mass production or standardized products appear to be over. The key words for the future are variety, flexibility, and customization. Indeed, a new techno-economic rationale is emerging, with a clear shift towards information intensive rather than energy or material intensive products. Globalization has also brought with it new business opportunities, and a growing global marketplace, where information goods and capital flow freely and customer choice is expanding. Against this backdrop of change, the field of management has suffered some degree of dislocation (Collins, 1996). This dislocation has in turn catalyzed some soul-searching on the part of managers and academicians alike, and a reassessment of traditional managerial concepts and practices. This paper argues that this introspection has resulted in a discernible evolution in traditional theoretical approaches/orientations as well as fundamentally changed organizational practices, to the extent that the changes qualify as a genuine paradigmatic transformation. Noting that a paradigm is a framework of basic assumptions, theories and models that are commonly and strongly accepted and shared within a particular field of activity, at a particular point in time (Mink, 1992; Collins, 1998), this paper synthesizes the main assumptions of what is commonly referred to as the traditional management and identifies the main drivers that facilitated the ascendancy of new paradigm are then addressed. The implications of this paradigm shift for institutions of higher education are in turn assessed to delineate the challenges associated with the evolution of a new management pedagogy in universities. The traditional management paradigm Functional hierarchical line management was the main management paradigm for nearly 200 years. The system was based on the theories of Fayol, Taylor and Weber that viewed the management environment as stable and as such tended to prescribe centralized decision-making processes and hierarchical communication channels (Table I). Organizations were perceived to be rational entities pursuing specific rational goals through their organization into highly formalized, differentiated and efficient structures (Turner and Keegan, 1999; Burnes, 2000; Jaffee, 2001). This mechanistic orientation dominated most businesses in the past and is still commonly encountered especially in the context of developing countries. As shown in Table I, the traditional management paradigm was characterized by its inward focus, with special attention accorded to cutting costs, complying with rules, respecting hierarchy, and dividing labor into simple, specialized jobs. It was narrowly focused on promoting production efficiency and combating waste. Within the spirit of this overarching objective, a range of practices were prescribed and allowed to flourish, including a focus on order giving and control, enforced standardization/cooperation, and authoritarian/disciplinarian approaches to management. This was generally associated with a mechanistic orientation to structural design, emphasizing high specialization, rigid departmentalization, clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, centralization and high formalization (Kreitner, 2002; Robbins and Coulter, 2003). The overriding concern of the traditional paradigm was thus with improving the firm’s productivity, and managing available resources in a static and stable technological environment (Khalil, 2000). Within this context, managers were viewed to be solely accountable for making strategic decisions that all had to embrace and implement (Black and Porter, 2000). They were commonly perceived as watchdogs, police officers and manipulators pertaining to a privileged elite class (Burnes, 2000). Labor was also commonly characterized as unreliable and predisposed to seek the Emphasis on Experimentation, standardization, and the use of diligent scientific observation, time and motion study, systematic worker selection and training and managerial responsibility for monitoring and control A core management process revolving around universal functions (e.g. planning, organizing and controlling) and principles such as division of work, discipline, centralization, order and stability Division of labour, hierarchical authority, formal rules/regulations, and impersonality contributing in turn to efficiency, precision, consistency, subordination, and reduction of friction/personal costs Source: Kreitner (2002); Robbins and Coulter (2003) maximum reward for the minimum effort. Access to information systems and data was therefore tightly controlled as concern about low trust, suspected motives, and fear about confidentiality prevailed (Boyett and Boyett, 2000). Promoting knowledge was also accorded low priority as emphasis on specialization and standardization undermined the need for learning. In such an environment, individuals had a tendency to be inhibited and uncreative, whereby new ideas were dismissed and people were discouraged to take risks, or experiment (Carnall, 2003). The classical management system worked well when markets, products and technologies were slow to change (Turner and Keegan, 1999). Nevertheless, the system’s revealed weaknesses and limitations were gradually exposed with accelerating globalization and technological innovation. Drivers of change A rapidly changing techno-socio-economic environment is presenting new challenges for structuring and managing organizations. Increasing technological complexity and the need to diffuse information and technology within the organizations is proving to be beyond the capacity of the old rigid hierarchal management system. Technological complexity implies the need for higher levels of human knowledge and multi-disciplinary involvement (Bridges, 1996; Boyett and Boyett, 2000). Firms operating in the knowledge economy need to harness growing knowledge, technology and engineering advances and a whole range of new skills and dynamic competencies (Liyanage and Poon, 2002). Knowledge workers on the other hand rightfully perceive the old management system as under-utilizing their expertise and under-estimating their willingness to take initiative and responsibility. New attitudes towards work involve feelings of pride and ownership and employees are becoming more concerned about merit, value, worth, meaning and fulfillment (Stallings, 2000). Customers are also becoming better educated, more enlightened, more sophisticated, more inquisitive and critical - in sum more demanding when it comes to spending (Chapman, 2001). New products are having to be innovative, flexible for customization and of high quality while having a short life cycle in a fickle global market (Turner and Keegan, 1999; Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). On the economic level, the old hierarchal organizations that flourished in a relatively stable market are facing the prospects of a new world order, with permeable geo-political boundaries. The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the proliferation of international standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, allow every company that satisfies the new rules to enter the game. Taken together, these drivers have necessitated a fundamental re-orientation to management, implying that organizations are having to manage in different ways to survive and prosper in the new environment. Some analysts group the different environmental triggers of change into four distinct categories under the acronym PEST (Johnson and Scholes, 1999) or STEP (Goodman, 1995), both of which refer to the political, economic, technological and socio-cultural triggers of change, which have influenced the organizations and their management processes (Figure 1). A new management paradigm Organizations have become increasingly aware that the world has turned on its axis, necessitating a fundamental re-assessment of objectives, operations and management orientation. Therefore the 1980s have witnessed the emergence of a paradigm shift, or to be more accurate the search for new more appropriate paradigms (Collins, 1996; Burnes, 2000). The theories that have most widely affected contemporary management thinking include the behavioral approach, the systems theory, the contingency approach, the culture-excellence approach, and the organizational learning theory, each of which contributed new insights to our understanding of contemporary management processes. The behavioral approach for example turned attention to the human factor in the organization and the importance of group dynamics and complex human motivations. The systems approach alerted managers to the notions of embedded-ness and interdependencies, while the contingency approach underscored adaptability/situational appropriateness. The culture-excellence approach reminded managers to accord more attention to the softer issues of people, values, and employee/customer satisfaction. It also posited innovation as a central driver of excellence in organizations. The organizational learning approach emphasized the usefulness of carefully nurturing and cultivating the capacity to acquire new knowledge and to put it into new applications.  