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English

peacock is the national bird of india

Kannada

naveelu

Last Update: 2016-10-24
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English

The peacock is the most beautiful of all the birds. it is to love it to look at it. It is the national bird of our country.

Kannada

ಹಕ್ಕಿ naveelu ಮೇಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2016-07-05
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The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /ˈɪsroʊ/) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration."[3] Formed in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) established in 1962 by the efforts of independent India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and scientist Vikram Sarabhai. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space activities in India.[4] It is managed by the Department of Space, which reports to the Prime Minister of India. ISRO built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. It was named after the Mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.[5][6] ISRO sent a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and a Mars orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission, on 5 November 2013, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its first attempt to Mars, and ISRO the fourth space agency in the world as well as the first space agency in Asia to reach Mars orbit.[7] On 18 June 2016 ISRO set a record with a launch of 20 satellites in a single payload, one being a satellite from Google.[8] On 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37) and created a world record.[9][10] ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this launch, ISRO became capable of launching 4 ton heavy satellites.

Kannada

ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಐರೋಪ್ಯ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2018-07-31
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National Festivals of India The national festivals in any country are cherished as auspicious days. Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti are celebrated as National festivals of India. All the three National holidays are “independence” centric as they are connected to India’s freedom from British rule. Every year, the Indian government celebrates the national holidays with complete preparations. If you visit India Gate or Red Fort on Independence Day, you will find parades, bike stunts and other interesting and engrossing activities by Indian Army. Also, you will be able to listen to the Prime Minister’s speech. This simple information might already be known to you and therefore, we will discuss even more relevant facts about our National Festivals in the following lines. Republic Day Republic Day is celebrated every year on 26th January. And we all know that the Indian constitution, which was drafted by Dr. B.R Ambedkar, came into effect on this day. A few interesting facts related to 26th January (Republic Day) are mentioned below. 1.Republic day marks the day on which our constitution came into effect, replacing the Government of India Act (1935). 2.Every year head of state of a country is invited to celebrate Republic day. 3.President Sukarno of Indonesia was the first chief guest who attended the republic day celebration. Barack Obama was the first American president to become chief guest at the Independence Day. 4.Indian constitution which was enforced on 26th January is the longest constitution in the world with 448 articles, 12 schedules and 98 amendments. Independence Day The British House of Commons passed the Indian Independence Act on 15th June 1947. India gained its independence on this day. A few facts related to 15th of August are given below. 1.Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India on August 15, 1947 and the national flag was raised above Lahori gate in Red Fort. 2.Each year on this day Indian Prime Minister delivers a speech and raises the national flag. 3.August 15 is also the Independence Day for South Korea. Gandhi Jayanti Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated every year on 2nd October to mark the birthday of our Father of the Nation (Mahatma Gandhi). Everybody knows that Mahatma Gandhi played an important role in India’s Independence. We have mentioned 3 simple facts related to Gandhiji and Gandhi Jayanti below. 1.Raghunath Raghav Rajaram is usually sung on Gandhiji’s birthday. 2.2nd October is celebrated as the International day of Non-Violence in honor of Mahatma Gandhi. 3.Gandhiji was given the Person of the year award in 1930 by US’s TIME magazine. In this article, we have mentioned simple and few facts related to Indian national festivals. Short and sweet information is always easy to grasp and remember!

Kannada

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Last Update: 2018-06-18
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children's dayChildren’s Day Speech 2Good morning to the excellencies, Principal sir, teachers and my dear colleagues. As we all know that we are gathered here to celebrate the birth anniversary of the first Prime Minister of India means children’s day. I would like to speech on this great occasion and make this occasion a memorable one for me. 14th of November is celebrated as the children’s day every year all over the India in the schools and colleges. 14th of November is the birthday of the Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru who was the first Prime Minister of independent India. His birthday is celebrated as children’s day because of his great love and affection for the children of the nation. He had given much importance to the children throughout his life and loved to talk them. He always liked to be among children and surrounded by the them. He is called as the Chacha Nehru by the children because of his lots of love and care towards children.It is celebrated by the cabinet ministers and high officials including other people in the early morning by gathering at Shanti Bhavan and pay homage to the great leader. They place flowers garland at the Samadhi and perform prayers and then chanting of hymns takes place. A heartily tribute is paid to the Chacha Nehru for his selfless sacrifices, encouraging youths, peaceful political achievements, etc.Variety of cultural programmes and activities are organized in various schools and collegesby the children to celebrate this day with big enthusiasm. National, inspirational and motivational songs are sung, stage show, dance, short dramas, etc are played by the children to remember the Indian leader and his great love and care for the children. A big crowd of people attend the celebration to hear the speech of students about the Pt. Nehru. Pt. Nehru always advised to the children to be patriotic and nationalistic all through the life. He always inspired and cheered the children doing deeds of bravery and sacrifice for the motherland.Thank You

Kannada

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Last Update: 2017-11-13
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The Indian soldier is a role model for the people of India. Scrupulously honest, positively secular, completely apolitical, with an ethos of working hard, simple needs and frugal habits, he is the epitome of courage and unflinching devotion to duty. More than any other group or community in the country, the Indian soldier embodies and represents the idea of India. Despite the omnipresent danger, hardships and privations of life on the nation’s troubled frontiers, he stands tall and firm. In hail, sleet and snow, in icy blizzards and pouring rain, he stands sentinel over the nation’s borders in the high Himalayas. He maintains a silent and lonely vigil along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). He has held the Saltoro Ridgeline west of the Siachen Glacier, the highest battlefield in the world, for almost 30 years and denied the adversary the opportunity to alter the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL). He has repeatedly shown his mettle while meeting the Chinese challenge along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with Tibet.