Inspired by these various contributions, traditional management perspectives are being transformed, and the long-held criteria for evaluating organizational and managerial effectiveness are being reinvigorated. While the changes have proved unsettling for many managers and organizations, 21st century corporations are surely charting new grounds where familiar themes and practices are being disrupted and remolded. Business discourse increasingly revolves around intelligence, information and ideas (Handy, 1989) and capitalizing on brainpower and intellectual capital to add value and sustain competitiveness. Management in the 21st century has accordingly taken a new orientation. It is increasingly founded on the ability to cope with constant change and not stability, is organized around networks and not hierarchies, built on shifting partnerships and alliances and not self-sufficiency, and constructed on technological advantage and not bricks and mortar (Carnall, 2003). New organizations are networks of intricately woven webs that are based on virtual integration rather than vertical integration, interdependence rather than independence, and mass customization rather than mass production (Greenwald, 2001). Table II presents the contrasting assumptions of the traditional and new management paradigms. Organizations embracing the new management changes are restructuring their internal processes and management approaches around rapidly changing information and technology. This shift is favoring cellular and matrix organizational structures with fewer layers of management over the old inflexible multi-layered vertical hierarchical organizations (Benveniste, 1994; Cravens et al., 1997). The new management philosophy is also embracing innovation as a key ingredient of success and increased competitiveness (Khalil, 2000; Liyanage and Poon, 2002). This entails developing the creative potential of the organization by fostering new ideas, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm, tapping the innovative potential of employees, and encouraging the proliferation of autonomy and entrepreneurship (Blanchard, 1996; Kuczmarski, 1996; Boyett and Boyett, 2000; Black and Porter, 2000). Modern organizations as such, are making major strides to nurture innovation, positing human knowledge as a key component of their asset base, and creating knowledge bases or repositories to shorten learning curves (Khalil and Wang, 2002; Carnall, 2003). People are treated as the natural resource and capital asset of the organization and the most important source of sustainable competitive advantage. Whereas the traditional paradigm considered labor a commodity to be bought, exploited Table II. Contrasting assumptions of the traditional and new management paradigms Reduction of the direct costs of production as the primary focus of management The operations of an enterprise characterized and analyzed as stable Single critical technology-based product lines with long product lifetimes Managers regarded as decision-makers and labor as passive followers of instruction World markets divided on a national basis, with national firms dominant in domestic markets Source: Adapted from Khalil (2000) Reducing the indirect costs of the enterprise while improving competitiveness Flexible and agile operations and continuous improvement Multi-core technology product lines with shorter product lifetimes Managers regarded as coaches/facilitators and labor as knowledge workers/intellectual capital Global world markets and greater attention to international economic and political structures to exhaustion, and discarded when convenient, a much different orientation currently prevails, requiring the careful nurturing and skillful management of human resources, with a focus on psychological commitment, empowerment, teamwork, trust, and participation. The new management paradigm therefore revolves around teamwork, participation, and learning. It also revolves around improved communication, integration, collaboration, and closer interaction and partnering with customers, suppliers and a wider range of stakeholders. Value creation, quality, responsiveness, agility, innovation, integration and teaming are increasingly regarded as useful guiding principles in the evolving new environment (Table III). Kanter (1989, p. 20) aptly describes the revolution in management practice. She writes: The new game of business requires faster action, more creative maneuvering, more flexibility and closer partnerships with employees and customers than was typical in the traditional corporate bureaucracy. It requires more agile, limber management that pursues opportunity without being bogged down by cumbersome structures or weighty procedures that impede action. Corporate giants, in short, must learn how to dance (Kanter, 1989, p. 20). Against the myriad changes and conflicting expectations, individual managers and executives are being asked to change their approach to running their operations and managing people. The “new” managers we are told must learn to be coaches, team players, facilitators, process managers, human resource executives, visionary leaders, and entrepreneurs (Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). They must also be knowledge-integrating boundary spanners, stimulators of creativity, innovation muses and promoters of learning (Harvey et al., 2002). They must be more bottom-line driven, more innovative, and more focused on the human dynamics of the organization (Chapman, 2001). The 21st century managers are therefore expected to nurture a complex amalgamation of technical, functional, and socio-cultural skills to cope with the new paradigm, that has changed their responsibilities, increased their risks and weakened their control by flattening hierarchy (Nohria and Ghoshal, 1997; Pucik and Saba, 1998; Fish, 1999). They are increasingly conceived as pillars and architects of organizational competitiveness, linking people, opportunities and resources (Chapman, 2001). on the other hand, failing to live up to these expectations may limit the organization’s ability to thrive in an increasingly complex and dynamic environment. While managers search for new approaches to management in an ever-turbulent environment, academics also have to search for new approaches and methodologies. Management education indeed needs to reflect the changing times by overhauling not Value creation Value added constitutes the basic social responsibility of the enterprise Quality Quality as a fundamental requirement influencing competitiveness Responsiveness Responsiveness to external environmental changes and customer demands Agility Flexibility in communications and operations Innovation Fostering new ideas, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm Integration Integration of a portfolio of technologies for a distinctive competitive advantage Teaming Decentralized, multi-functional and multi-disciplinary enterprise teams Source: Adapted from Carnall (2003) only its content and delivery modes, but also its overall approach and orientation (Liyanage and Poon, 2002). Implications for management education In this context of transition and radical change, the field of management education has attracted extensive attention, reflection and criticism. Management education can be described as a formal classroom (off-site) learning experience that attempts to expose managers to new concepts, practices, and situations that can be transferred to the workplace (Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). Formal management education programs may cover a host of specialized topics (e.g. financial management, strategic planning, leadership, negotiation) or may include more comprehensive programs such as certificate granting programs or executive MBA programs. While formal management education is only one way in which managers learn, organizations and individuals often rely on this developmental intervention as a vehicle for improvement (Talbot, 1997). A key question that is increasingly echoed in management education circles concerns the efficacy and relevance of traditional management education. Various criticisms have been raised and doubt has been cast upon the nature, relevance and appropriateness of orthodox management education. Spender (1994, p. 387) for example notes that, “management education ostensibly designed to equip managers to deal with the world seems to have changed little in recent years”. In the US context, Hayes and Abernathy (1980) specifically linked the decline in competitiveness of US industry with the effect of the traditional professional education model on management graduates. Their critique of this model asserted that management graduates learnt analytic detachment over insight, and that methodological rigor prevented them from learning from experience. A similar criticism has been raised in a recent article by Handy (1987), which linked the decline in the UK economy to the increasingly irrelevant management education which many undergraduate students and post experience managers receive. Other criticisms abound. Cheit (1985) for example identified 13 major complaints, which have been made against North American business schools, mostly revolving around emphasizing the wrong pedagogical model, ignoring important work, fostering undesirable attitudes and failing to meet society’s needs. He concluded that graduate business education was not preparing students adequately for the challenges of corporate life. Porter and McKibben (1988) criticized the emphasis in the dominant professional management model on quantitative, analytical and rational ap

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goegmenurut adam smith dalam teorinya hubungan antara majikan dan karyawan adalah hubungan "jual-beli" an sich (tak lebih dan tak kurang). Oleh karenanya, jika upah di sector lain naik maka karyawan berlomba lomba berpindah ke sector terebut. artinya, tidak ada ikatan sama sekali sama sekali antara majikan dan karyawan. hubungannya adalah sebatas pekerjaan sehingga turn over karyawan sangat tinggi. artinya tingkat perputaran (keluar masuk) tenaga kerja sangat tinggi. Berbeda dengan konsep syariah yang menegaskan bahwa para karyawan adalah saudara majikan.Dengan demikian majikan menanggung amanah dari allah untuk bertanggung jawab pada karyawan sehingga tidak ada karyawan yang kelaparan,tidak ada yang telanjang dan tidak akan dieksploitasi . le terjemahan

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CARE International Indonesia and Australia -Nusa Tenggara Assistance for Regional Autonomy (ANTARA) – AusAID cooperated in NEKAF MESE project where this program is support for Economical growth that focus on Agribusiness sector to achieve sustainable business development community based to create a conducive market. CARE International Indonesia is required tree (3) strongly staffs to work at NEKAF MESE project in TTU District, NTT Province as position: MARKETING ASSISTANT (MA) Work under Technical Specialist Market Access (TSMA) Supervision. Marketing Assistant responsible for aspect of marketing management of commodity production target with main responsible as follows: Help TSMA in arrangement, planning, monitoring and to evaluate program implementation marketing and determined an appropriate marketing strategy of project. Help TSMA in designing, composing module and to facilitate capacity building training for staff and farmer and prepared activity report dealing with the training. TO definite implementation marketing program in filed level operated based on purpose and goal project. Collect and analyze supporting data that relevant with marketing program. Help TSMA to build network with stakeholders related to Agribusiness development program. SPECIFIC QUALIFICATION: Sarjana degree with 3 years experience in Marketing. Minimum 2 years experience in sector planning, monitoring and reporting. Have ability to facilitate, excellent interpersonal skills Have proved capacity to develop well cooperate between government and NGO. Have enough comprehension about business condition development in NTT especially West Timor is an additional value. Able to operate computer minimum standard program Good in Bahasa Indonesia and English (is preferred) FIELD OFFICER AGRICULTURE (FOA) Work under Technical Project Officer (TPO) supervision, Field Officer responsible for program implementation field level, daily coordination with local partner and prepared routine report about progress activity to TPO. SPECIFIC QUALIFICATION: Sarjana or Diploma Degree with 3 years experience in Agriculture Sustainable and Community development. Have ability to facilitate, excellent interpersonal skills Have proved capacity to develop well cooperate between government and NGO. Very strong in advocacy gender equal and environment. Have enough comprehension about the region and its culture. Able to communicate in local language (Dawan) is an additional value. Able to operate computer minimum standard program Good in Bahasa Indonesia and English (is an advantage) Term of Offer: This position will be based in Kefa, NTT. CARE is an equal opportunity employer offering a competitive salary and benefits package, and a collegial working environment. Applicants are invited to send a cover letter illustrating their suitability for the above positions, detailed curriculum vitae and Please DO NOT attached academic transcripts and Diplomas (attachments not more than 200KB), with names and addresses of three referees (including telephone, fax numbers and email address). Please clearly stated the applied position in the e-mail subject. Please submit your applications before 3 September 2008 to CARE International Human Resources Unit at: recruit_222@ careind.or. id “Only qualified applicants will be shortlisted” Notes : JobsCDC.com now available on android device. Download now on Google Play here. Please be aware of recruitment fraud. The entire stage of this selection process is free of charge. CARE International will never ask for fees or upfront payments for any purposes during the recruitment process such as transportation and accommodation.

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The Future of No Child Left Behind More than seven years ago, President George W. Bush signed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) into law. Sweeping calls for testing, intervening in persistently low-performing schools, and policing teacher quality made it the most ambitious legislation on K–12 schooling in American history. The law, due for congressional reauthorization in 2007, still awaits legislative action. This spring, the Hoover Institution’s Koret Task Force issued 10 recommendations to guide reauthorization. In this forum, lead author of Learning from No Child Left Behind, EdisonLearning’s John Chubb, and education historian and task force member Diane Ravitch, who declined to sign the recommendations, weigh in on the future of the law. EDUCATION NEXT: Is NCLB working? Should it be reauthorized? Diane Ravitch: It is time to pull the plug on No Child Left Behind. It has had adequate time to prove itself. It has failed. After seven years of trying, there is no reason to believe that the results of NCLB will get dramatically better. Now is the time for fundamental rethinking of the federal role in education. NCLB has produced meager gains in achievement. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assesses student achievement in reading and mathematics every other year. Despite the intense concentration on reading and mathematics required by the law, the gains registered on NAEP since the enactment of NCLB have been unimpressive. In 4th-grade reading, the gains after implementation of NCLB, from 2003 to 2007, were small (three points) and exactly the same as the gains from1998 to 2003. Fourth graders in the bottom10th percentile of performance had a five-point gain after NCLB, but this did not compare to the 10-point jump in their scores from 2000 to 2002 pre-NCLB (see Figure 1). In 8th-grade reading, there were essentially no gains from 1998 to 2007. Student performance was a flat line both before and after NCLB. Mathematics was tested in 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2007. The gains preceding the adoption of NCLB were larger than those posted after NCLB. From 2000 to 2003, 4 th grade students recorded a nine-point gain in mathematics, compared to a gain of only five points from2003 to 2007. Among 4th-grade students in the lowest decile, there was an astonishing 13-point gain from 2000 to 2003 pre-NCLB; the same group saw a gain of only five points from 2003 to 2007. The same deceleration of student improvement was seen at all performance levels, from top to bottom. In 8th-grade mathematics, gains also slowed after the passage of NCLB. Eighth graders saw a five-point gain from 2000 to 2003, but only a three-point gain from 2003 to 2007. John Chubb: NCLB will and should be reauthorized. Absolutely, student achievement has grown much more rapidly in the last decade—the NCLB era—than during the 1990s, especially for the lowest achieving and most-disadvantaged students in the nation. Achievement is what NCLB is all about, so the law has met its most basic test. This is recognized by even the law’s critics which is why the only discussion in Washington is how to mend the law. The Obama administration recognizes that No Child Left Behind aims to help the federal government perform its most important education function: improving the education of students in greatest need. The new president is supported in this view by a bipartisan majority in Congress, which has worked for many years to ensure that poor kids get the help they require. The education needs that NCLB addresses are not going away, nor is the need for funding. Indeed, the economic stimulus bill passed in February increased funding for NCLB by 80 percent, and these provisions of the massive and controversial bill met no objections. Over half of poor and minority students have reading and math skills far below grade level, whether measured by the tough performance standards of the NAEP or by the standards of the various states. Dropout rates, measured accurately only since NCLB made them part of Title I accountability, hover around 50 percent in many major cities. NCLB is based on sound principles and should with time improve the achievement of all American children, especially economically disadvantaged and racial minorities. There is empirical evidence these principles are working. The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation recently completed an analysis of the top and bottom 10 percent of all students tested by NAEP. It found that the bottom 10 percent had gained far more than the national average since 2000 in math and reading, more than a full grade level in math. The top 10 percent had gained as well, providing no evidence that schools were ignoring the best students while focusing on the kids below proficient and subject to NCLB sanctions. Both groups of students had also gained more since 2000 than they had during the 1990s. The federal government’s own comprehensive analysis of Title I, mandated by Congress, conducted by RAND among others, and published in 2007 after several years of NCLB experience, found the largest academic gains since 2000 and 2003 among students in high-poverty schools. To be clear, the evidence in total is early, and the research is incomplete. But there is no question that American kids, especially the most disadvantaged, are making progress. It is absolutely mistaken to suggest, that NAEP changes pre- and post-2003 are evidence that NCLB has been counterproductive. Disadvantaged kids are achieving far more today than ever before, and those gains are attributable to higher standards and tougher accountability that began in the states in the 1990s and accelerated with NCLB. EN: What are the strengths and weaknesses of the NCLB approach to assessment? DR: Educators and the public are getting wise to the uselessness of the testing regime that has been foisted upon them. A year ago, North Carolina’s Blue Ribbon Commission on Testing and Accountability issued a report recommending a sharp reduction in the number of tests that the state required. The chairman of the commission, Sam Houston, said, “We’re testing more but we’re not seeing the results. We’re not seeing graduation rates increasing. We’re not seeing remediation rates decreasing. Somewhere along the way testing isn’t aligning with excellence.” NCLB may in reality be dumbing down our children by focusing the attention of teachers and administrators solely on basic skills. Our students are not being prepared to compete with students from high-performing nations in the world. Many are not getting an education based on a coherent, content-rich curriculum in history, geography, the arts, science, foreign languages, and literature. They are not getting a good education. They are getting thin gruel. If we want a future workforce that is smart, creative, independent, and resourceful, we are not educating to get what we want. JC: Perhaps the single greatest virtue of NCLB’s approach to assessment and accountability is that it shines a bright light on student performance, as measured against explicit standards of proficiency. The nation finally knows which schools are raising proficiency in reading and math and which are not. Before NCLB, such information was spotty at best. A weakness, however, is that the bright light does not shine on all subjects that matter for kids and their future. The education the nation values is one that is rich in content. NCLB has unwittingly and unfortunately encouraged schools to focus instruction inordinately on reading and math, the subjects that NCLB requires be tested annually and to which it has attached the tough accountability regime. Students, however, need also to understand science, history, geography, civics, and more if they are to succeed in a 21st-century world of intense international competition and technological sophistication. NCLB already requires science testing once each in grades 3–5, 6–9, and 10–12. This requirement should be extended to include three tests of social science, defined as U.S. history, world history, geography, and civics. The law should further specify that the science and social science assessments be cumulative and comprehensive, and not focused just on the content taught during the tested grade level. NCLB should require that scores be posted on state and district web sites and included in school report cards. State scores should be benchmarked against NAEP, to encourage high standards. But science and social science should not be part of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP); the process of assessing and exposing performance should be ample to promote attention to these fields. EN: How should proficiency be defined and measured? DR: The federal demand that all students will be proficient by 2014 has led states to embrace a very loose definition of proficiency. Most states are now using NAEP’s “basic” achievement level as their definition of proficiency because NAEP’s “proficient” level is far beyond their reach. But many states go even lower than NAEP basic for their definition of proficiency. Tennessee, for example, says that 90 percent of its 4th-grade students are proficient in reading, while NAEP says that only 26 percent are. Only 61 percent of students in Tennessee are at basic or above, according to NAEP. Similarly, North Carolina tells the public that 86 percent of its 4th graders are reading proficiently, but NAEP says only 28 percent are (and 36 percent score “below basic”). These states and many others make inflated claims to satisfy NCLB’s ridiculous requirements. JC: There is much room for improvement in how proficiency is defined and measured by NCLB—and we have practical suggestions for improving both. But the fundamental principles that NCLB advances represent a huge step forward for the nation. NCLB asks the nation to define what all students should know and be able to do in reading and math, and then measures progress toward these performance standards. This is a boldly democratic and egalitarian expectation and the very first time that the nation has asked its schools to perform at an explicit level. We should proudly defend these principles. On a practical level, “proficiency” should describe the knowledge and skills