Kannada

ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸೈನಿಕರ ಮೇಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2017-10-31
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essay on environment HOW TO CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY A GUIDE TO MAKING 5 JUNE 2015 A SUCCESS! Who this toolkit is for. • Want to know what WED is about? • Need ideas on how to celebrate or start preparing? • Want to know what others are doing to celebrate this year? • Want to make your actions count? This toolkit is right for you! There is an alarmingly high rate of unsustainable consumption of resources as, exemplified in the areas of food, water and energy. Largely driven by increasing household incomes (particularly in cities), the current collective lifestyles of people all over the world exceed our planet’s regenerative capacity to replenish natural resources. Today the human race consumes resources the equivalent of 1.5 planets. This means it now takes one year and six months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a year. If current consumption and production patterns remain the same, and with a rising population, we will need two planets by 2030 to sustain our ways of living and consumption. This year’s theme for WED – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – expresses the challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. For all seven billion of us, our present and our future depend on the sustainable consumption of our planet’s resources. On WED, let us pledge one less thing we will do without, in order to restore our planet’s natural regenerative ability? This guide is designed to inspire you with exciting ideas and we’ll give you practical suggestions for organising your event. Make your environment efforts known by celebrating WED and registering them on our website – www.unep.org/wed WELCOME! Welcome to your quick guide to celebrating World Environment Day (WED) on 5 June, 2015. WHY CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY? When we see or experience the negative effects of climate change, environmental degradation or resource depletion it is easy to blame others - governments for not prioritising environmental policy; corporate organisations for raising greenhouse gas emissions; NGOs for not lobbying strongly enough for the environment; and individuals for not taking action. World Environment Day however is a day we put aside our differences and instead celebrate the achievements we’ve made towards protecting the environment. By celebrating WED, we remind ourselves and others of the importance of caring for our environment. Remember that every action counts, so join us: every year, everywhere, everyone! THEME RATIONALE Sustainable consumption can be described as “the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life-cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations” (Oslo Symposium, 1994). ABOUT WED World Environment Day (WED) is the United Nations’ campaign for encouraging worldwide awareness and action for the environment. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly to mark the opening of the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. Over the years it has grown to be a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated by stakeholders in over 100 countries. It also serves as the people’s day for doing something positive for the environment, inspiring individual actions into a collective power that generates an exponential positive impact on the planet. WED is celebrated around the world in many ways, including street rallies, bicycle parades, green concerts, essay and poster competitions in schools, tree planting, recycling efforts, clean-up campaigns and much more. CURRENT RATE OF NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION By 2050, humanity could devour about 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year – three times its current appetite – unless economic growth rate is ‘decoupled’ from the rate of natural resource use. Over 60 percent of the ecosystems and their services upon which we rely are degraded, overexploited or already lost. With an additional 3 billion middle class consumers expected to enter the global economy by 2030, more natural resources will be lost forever if ‘business-as-usual’ prevails. Evidence is building that people are consuming far more natural resources than what the planet can sustainably provide. The well-being of humanity, the environment, and the functioning of the economy, ultimately depend upon the responsible management of the planet’s natural resources. Many of the Earth’s ecosystems are nearing critical tipping points of depletion or irreversible change, pushed by high population growth and economic development. The WED 2015 campaign therefore captures sustainable consumption in the context of the planet’s regenerative capacity. Supported by the slogan – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – WED this year therefore aims to raise awareness on the unsustainable rate at which we are consuming the planet’s resources, and shift individual and collective behaviour towards sustainable lifestyles. FOOD While substantial environmental impacts from food occur in the production phase (agriculture, food processing), households influence these impacts through their dietary choices and habits. This consequently affects the environment through food-related energy consumption and waste generation. ENERGY Despite technological advances that have promoted energy efficiency gains, energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35%[ERROR] by 2020. Commercial and residential energy use is the second most rapidly growing area of global energy use after transport. In 2002 the motor vehicle stock in OECD countries was 550 million vehicles (75%[ERROR] of which were personal cars). A 32%[ERROR] increase in vehicle ownership is expected by 2020. At the same time, motor vehicle kilometres are projected to increase by 40%[ERROR] and global air travel is projected to triple in the same period. WATER Even though households are relatively low consumers of water, population growth and expanded water use have outweighed the effect of water saving technology and behaviour. THREE MAIN AREAS OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION Environmental pressures will intensify in three areas of household consumption. PLANNING