necessary to be “college and career ready” in the 21 st century. Proficiency should capture the “common core” of competencies deemed necessary for all students to have a chance at success after high school. NCLB should authorize the U.S. Department of Education to fund—after a competitive bidding process—up to three multistate consortia to develop standards, tests, and performance levels that support the overarching goal of college and career readiness. With federal funding, states will buy into one of the systems of national standards and tests, saving the huge expense of developing new standards alone. NCLB could, through these recommendations, give the nation standards both achievable and worth achieving, while preserving the rights of the states to determine what “national” standards should be. EN: Are the law’s “remedy” provisions—including public school choice and supplemental educational services—working? DR: The remedies the law prescribes—choice and tutoring—have proven to be ineffective. Less than 5 percent (and by some estimates, as low as 1 percent) of eligible students choose to leave their “failing” school to transfer to a school that made AYP. Some say it is because the students and families did not get adequate notice, but more likely students are not choosing to leave for other reasons. In many suburban and rural school districts, there may be no other school to transfer to. But perhaps more important, most students will not leave their school even if there is another school that is presumably better, by NCLB’s definition, and that is accessible. That is because most students are not in the group that is failing to make progress, and if they like their school, they don’t want to be separated from their friends. The law assumes that the schools are bubbling over with discontented kids who are eager to escape, but that assumption is probably wrong. Or at least there is no evidence for it based on the lack of response to the choice provisions of NCLB. We have long known from polling data that the public is concerned about the quality of American education, but most parents are satisfied with their own children’s school. The failure of choice in NCLB reminds us of that consistent finding. The other remedy in NCLB for failure to make AYP is tutoring, and that too has proved to be ineffective, though it has turned into a half-billion-dollar bonanza for tutoring companies. Evaluations in several states, including Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Michigan, and Kentucky, have reported that students who received tutoring did no better on state tests than their peers who did not receive tutoring. Only about 15 percent of eligible students have signed up for tutoring. Even when tutoring is free, conducted after school, and provided in a convenient location (sometimes in their own school building), most students don’t want it. Maybe it conflicts with their afterschool jobs or their sports or other commitments. Maybe they just don’t want to study for an additional hour or two when the school day is done. We need to know more about why 85 percent of eligible students avoid tutoring. We need to know why most eligible students are not showing up to be tutored, and why those who do show up are gaining so little from it. JC: We know from ample research that choice can boost the achievement of students who avail themselves of it. We also know that tutoring is an effective means of remediating achievement deficits. RAND recently affirmed the effectiveness of SES tutoring in a well-controlled study. But choice and tutoring are not working nearly as well as they could in NCLB. This has nothing to do with the ideas of choice and tutoring but rather with the way NCLB provides for them. Students in failing schools simply do not have enough choices. The law currently limits choice to schools not in improvement status, which often eliminates all nearby options. NCLB should increase the choices available by permitting families to judge school shortcomings for themselves. A school failing a single subgroup or barely missing AYP, for example, might be a better choice for a student in a school that is failing badly. Yet today those choices are not available. NCLB should offer additional charter school start-up grants in any school district where failure is rampant, such as a district not making AYP. Students should be able to choose schools in neighboring school districts, subject to district approval. And private schools should be eligible to receive choice students, provided those schools charge no extra tuition and participate in the state testing program. Students in failing schools should also have greater access to tutoring, sooner. There is no more effective way to help students who are struggling than to get them extra, focused, individualized attention. Yet only 20 percent of students eligible for tutoring under NCLB are receiving services, and the services often fall short of the quality offered in the private marketplace. This should be remedied. First, make Supplemental Educational Services (SES) available as soon as schools are declared in need of improvement, the same time as school choice is offered. Second, ensure that students have access to the best possible tutors. Grant districts the right to provide SES, even if the district is failing to make AYP, but also require districts to provide a fair and competitive marketplace for all providers. Whatever access the district itself has to families, students, and facilities, it must also provide to private tutors—or the district loses the right to be a provider. To reinforce these measures, NCLB should require states to provide information on eligible students to approved providers. The states should be required to collect and post comparative information on the effectiveness of all tutors. EN: Are NCLB’s sanctions for persistently failing schools effective? Are they fair? DR: The law’s punitive sanctions are ineffective. By year six of failing, the schools may be turned into charter schools, taken over by the state or private management, closed, or restructured (e.g., replacing the entire staff). None of these sanctions had a research basis to justify its inclusion in the law. They were hopes or hunches, based on ideology, not evidence. Most states and districts choose the least onerous of the sanctions, which is restructuring. According to a 2008 report from the Center on Education Policy, restructuring itself needs to be restructured because there is no sure-fire way to turn around a chronically low-performing school. The federal Institute of Education Sciences recently published a research summary on how to achieve this admirable goal, but not one of its four recommended strategies was supported by evidence. JC: Currently, NCLB’s escalating sanctions apply identically to schools that have failed massively and to schools that barely miss. This is a big mistake—but one that is easily fixed. NCLB should differentiate school improvement needs. Over time we expect more and more schools to succeed with the majority of their students, but to struggle with certain extra-needy subgroups. It is vital, as the nation expects increasing percentages of students to achieve proficiency, that we identify schools accurately for their performance. The Department of Education has approved nine states’ requests to implement “differentiated accountability” plans. NCLB should build on this good work and institutionalize a simpler system for all states. Schools should be placed into one of two categories of “needs improvement.” “Limited” improvement is for schools whose shortcomings involve less than one-third of the student body. Limited improvement would offer students in year one of their school’s acquiring improvement status (two years of missing AYP) choice of another school and SES. If schools remain in limited improvement status, NCLB would require, in year four of improvement, that states develop with schools “limited corrective action plans.” Schools with limited improvement status should not face restructuring; states should have the flexibility to work with schools with limited problems as they see fit. “Schoolwide” improvement is for schools that miss new AYP growth targets for all students or for subgroups that total more than one-third of school enrollment. Schoolwide improvement would require schools to proceed through restructuring, but NLCB should be revised to include only three means to restructure: First, a school may be reorganized as a charter school, giving it new governance. Second, the school’s management can be contracted out to an independent school management company, changing day-to-day control of the school. Finally, a school may be closed and reopened with 100 percent of the teaching staff and administration replaced. Each of these measures ensures a new day for the school and its students. EN: Is NCLB’s goal of universal proficiency by 2014 one that should remain in a reauthorization of the law? DR: The demand that all students be proficient by 2014 is absurd. This laudable goal has never been reached by any other nation or by any state. The only way it can be met is by defining “proficiency” to mean minimal literacy and numeracy. Meanwhile, the expectation that all schools will achieve this goal has created a trajectory of failure that guarantees a steady increase in the number of schools that are stigmatized for not making adequate yearly progress. In the 2007–08 school year, nearly 30,000 schools—or 35 percent of all public schools—joined tha

Indonesian

Jangan menyalahkan waktu , tapi salahkan kebodohan kita

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Bandung, April 3th 2013 Attention To: Human Resource Department PT. PLN (Persero) Dear Sir/Madam, On this good opportunity, I would like to apply as your employee. My name is Pria Fauzi Pelita Komara, 22 years old, male, single and healthy. I am Electro Enginer/Telecommunication Engineer from POLBAN (Politeknik Negeri Bandung). My GPA is 3.00. I have five months experience as a Document Control and Survey Team with PT. GCI Indonesia (JIESAI). I am looking for new challenges for the requirement Teknik Elektro Arus Lemah/Kendali/Instrumentasi (D3/ALE) posistion sounds the perfect opportunity. I enclose my Curriculum Vitae for your inspection and look forward to hearing from you soon. I am available for interview at your convenience. Sincerely, Pria Fauzi Pelita Komara

Indonesian

apakah

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Fights, or often called brawl, frequent among students. In fact it is "only" between high school students, but also has already hit up to the campuses. Some say that fighting is normal in adolescents. In big cities like Jakarta, Surabaya, and Medan, the brawl is often the case. Data in Jakarta for example (Bimmas Police Metro Jaya), in 1992 recorded 157 cases of student fights. Year 1994 increased to 183 cases with killing 10 students, in 1995 there were 194 cases with the victim died 13 students and 2 community members other. In 1998 there are 230 cases that killed 15 students and 2 members of the Police, and the following year casualties increased with 37 people killed. Seen from year to year the number of fights and the victims tend to increase. Even the often recorded in a single day there are up to three fights in three places at once. Impact of student fights It is clear that this student fights hurt many parties. There are at least four categories of negative impacts from Student fights. First, students (and families) involved fights itself clearly having a negative impact first when injured or even killed.Second, damage to public facilities such as buses, bus stops and facilities others, as well as private facilities such as glass shops and vehicles. Third, disruption of the learning process at school. Finally, is perhaps the most feared of educators, student awards were reduced to tolerance, peace and values of other people's lives. Students learned that violence is the most effective way to solve their problems, and therefore choose to do anything for the goal is reached. Consequences This last obviously has long term consequences to the viability of a society in Indonesia. Overview of the causes of student brawl Often alleged, students who fight came from vocational schools, come from families with economic weak. Data in Jakarta do not support this. Of the 275 schools which often involved fights, 77 of whom are high school. So is the economic level, which indicates there are some students who often capable of fighting comes from a family economically. More charges are also often addressed to the school were deemed less provide religious education and good morals. So did the family said to be less harmonious and often not at home. Though the causes of student fights are not that simple. Especially in large cities, the problem in such a complex, including factors sociological, cultural, psychological, and educational policy in the broad sense (solid curriculum for example), as well as other public policies such as public transportation and city planning. Psychologically, a fight involving a teenage student is classified as a form of delinquency adolescent (juvenile deliquency). Juvenile delinquency, in terms of fights, can be classified into 2 types of delinquency the situational and systematic. In situational delinquency, fights occur because of the situation "Require" them to fight. The requirement that usually arises due to the need to solve problems quickly. While the delinquency of systematic, the teens involved in the fight a particular organization or a gang. Here there are rules, norms and habits that should be followed by its members, including fighting. As a member, if they are proud to do what is expected by the group. Review the causes of adolescent psychology students getting into fights In the view of psychology, each behavior is an interaction between the tendencies within the individual (often called personality, though not always accurate) and external conditions. Similarly, in terms of student fights. When described, there are at least 4 psychological factors why a teen student getting into fights. Internal factors. Teenagers are getting into fights are usually less able to adapt to the environmental situation complex. Complex here means the diversity of views, cultures, economic levels, and all stimuli from the environment are increasingly diverse and many. This situation usually raises the pressure on every person. But the teenagers getting into fights, they are less able to cope, let alone exploit the situation for his development. They are usually easy to despair, rapid escape from problem, blame someone / other party in every case, and chose to use the simplest way to solve the problem. In adolescents who often fought, it was found that they experience inner conflict, it is easy frustration, have labile emotions, are not sensitive to the feelings of others, and have a low sense of self strong. They are usually in desperate need of recognition. Family factors. Households that filled with violence (either between the parents or the child) had an obvious effect in children. Son, when increased adolescent, learning that violence is a part of himself, so that is something natural that he too violent. Conversely, parents who are too protect her child, while teenagers will grow as individuals who are not independent and does not dare to develop a unique identity. So join with his friends, he will hand over destiny is totally against the group as part of identity he built. School factors. First school is not viewed as an institution should educate students to be something. But schools must first be judged by the quality of teaching. Therefore, the school environment not stimulate students to learn (such as a monotonous atmosphere of the class, the rules that are not relevant to teaching, lack of lab facilities, etc..) will cause more students to enjoy doing outdoor activities school with her friends. Only after the issue of education, where teachers most certainly played a role important. Unfortunately teachers act more as a punishment and implementing rules, as well as authoritarian figures who actually also use violence (though in different form) in "educating" their students. Environmental factors. Environment between home and school everyday natural teens, also had an impact against the emergence of a fight. For example, a narrow home environment and slums, and members of environmental behaving badly (eg drugs). Similarly, public transportation is often menomor-sekiankan student. Also urban environment (can the state) that violent. Overall it can stimulate the youth to learn something from the environment, and then the emotional reaction to the growing support for the emergence of behavior fight.