FOR WED? 5 QUICK STEPS 1 DETERMINE THE INTERESTS FOR WED Discuss the possibility of organising an event around WED with your colleagues, your community, environmental co-ordinators, other NGOs and local government. Brainstorm on possible areas of interest. Review any past experiences with WED or similar events. See unep.org/wed 2 DETERMINE WHAT ACTIVITIES ARE PLANNED AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL Find out what is being prepared for celebrations at the international, regional and national levels – unep.org/wed/regional-features. Speak with organisers of these events and see how you can support them. 3 LINK THE WED THEME TO YOUR ACTIVITIES The official theme for 2015 is Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care. This theme reflects challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. This year’s theme gives you plenty of room to be creative. Figure out clever ways to link your activities to the official theme! Think of punchy messaging that will attract the most attention and motivate others to get involved! 4 PREPARE A PLAN Early planning is essential to your success. Draw up a basic plan of action for discussion with friends, colleagues or senior management. Set objectives and determine a preliminary series of activities as well as a provisional timetable. Make sure you get permission or clearance from your relevant local authorities well in advance – especially if you are planning public demonstrations or other open activities – to avoid disappointment on the day of celebration. Seek partnerships and possible financial support for your activities (e.g. local companies to help you print t-shirts, caps, posters and banners with WED messaging). Download artwork from the WED website multimedia section. 5 CELEBRATE WITH US This is the most important step of your planning. Why celebrate alone? You can get instant visibility for your activities by registering them on our website. Also think of smart, quirky or funny ways to motivate people around you. Invite the local media to your event! Engage leaders, celebrities and government officials that will help attract the media! NEED TO USE THE WED LOGO? Download the WED logo and style guide from the multimedia section of unep.org/wed. The logo is available in the official UN languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish WHO DO I SPEAK TO IF I NEED MORE INFORMATION? Our website www.unep.org/wed is a great place to begin but feel free to talk to us in person. Contact: Ms. Lucita Jasmin Division of Communications and Public Information United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Tel: 254-20-7623401 /7621551 Email: worldenvironmentday@unep.org THIS SOUNDS EXPENSIVE Participation in World Environment Day does not require a huge financial investment. WED is a people’s event so the objective is to get everyone to participate in one way or another. By including local communities and other partners in your WED events, the possibilities of finding interested sponsors are more likely. All you need is passion for the cause, and well-planned activities. Good luck! SUGGESTED WAYS OF CELEBRATING WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY Various events and practical activities, identified below, highlight what actions can be taken to celebrate WED. This list is not exhaustive and many activities may spring to mind that will be better suited to your local needs and conditions. If each of us contributes a little to this celebration, it will be a far greater success. The most important goal of this day is to raise awareness on the rate of overconsumption in the areas of food, energy and water. • Arts and Crafts Exhibitions/ Film Festivals • Ceremonies and Celebrities • Competitions • Concerts • Demonstration Activities • Drama and Poetry • Environmental Education and Awareness-Raising • Flash Mobs • Information Kits • Online and Social Media Activities • Publicity and Media Coverage • Sports Activities • Other Ideas: create your own ideas and guidelines, and submit to us! ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS What is involved? Why support this activity? • Paintings related to any of the main areas of household consumption: food, energy and water. • Displays of pottery, wooden figurines, stone articles, grass baskets, clothes etc. • Demonstration on how energy-saving stoves are manufactured and maintained. • Crafts made with recycled materials, e.g. plastics or tins. • Posters and photo exhibitions carrying the essence of consumption levels in food, energy and water. • Screening of compelling films on the environment made by different communities. • Art uses symbolic messages to capture an audience and communicate a message in unconventional ways. What begins as an appreciation for art could develop into a true passion for the environment. • Many art forms use environmentally sustainable and natural resources that complement the objectives of your exhibit. • Film, as a medium, engages all people without necessarily being limited by literacy levels. Films can attract large crowds. How to organise it? • Decide what will happen with the artwork or films you will collect, whether the artists maintain rights or if you will use them for promotion afterwards. Seek legal advice concerning rights if you intend to use the artwork beyond your exhibition and especially if there will be a commercial aspect. • After you have decided on your theme and identified partners (including sponsors) publish a call for submissions in your local news outlets. • Consider a prize for winners. • Select a jury from reputable and or renowned artists and filmmakers. • Set up displays of arts and crafts of various cultural/local origins. ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Invite your local community to submit artwork. • Encourage the participation of marginalised groups (e.g. women, children and orphans) by creating appropriate categories for their submissions. • If local authorities, government, implementing partners, or conservation agencies are receptive to your concept, bring them on board as partners. • Seek sponsorship from governments, agencies, museums, existing film festivals and the corporate sector (arts and crafts or ethnological museums/funds could be interested). • Invite the media, advertise, take pictures, and register activity on the WED website. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • A speech on the environment, focusing on the WED theme and with special emphasis on the environmental challenges in the community and their possible solutions. • Identify and approach a goodwill ambassador that is well known by your target audience. • The involvement of prominent local personalities who are authoritative voices on the environment could lend credibility to your event. • You can reach a large number of people in a short time, which makes sponsorship and media coverage more likely. • The presence of a celebrity attracts attention from the media and a crowd. The media acts as a multiplier for your efforts through their ability to increase attention towards your efforts. How to organise it? • Your primary objective is to add significance to WED by encouraging governments, local authorities, communities or corporate organisations to announce new environmental commitments, targets, policies or programmes on the day itself. This means you must conduct ground research in order to make meaningful suggestions to your target authority. Once you have ‘sold them’ to your idea, convince them to announce it at a ceremony on World Environment Day. • It is common to mark a special event like WED with a ceremony or presentation. It can be short, with introductory speeches by celebrities, politicians or sponsors. • Invite government representatives, local authorities or respected persons from your local community. • Enlist your partners and sponsors to help organise and publicise the ceremony. • Make sure your celebrities are well-briefed in advance and that they re-iterate your planned messages. CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Ideally, the speech venue should be open to all. • Partner with governments, ministries, implementing agencies, as well as with local businesses (present them with an opportunity to use their company logos). They may also be willing to provide some form of sponsorship. Investigate the core principles of each institution and ensure they tally with your ideas before requesting funding. • Invite the media! – unep.org/wed. Don’t expect them to show up on their own. Prepare a media pack: a few fact sheets or notes that you will give away to the media. If you have a specific message that you would like them to carry, make sure that you spell this out in the media pack. This way they will have the necessary details to write or film a piece on your event. Come up with catchy short phrases that the press can quote. Remember to give background information on your objectives, supported by facts. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Drawing, painting, films and essay competitions on issues of over consumption in areas of food, energy and water. Note: Where funds permit, small awards such as t-shirts, stickers or pens are ideal prizes for successful participants. Winners of contests should receive some sort of public recognition and prize. • Competitions are an ideal ways to engage and involve young people especially in celebrations of this nature. • Competitions encourage people to think of their own actions, how these might impact the environment, and what steps they might take to change their behaviour. Set guidelines and rules for the competition, stating who can participate. Ensure that your competition entry guidelines emphasize the WED theme. • Make sure you advertise widely in order to enrich the quality of your entries. Target schools, for example. • Decide on a reward for winners that will make it worthwhile for participants. • Set up a jury with, preferably, experts in the field of competition. • The process should be as transparent as possible ensure successful results. • Include students and youth groups in competitions. • Partnerships can be sought with agencies working with education, local schools and teachers. COMPETITIONS CONCERTS What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Performances of musicians and artists. • Green concerts: have low energy consumption or mechanisms to offset (such as asking audience to walk, cycle or take public transport to the event and using only food packaging that is recyclable). • Concert with musical instruments made from natural resources. • Play music related to the theme. • Music is a good way to attract people. • Music crosses barriers, and so it can help to open discussions on difficult issues. • Music enhances the ambience of a gathering. • Hire musicians and prepare a stage where they can perform. • Include a well-known musician from the hosting community or country. • Try to include other artists (e.g. acrobats and fire-walkers) while the music plays to make it an audio-visual show. • Include visibility material around the stage (like WED posters and banners, downloadable from the WED website) and include short speeches on the purpose of the event at the beginning of the show. • By inviting local musicians you can rally up a big crowd and foster goodwill with the local community. • Partnerships can be found within government or local businesses (display their logo on the stage, together with WED visibility material). • Seek sponsorship by partnering with organisations and availing advertising opportunities. • Charge an entry fee to offset the cost of your event. DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • Display of posters on positive actions we can take to reduce food, energy and water consumption. • Awareness-raising of the value of natural resources (prevention of pollution, careful use/reuse of water, identifying certified forest products etc.) • Workshop on how different resources can be used in several ways and several times (e.g. washing, cleaning or watering plants with grey water, i.e. water that has already been used for something else and is no longer considered safe for consumption). • Demonstration can include the building of fuel-efficient stoves, alternative fuels, additional use of good cooking/fire management practices, the sustainable agriculture, sustainable use of forest resources; fish farming techniques, school or kitchen gardens. • Demonstration activities can be both instructive and entertaining, for local communities. • They are often the best way of introducing new ideas and sharing knowledge and experience: people are more comfortable using new techniques once they can see that others have benefited from them. • Demonstration a