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“Paradigm of Humanistic, Behavior, and Transpersonal Psychotherapy” Abstract The paradigm shift in psychological studies from the Humanistic, Freudain and Behaviouristic psychotherapies has brought us to yet another psychological paradigm (transpersonal) that is based on spirituality as a process of human guidance and counselling. This paradigm is aimed at handling the psychological problems beyond the physical entities, but going down to the spiritual nature of man. The spiritual nature of man from the Islamic perspective is the consciousness of Allah's will and power in therapy which is lacking in the contemporary transpersonal approach. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss the denotational implications, the scope and the shortfalls of the contemporary transpersonal psychotherapy. This is with the view to offering the Islamic process of psychotherapy based on the concept of Tauheed. By way of development, the relic of historical facts would be used to show the effectiveness of Islamic paradigm of psychotherapy so as to guide the Muslims from the aqidah contamination entails by the transpersonal approach. In summation, the paper would provide an Islamic model of transpersonal psychotherapy for the use of Muslims in their psychological practices. Introduction The concern of psychology is the manipulation of the variables and processes involved in motivation, development and modification of human behaviour. In pursuance of this need modern psychological theories are founded to serve as guide for human psychoses. The formulations of these theories according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) are based on cultural and geographical limitations as they emerged over time to address the needs of the people of different social contexts1. With the variations in perception, environment, and the passage of time the discipline of psychology undergoes different transformations based on three well-known paradigmatic forces of Behaviouristic, Freudian and Humanistic psychology. These transformations reveal the psychological concern for soul, psyche (conscious and unconscious state of man), mental processes, feelings and sensations underlying human behaviour2. Maslow (1968) considered the humanistic third force psychology to be a transitional preparation for a still 'higher' fourth paradigmatic force of psychology, ie. transpersonal psychology. This is based on the observation of Maslow (1970) that human beings who are wonderful out of their own human and biological nature necessitate the need for another paradigm for a more complete understanding of psychoses and the effective treatment. As a result of the variation in human social groups, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) emphasize the need for a psychological approach that will serve the spiritual needs of man (spiritual). Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) see the proposed spiritual dimension as a universal aspect of human nature. As such, its need cannot be under-emphasized. According to them, to remain relevant in a postmodern world, psychologists must incorporate the comprehensive perspective of transpersonal theory into education and practice. From the views of Cowley and Derezotes (1994), Maslow (1968) and (1970) and Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) the development of the contemporary psychological theories until the introduction of transpersonal psychology has been centred on either the overt, external and material variables or the internal, covert and hidden variables in man. Although the present efforts being made by transpersonal psychologists have made a small shift, but the shift is only geared towards spirituality that is devoid of religion (Islam) which is unsatisfactory from the Islamic point of view. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss and introduce the Islamic framework of psychotherapy which satisfies the Islamic expectations that is based on aqidah. Transpersonal Psychotherapy Literally the word transpersonal according to Wittine (1987) denotes beyond or through the "mask". While technically Cowley and Derezotes (1994) defined the term as going beyond the personal level. The implication of the their definitions entails the application of the concept as a process of treating human behaviour outside the context of physical entities. To them psychotherapy should be based on the natural energy3 that drives the entire human endeavours (spiritual). This is a psychological treatment that addresses the spiritual dimension of human existence to the psychological process. The paradigm which according to Valle (1989) calls us through and beyond our more familiar level of ego awareness to a critical examination of the very ground from which our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions emerge as forms or manifestations. Cowley and Derezotes (1994) perceive it as an essential aspect of being that is existentially subjective, transrational, non-local and non- temporal. Transpersonal psychotherapy according to Maslow (1971) evolves in response to the need of broader context for understanding what it means to be fully human and to assess the farther reaches of human nature. This is a spiritual therapy that is an integral part or an essential universal need of human nature (Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990). Transpersonal psychotherapeutic tradition is perceived by Nasr (1975) as a tradition of treatment which comes from the spirit (confidence in Allah) and not the psyche that can be the source of ethics of aesthetics. It is an approach that believes in the need for meaning for higher values and for spiritual life which are as real as biological or social needs (Keen, 1974). This task according to Huxley (1968) involved a start from new premises, such as the premise that the most ultimate satisfaction comes from a depth and wholeness of the inner life, and therefore that we must explore and make fully available the techniques of spiritual development. Furthermore, the need for the fourth force according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) is the desire to remain relevant in the highly sophisticated postmodern world to cater for educational and psychotherapeutic practices. The realization of the need for more comprehensive system that could cover the general need of man in the greatest depth of awareness has led to the development of transpersonal psychology as the fourth force of the psychological paradigm. Based on the above needs, the transpersonal psychologists have tried to evolve techniques that are quite relevant to the present "illness" in man. This "illness" in man of our time is linked to a deficit of values and these values are spiritual in nature (concern for Allah as the source of cure). Although, Toynbee (1995) sees this approach as human degradation and the sickness of modern society who sought solutions through programmes based on religious practices (faith in Allah). But the essence of spirituality is to guide and influence the behaviour of man so as to establish a spiritually guided community which believes in Allah for cure. Grof (1988) and Hartman (1990) believe that much of the transpersonal ideas focus on the need for a reconnection of the human families to establish a global community or communion. Concurrently, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) observe that, the overall goal for transpersonal ideas is to facilitate the development of the spiritual dimension of higher states of "consciousness" within individuals, organizations, communities and cultures. As such the aim of transpersonal psychology is to shift from the traditional secular western position of self-actualization to the spiritually-based process. Spiritual Limitation of the Transpersonal Psychotherapy Although transpersonal approach has been able to create a space for spirituality in psychology, it is still questionable on how relevant and how applicable is it to human societies? Have the propounded ideas within the transpersonal approach covers all aspects of spirituality? To answer these questions, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) note that in aspiring to work with the transpersonal or spiritual dimension, it is crucial that the client system and social worker come to a common understanding or shared meaning about the term spiritual as used in transpersonal theory. Not as contained by the theological walls of any specific ideology system, spirituality in transpersonal theory is not considered as equivalent to religion. In support of this Bloomfield (1980) states that the use of the word "spiritual" is neither a statement nor a belief per se. It is therefore an energy and life force that is innate in all living matter driving to perfect itself. Houston (1988) uses the term entelechy to describe this essential urge of human nature to realize its inner potential. Thus, according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) the development of the spiritual and morapol;l dimensions forms the basis for spiritual maturity or higher states of consciousness. The individual manifests this maturity through increased social and self-responsibilities, which will benefit all in a given psychosocial environment. The scope emphasizes by transpersonal psychology has put the Muslims out of the maximum utilization of transpersonal paradigm because to the Muslims human existence must revolve around religion which is divine by origin. The divine nature entails the faith (Iman) as the epitome of psychotherapeutic treatment as implicated by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun (sickness of the mind). In this sense transpersonal psychotherapy from the Muslims, point of view could hardly be separated from religion. This is in line with the assertion of Nasr (1975) that God has placed religion in the world to enable man to overcome his complexes. The human therapeutic complexes could be of any kind ranging from psychological, social and biological to spiritual. For a successful therapy, divine