Kannada

ಪರಿಸರದ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

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Started playing kho-kho representing shardavilas high school, Mysore from 1967-1977. Represented university of Mysore four times in kho-kho during 1971-72, 1972-73, 1974-75 and captained the university of Mysore kho-kho team during the year 1975-76 Twice runner up in the all India inter university kho-kho team tournaments during 1974-75 and 1975-76 for the first time during the year 1974-75 Mysore university achieved this distinction Selected to represent the Karnataka state kho-kho team during 1975-76 but could not attend the national championship due to academic reason. Represented Mysore division in athletics, kho-kho and kabadi during 1972-73 and 1973-94 in the state level dasara sports and game competition Qualified A grade referee of kho-kho federation of India. Affiliated in 5 senior kho-kho national championships, 3 junior kho-kho national championships and many all India invitation kho-kho tournaments held throughout the country from 1976-86 . Served as manager/couch of university of Mysore kabadi and kho-kho team several times from 1977-1993 in the all India inter university tournaments.

Kannada

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WLE Austria Logo (no text).svg The beautiful white bengal tiger, Abhishek Chikile, CC BY-SA 4.0. Hide Participate in Wiki Loves Earth India 2016 Photo contest Upload Photos of Natural Heritage sites of India to help Wikipedia & win fantastic Prizes Check out the rules here Educational technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "E-learning" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Education Disciplines Evaluation History Organization Philosophy Psychology (school) Technology (Electronic marking) International education School counseling Special education Teacher education Curricular domains Arts Business Early childhood Engineering Language Literacy Mathematics Science Social science Technology Vocational Methods Case method Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Factor analysis Factorial experiment Focus group Meta-analysis Multivariate statistics Participant observation v t e Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS) educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Contents 1 Definition 2 Related terms 3 History 4 Theory 4.1 Behaviorism 4.2 Cognitivism 4.3 Constructivism 5 Practice 5.1 Synchronous and asynchronous 5.2 Linear learning 5.3 Collaborative learning 6 Media 6.1 Audio and video 6.2 Computers, tablets and mobile devices 6.3 Social networks 6.4 Webcams 6.5 Whiteboards 6.6 Screencasting 6.7 Virtual classroom 6.8 E-learning authoring tools 6.9 Learning management system 6.10 Learning objects 7 Settings 7.1 Preschool 7.2 K–12 7.3 Higher education 7.4 Corporate and professional 7.5 Public health 7.6 ADHD 7.7 Disabilities 7.8 Identity options 8 Benefits 9 Disadvantages 9.1 Over-stimulation 9.2 Sociocultural criticism 10 Teacher training 11 Assessment 12 Expenditure 13 Careers 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading Definition Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[2] The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."[3][4][5] As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Related terms Early 20th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school. Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.[6] However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[7] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),[8] internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education. Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features.[9] However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment.[10] Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle.[9] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning;[11] nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology.[9] In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology.[9] Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world,[12][13] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[14][15] In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.[16] As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning milieu.[17] Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have to do anything in order to learn, they just have to be there.[17][18] The combination of adaptive learning, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning.[19][20][21] Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept.[22][23] Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the "e" of e-learning should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic."[24] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[25] These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology.[24] History Main article: Educational software 19th century classroom, Auckland Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls.[26][27] Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium.[28] From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century[29] with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials, such as overhead projectors. The concept of hypertext is traced to description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. Cuisenaire rods Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s. In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely linked device like a television or audio device.[30] In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California.[31][32] Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. Working with Stanford and others he helped develop computer-assisted instruction. Working with the Rand Corporation, Luskin's landmark UCLA dissertation in 1970 analyzed obstacles to computer-assisted instruction. Artistic portrait of Ivan Illich by Amano1. In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology[33] as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada.[34] In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning[35] (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86). By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge. Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with Museum Education. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue; and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant.[36] The Open University in Britain[34] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning,[37] making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students.[38] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[39] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.[40] Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams. The National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component.[41] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.[42] Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media.[43][44] Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance.[45] Theory Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education) and Educational philosophies Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Behaviorism This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.[46] B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior[47][48] and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",[49][50] an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. Cognitivism Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.[51] Constructivism Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012[52]). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.[53]:224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology.[53][54] Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most contro

Kannada

ಬಿನ್ ಜೊತೆ transalate

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146 [a Dock Labour Board established under section 5A of the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948 (9 of 1940), or the Industrial Finance Corporation of India established under section 3 of the Industrial Finance Corporation Act, 1948 (15 of 1948), or the Employees' State Insurance Corporation established under section 3 of the Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (34 of 1948), or the Board of Trustees constituted under section 3A of the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1948( 46 of 1948), or the Central Board of Trustees and the State Boards of Trustees constituted under section 5A and section 5B, respectively, of the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), or the "Indian Airlines" and "Air India" Corporations established under section 3 of the Air Corporations Act, 1953 (27 of 1953), or the Life Insurance Corporation of India established under section 3 of the Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956 (31 of 1956), or the Oil and Natural Gas Commission established under section 3 of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission Act, 1959 (43 of 1959), or the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation established under section 3 of the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961 (47 of 1961), or the Central Warehousing Corporation established under section 3 of the Warehousing Corporations Act, 1962 (58 of 1962), or the Unit Trust of India established under section 3 of the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963), or the Food Corporation of India established under section 3, or a Board of Management established for two or more contiguous States under section 16, of the Food Corporations Act, 1964 (37 of 1964), or the International Airports Authority of India constituted under section 3 of the International Airports Authority of India Act, 1971 (48 of 1971), or a Regional Rural Bank established under section 3 of the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 (21 of 1976), or the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation Limited or the Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India 2* [the National Housing Bank established under section 3 of the National Housing Bnak Act, 1987 (53 of 1987) or] 3*[a banking or an insurance company, a mine, an oil-field] 4*[, a

Kannada

ಕೈಗಾರಿಕಾ, 1947 ಎಸಿಟಿ ವಿವಾದಗಳು

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Our Motherland India was slave under the British rule for long years during which Indian people were forced to follow the laws made by British rule. After long years of struggle by the Indian freedom fighters, finally India became independent on 15th of August in 1947. After two and half years later Indian Government implemented its own Constitution and declared India as the Democratic Republic. Around two years, eleven months and eighteen days was taken by the Constituent Assembly of India to pass the new Constitution of India which was done on 26th of January in 1950. After getting declared as a Sovereign Democratic Republic, people of India started celebrating 26th of January as a Republic Day every year. Celebrating Republic Day every year is the great honour for the people living in India as well as people of India in abroad. It is the day of great importance and celebrated by the people with big joy and enthusiasm by organizing and participating in various events. People wait for this day very eagerly to become part of its celebration again and again. Preparation work for the republic day celebration at Rajpath starts a month before and way to India Gate becomes close for common people and security arrangement done a month before to avoid any type of offensive activities during celebration as well as safety of the people. A big celebration arrangement in the national capital, New Delhi and State capitals takes place all over the India. Celebration starts with the National Flag unfolding by the President of India and singing National Anthem. Following this Indian army parade, state wise Jhankis, march-past, awards distribution, etc activities takes place. At this day, the whole environment becomes full of the sound of National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana”. Students of schools and colleges are very keen to celebrate this event and starts preparation around a month before. Students performing well in the academic, sports or other fields of education are honoured with the awards, prizes and certificates on this day. Family people celebrate this day with their friends, family and children by participating in activities organized at social places. Every people become ready in the early morning before 8 am to watch the celebration at Rajpath, New Delhi in the news at TV. At this day of great honour every Indian people should sincerely promise to safeguard the Constitution, maintain peace and harmony as well as support in the development of country.