spirituality that is based on the revealed guidance is the answer. Thus, the absence of religion in transpersonal approach seems to only summarize the ideas and practices entail by the earlier paradigms or they are going toward witch-crafting which is totally at variance with aqidah. In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively could only be realized by resorting to divine knowledge and ethical values. The Expected Spiritual Scope of Transpersonal Psychotherapy There is no doubt that transpersonal approach has created a space for spirituality in the formal conventional psychological theories. Yet the inclusion of the spiritual aspect to the psychological theories as contained in the transpersonal psychology is not enough for the general reference to the Muslims. This is because to them (Muslims) spirituality is an element of religion (Islam) that is directed by the knowledge contained in the Quran which are general guide for human existence. As such it is only the spiritual that is based on divine guidance that is paramount and total, and which precisely because of its totality embraces the psychic and even the corporeal aspects of man. (Nasr, 1975). In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively are realized by means of divine knowledge and ethical values. Hence, knowledge and ethics are linked (Hanafi, 1996). On the contrary the transpersonal psychologists see spirituality as an entity devoid of religion (divine guidance). Even to some non-Muslim psychologists this position is baseless as Koltko and Mark (1998) observe that it is a contradiction to think one can develop a psychology by leaping across the person from a point of view which goes beyond religion. In his quest for religious consideration in the transpersonal paradigm, Denton (1990) asserts that, to make it (transpersonal psychology) a complete spiritual approach, religious approach is inevitable because the religious and spiritual concerns provide the prime motive for all social works4. Based on this the development of religious spirituality should be an extension of the present form of transpersonal process of psychotherapy. Koltko and Mark (1998) note that transpersonal psychology represents an extension of psychology (spiritual) that leads to what it really means to be a human being and marks the beginning of a psychological analysis that recognizes the natural status of man. As such some transpersonal psychologists have surfaced in the direction different from the earlier transpersonal paradigm as observed by Sollod (1992) that, a social work curriculum that deletes or omits the content related to the spiritual dimension may be called "Hollow". For the success of psychotherapeutic practices Weick (1992) so aptly observed that, when artistic practice joins with value commitment (religion), social work can indeed be a force in the society. The idea here is the connection between the psychotherapeutic process and the religiously inclined spiritual value of human nature that makes the therapeutic endeavours more effective. The confirmation of this could be perceived from the work of Anthony et. al, (1987) that, for the individual with a genuine hunger for truth, reality, spirit, soul, self, God Oneness, freedom, being and meaning, the task of choosing among these offerings is intricate and subtle and not without the element of peril discriminations. Contrary to the concept of "neutral spirituality" maintained by transpersonal perspective, religious spirituality is therefore of paramount importance. Although, it is inevitable to acknowledge the efforts of transpersonal psychologists in evolving theories based on spiritual values, yet these efforts are unsatisfactory to the Muslims because they do not include divine faith in their theories. As such an attempt is made in this paper to provide another transpersonal framework that would be useful to the Muslims. Islamic Approach to Transpersonal Psychotherapy From the Islamic point of view spiritual approach to psychotherapy is an aspect of behaviour modification that is based on the relationship between man and his Creator (Allah) which entails an operational paradigm in which faith (Iman) in Allah is the focal point. Iman is both a cognitive and ethical constructs that gather all data and facts in the perspective which is proper to and requisite for a true understanding of the therapeutic processes. It is the consciousness of Allah's existence and the conviction in service (Iman) that serve as the beginning of therapy to remove mental sickness (maradhun) in man. This is rightly pointed out by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun as implicated by the verse below. "Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek" (Quran, 1:5) The implication of the above verse is the recognition of Allah as the Creator. Having faith in Him is a matter of conviction which by extension leads a man to realistic services as a created organism in need of His help and bounties. In support of this point, a Professor of Botany5 in his alternative cure for cancer emphasizes ones commitments to his religion and faith in his God as the foundation of treatment. The divine knowledge in man leads him to realization which is faith. From this conviction then comes the consciousness leading to purification of the body and soul. This is channelled through devotion. The attainment of this level is the therapy in man. For the success of Islamic psychotherapy, the internal and external components of man must be purified. When this is accomplished the Ruh, the Qalb and Nafs as the fountainhead of vitality could be transformed into sources of psychodynamics explaining the human behaviour (Daud, 1996). The internal purification referred to above entails one's realization of the power of Allah and confidence in Him, while the external purification on the other hand is the appreciation of Allah's Law of observing the Halal (lawful) and Haram (unlawful) conducts. The essence of purification of the Ruh, the Qalb and the Nafs according to Sabeena (1996) is to bring one's Nafs under control and channelling it to the right direction because; "Successful is the one who keeps it pure, and ruined is the one who corrupts it" (Quran, 91:9-10) When the Nafs is purified one would be in observance of the recommended (halal) acts which is the foundation of spiritual therapy and morality in Islam. The premise of faith is that servanthood and the fulfilment of its obligation is a prerequisite for the well-being of man in his individual and societal lives. One's successful engagement in the worship of Allah paves the way for His assistance (therapy) as contained in the verse quoted earlier from Suratul Fatiha. For the treatment of psychoses the spiritual issues of Allah's power, will and ability, the consequences of the day of judgement, the agony of the hellfire and the joys of paradise are some of the Islamic variables of transpersonal psychotherapy. The Effectiveness of Islamic Psychotherapy As earlier on discussed, psychotherapy in Islam is the conviction and servitude to Allah the creator that paves the way for His assistance (therapy). Good mental and spiritual health of the individual is a by product of a natural balance within the individual and the practice of social and religious obligations that are based on the three aspects of psychotherapy as noted by Shah (1996) that, (a) Analysis of the Nafs (b) Reformative process, and (c) Socio-religious reintegration of the individual. According to him psychotherapy from the Islamic point of view revolves around these three aspects. The revelation, application and implication of the chapters of An-Nas (Mankind) and Al-Falaq (Daybreak) in the Quran are some of the clear examples of psychotherapy in Islam that is purely a psycho-spiritual treatment for human psychoses. For the purpose of spiritual guidance and solution to therapeutic problems, Islam prescribes some transpersonal modalities in the conduct of all affairs. For example to prevent the problems arising from the Jinns Muslims are required to recite psychotic antidotes before going into the toilet. Apart from the anti psychotic prescriptions there are many historical episodes in which the Islamic modes of conduct serve to be psychotherapeutic. A clear example could be seen from the following narration found in the address delivered to the King of Abyssinia by Jafar, as narrated by Sheikhulhadith (1978), p.19, that: "O King! We were ignorant people. We worshipped stones. We used to eat carrion and commit all sort of undesirable and disgraceful acts. We did not make good our obligations to our relatives. The strong among us thrived at the expense of the weak....... (But when faith that is Allah's consciousness was inserted into their hearts) . . . . . We, were exhorted to give up idolatry and stone worship. We were enjoined right conduct and forbidden any act of indecency. We were taught to tell the truth, to make good our trust, to have regard for our Kith and Kin, and to be good to our neighbours.... and to shun everything foul and to avoid bloodshed, adultery, lewdness, telling of lies, misappropriating the orphan's heritage, bringing false accusations against others and all other indecent things of that sort....". The above statements made by Jafar revealed the psychotic mind and behaviours of the 'Jahiliyyah' period which was the era of the 3W (Wine, Women and War). The time when the consumption of wine was part of the human survival. The era when a woman can have as many husbands as she desires. Likewise a man can have as many wives as he desires. It was also the attitude of the Jahiliyya people that war between tribes and towns was a matter of pride. These undesired behaviours have been changed to noble behaviours through faith which shows that fear of Allah is the foundation of good human behaviour and the most effective therapy. The historical narration below

Indonesian

aku hanya lelaki bodoh yang sedang jatuh cinta kepada.. wanita secantik kamu.... jauh dari harapan di cintai atau mencintai itu sama aja

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