Kannada

ನಾಯಿ ಮೇಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2015-12-23
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A banyan (or 'banian') is a kind of fig. It usually starts life by growing on another plant as an epiphyte. Its seeds germinate in the cracks and crevices on a host tree, or on other structures like buildings and bridges. "Banyan" usually means the Indian banyan or Ficus benghalensis. It is the National tree of both the Republic of India and Bangladesh.[1] However, the term actually includes all figs which share their epiphytic life cycle. They are put in the subgenus Urostigma.[2] The seeds of banyans are dispersed by fruit-eating birds. The seeds germinate and send down roots towards the ground. These roots may envelop (cover) part of the host tree or building structure, from which they get the casual name of strangler fig

Kannada

ಆಲದ ಮರದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2015-12-15
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Several events were held across 36 states and union territories, covering 600 districts in the country. Information Technology companies were told to organise a mandatory viewing of the speech to be delivered by PM Narendra Modi at the launch of the Digital India Initiative. What is Digital India? With the launch of Digital India programme, the government is taking a big step forward to transform the country into a digitally empowered knowledge economy. Includes various schemes worth over Rs 1 lakh crore like Digital Locker, e-eduction, e-health, e-sign and national scholarship portal. BharatNet in 11 states and Next Generation Network (NGN), are also a part of Digital India campaign. The programme includes projects that aim to ensure that government services are available to citizens electronically and people get benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The Ministry of Communications and IT is the nodal agency to implement the programme. Apps for Digital India Digital India Portal, MyGov Mobile App, Swachh Bharat Mission App and Aadhaar Mobile Update App. Vision Of Digital India Digital Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen Governance & Services on Demand Digital Empowerment of Citizens Pillars Of Digital India Broadband Highways Universal Access to Phones Public Internet Access Programme e-Governance - Reforming government through Technology e-Kranti - Electronic delivery of services Information for All Electronics Manufacturing - Target NET ZERO Imports IT for Jobs Early Harvest Programmes Impact of Digital India by 2019 Broadband in 2.5 lakh villages, universal phone connectivity Net Zero Imports by 2020 400,000 Public Internet Access Points Wi-fi in 2.5 lakh schools, all universities; Public wi-fi hotspots for citizens Digital Inclusion: 1.7 Cr trained for IT, Telecom and Electronics Jobs Job creation: Direct 1.7 Cr. and Indirect at least 8.5 Cr. e-Governance & eServices: Across government India to be leader in IT use in services - health, education, banking Digitally empowered citizens - public cloud, internet access Benefits of Digital Locker Digital Locker facility will help citizens to digitally store their important documents like PAN card, passport, mark sheets and degree certificates. Digital Locker will provide secure access to Government issued documents. It uses authenticity services provided by Aadhaar. It is aimed at eliminating the use of physical documents and enables sharing of verified electronic documents across government agencies. Digital Locker provides a dedicated personal storage space in the cloud to citizens, linked to citizens Aadhaar number. Digital Locker will reduce the administrative overhead of government departments and agencies created due to paper work. It will also make it easy for the residents to receive services by saving time and effort as their documents will now be available anytime, anywhere and can be shared electronically. To sign-up for your Digital Locker, one needs an Aadhaar card and a Mobile number that is linked to that Aadhaar card Number. What is National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)? NOFN proposes seven lakh kilometers of optical fibre to be laid to connect 250 gram panchayats in three years. Public Wi-fi spots will be provided around the clusters after that and all villages will be provided with internet connectivity. According to Communications and Information Technology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad, "ten states including Maharashtra, Madhya Prasad, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Haryana and Chhattisgarh, are ready to roll out the NOFN to facilitate Digital India. Prasad, early this year, had described Digital India initiative as, "India would become a very powerful digitally connected world. This would lead to a good architecture for electronic delivery of service. The entire contour of India is change. India is sitting at the cusp of a big digital revolution." States like Telangana, Meghalaya, Jharkhand also observed Digital India Week (DIW) from July 1 to July 7. The University Grants Commission (UGC) also directed all varsities and higher education institutes across the country to observe the Digital India Week. Read more at: http://www.oneindia.com/feature/what-is-digital-india-programme-explained-1792279.html

Kannada

ಡಿಜಿಟಲ್ ಭಾರತದ

Last Update: 2015-12-06
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Reference: Mousin
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English

Several events were held across 36 states and union territories, covering 600 districts in the country. Information Technology companies were told to organise a mandatory viewing of the speech to be delivered by PM Narendra Modi at the launch of the Digital India Initiative. What is Digital India? With the launch of Digital India programme, the government is taking a big step forward to transform the country into a digitally empowered knowledge economy. Includes various schemes worth over Rs 1 lakh crore like Digital Locker, e-eduction, e-health, e-sign and national scholarship portal. BharatNet in 11 states and Next Generation Network (NGN), are also a part of Digital India campaign. The programme includes projects that aim to ensure that government services are available to citizens electronically and people get benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The Ministry of Communications and IT is the nodal agency to implement the programme. Apps for Digital India Digital India Portal, MyGov Mobile App, Swachh Bharat Mission App and Aadhaar Mobile Update App. Vision Of Digital India Digital Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen Governance & Services on Demand Digital Empowerment of Citizens Pillars Of Digital India Broadband Highways Universal Access to Phones Public Internet Access Programme e-Governance - Reforming government through Technology e-Kranti - Electronic delivery of services Information for All Electronics Manufacturing - Target NET ZERO Imports IT for Jobs Early Harvest Programmes Impact of Digital India by 2019 Broadband in 2.5 lakh villages, universal phone connectivity Net Zero Imports by 2020 400,000 Public Internet Access Points Wi-fi in 2.5 lakh schools, all universities; Public wi-fi hotspots for citizens Digital Inclusion: 1.7 Cr trained for IT, Telecom and Electronics Jobs Job creation: Direct 1.7 Cr. and Indirect at least 8.5 Cr. e-Governance & eServices: Across government India to be leader in IT use in services - health, education, banking Digitally empowered citizens - public cloud, internet access Benefits of Digital Locker Digital Locker facility will help citizens to digitally store their important documents like PAN card, passport, mark sheets and degree certificates. Digital Locker will provide secure access to Government issued documents. It uses authenticity services provided by Aadhaar. It is aimed at eliminating the use of physical documents and enables sharing of verified electronic documents across government agencies. Digital Locker provides a dedicated personal storage space in the cloud to citizens, linked to citizens Aadhaar number. Digital Locker will reduce the administrative overhead of government departments and agencies created due to paper work. It will also make it easy for the residents to receive services by saving time and effort as their documents will now be available anytime, anywhere and can be shared electronically. To sign-up for your Digital Locker, one needs an Aadhaar card and a Mobile number that is linked to that Aadhaar card Number. What is National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)? NOFN proposes seven lakh kilometers of optical fibre to be laid to connect 250 gram panchayats in three years. Public Wi-fi spots will be provided around the clusters after that and all villages will be provided with internet connectivity. According to Communications and Information Technology Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad, "ten states including Maharashtra, Madhya Prasad, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Haryana and Chhattisgarh, are ready to roll out the NOFN to facilitate Digital India. Prasad, early this year, had described Digital India initiative as, "India would become a very powerful digitally connected world. This would lead to a good architecture for electronic delivery of service. The entire contour of India is change. India is sitting at the cusp of a big digital revolution." States like Telangana, Meghalaya, Jharkhand also observed Digital India Week (DIW) from July 1 to July 7. The University Grants Commission (UGC) also directed all varsities and higher education institutes across the country to observe the Digital India Week.

Kannada

ಡಿಜಿಟಲ್ ಭಾರತದ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2015-12-06
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English

When he was President, he was popularly known as the People's President. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour in 1997. He has also been a professor (of aerospace engineering). Kalam is the first Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram (IIST). He is known as the missile man of India

Kannada

ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಎಪಿಜೆ ಅಬ್ದುಲ್ ಕಲಾಂ ಇತಿಹಾಸ

Last Update: 2015-08-12
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Reference: Mousin

English

Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 in her grandfather's house in Allahabad, in northern India. She was born to Jawaharlal Nehru ( father ) and Kamala Kaul ( mother ). The Independence movement filled young Indira's life. One of her earliest political memories was one of attending court at age four. Being the only child of the family, her childhood was somewhat lonely. Indira’s political career started at age of 12. She was the founder and leader of the Monkey Brigade, which was a group of youngsters whose purpose was to help end British control in India. As the leader she relayed information to the children of the group who then went out and warned the people who were going to be arrested by the British. The Indian National Congress was well aware of the Monkey Brigade, and one of the most important actions of the Monkey Brigade was carried out by Indira herself. The Congress was organizing a civil disobedience movement and after the meeting all the papers with the plans were placed into the trunk of a car which Indira was instructed to drive. Before the car was ready however, a police officer asked to inspect the car. Indira begged him not to because “the inspection would make her late for school”. Luckily, the police officer let her go. In the year, of 1938 Indira joined the National congress party. In 1942, Indira was happily married to Feroze Gandhi, a journalist. Soon after their marriage, they were sent to Naini Central Jail in Allahabad from September 11, 1942 until May 13, 1943. This was her first and only time spent in prison. When her mother had died in 1936 Indira took her spot as hostess and confidant to her father, and traveled with him to meet famous political figures during his years as Prime Minister of India. In 1959, while still helping her father, Indira was elected the president of the Indian National Congress. After her fathers death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the new prime... * Page 1 of 3 * Next >

Kannada

indiragandhi ಜೀವನ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Last Update: 2015-08-12
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English

“Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, popularly known as “Missile Man” born in a middle class family, seen and faced problems and hardships of middle class, never daunted and depressed of failures rose to the height of first citizen of India, the president of India, a visionary, a pragmatist, a poet a good human being, a complete man. He is the architect of India’s integrated missile development programme, recipient of Bharat Ratna, a rare example today’s world, where most of the people are engulfed by mediocrity, hypocrisy, corruption, the likes Dr. Kalam want to conserve”. Born on 15th October 1931 At Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Aal Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul kalam, specialized in Aeronautical Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. Dr. Kalam made significant contribution as Project Director to Develop India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully injected the Rohini Satellite in the near earth orbit in July 1980 and made India an exclusive member of Space Club. Dr. Kalam is religious to a fault and is a rapacious reader of both Bhawad Gita and the Kuran of the great Tamil Saint Tirvuallurvar. He always shares his achievements and success with his teachers and colleagues. When the award of Bharat Ratna was bestowed on Dr. Kalam, for his splendid achievements, he said, “I couldn’t have done it by myself. Behind me there were thousands of scientists. I only shaped the programme.” In a span of 14 years, he lined up Prithvi, Agni, Trishul, Akash, and Nag and finished the long pending Arjun Project, pushed forward with an indigenous aircraft engine Kaveri. He vowed to make India self-reliant in military war fare by 2005 AD. An apostle of unparalleled genius, he never took excuses of lack of funds or lack of cooperation etc. in the glorified path of achieving his goal. This dreamer of making India a super power, tells his countrymen and colleagues: “Dream, dream, dream and dream. Turn the dream into thoughts and thoughts will transform into action.” Earnestly proud of his heritage, Dr. Kalam asks the people of India, to discover the untapped strength. Let the Indians now totally delink from the legacy of the past, hear this inspiring revelation: India made the world’s first rocket, says Dr. Kalam in annotation to one of this poems. These rockets are laced in the British War Museum. Small tube with gun powder, tiny nozzle and warhead (a carved sword) which were used in defeating the British army at the battle of Srirangapatnam, by Tipu Sultan. He always exhorted the people, “We must think and act like a nation of a billion people and not like a nation of a million people”. After becoming President. Dr. Kalam has been doing a very pious task of exhorting and encouraging the youth, to rise to the occasion and never felt shy of failures, have faith in Almighty and work hard to achieve whatever you like to achieve in your life. Dr. Kalam has become a source of unending inspiration to the youth of today. He is very popular among the children, among the youth and among the matured citizen throughout the country.

Kannada

ಮನುಕುಲಕ್ಕೆ ಎಪಿಜೆ ಅಬ್ದುಲ್ ಕಲಾಂ contibution

Last Update: 2015-08-03
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Reference: Anonymous

English

DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born on December 3, 1884 and died on February 28, 1963 ong before the Gandhian era had set in, there was born on 3 December, 1884, in an obscure village in the Saran district of North Bihar, Rajendra Prasad, whose life was to be an embodiment of the Gandhian principles. He was to Gandhiji, to quote Sarojini Naidu, what John was to Christ. Jawaharlal called him the symbol of Bharat and found "truth looking at you through those eyes". As early as 1922, C.R. Das, the President of the Gaya session of the Indian National Congress, remarked, trial "At the moment Rajendra Prasad appears to be the sole excuse for a further honest trial of Gandhism to solve a political problem". When this view was reported to Motilal Nehru in January 1923, his reaction was almost identical: "Das is certainly correct. We have given a fair trial to Gandhism for over two years. It seems to me that the only good result it has yielded - I do not say it will not yield better or more results - is Babu Rajendra Prasad". Four year later Vithalbhai Patel remarked, "The one argument against the discontinuance of the Gandhian cult is Rajendra Prasad". Gandhiji himself once said of him : "There is at least one man who would not hesitate to take the cup of poison from my hands". No wonder Gunther called him the heart of the Congress organization. Another publicist wrote that Mahatma Gandhi with his uncanny insight picked out and groomed three of his colleagues for important roles in national life. In Jawaharlal he saw the dynamism of youth that never ages and a soaring idealism intent on a synthesis of ethical values and socio-economic objectives of modern revolutions. In Sardar he saw the great pragmatist and the man of iron will who knew how to get things done. In Rajendra Prasad he saw a great deal of himself. Rajendra Prasad's great uncle, Chaudhur Lal, built fortunes of the family, a zamindari income of Rs.7,000/- per year and substantial farm lands. He was the Dewan of the Hathwa Raj, highly respected by all, honest, loyal and efficient. Rajendra Prasad's father, Mahadev Sahay, was a country gentleman, a scholar of Persian and Sanskrit. His hobbies were wrestling and horticulture and he took delight in providing free Ayurvedic and Unani treatment to patients who flocked to him. Rajendra Prasad's mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a devout lady who would not give up her evening bath and Pooja even though plagued by a cough which eventually proved fatal. Every day she would tell stories from the Ramayana to young Rajendra, as he huddled close to her, eager and receptive, waiting for the light of dawn to peep into the windowless bedroom of the old-fashioned house. No wonder the Ramayana by Tulsidas became his constant companion, though he loved to browse occasionally on the Upanishads and other scriptures also. The family shunned ostentations, lived simply and mixed freely with the co-villagers. Disparities were not irritating. There was a sense of community, fellow-feeling and kindliness. All shared in the festivals and the Poojas. The flow of village life was quiet and gentle. All this left a deep impression on young Rajendra's mind. The village came to symbolize peace and repose. At the age of five young Rajendra was, according to the practice in the community to which he belonged, put under a Maulavi who taught him Persian. Later, he was taught Hindi and arithmetic. After the completion of this traditional education he was put in the Chapra Zilla School, from which he moved to R.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna in order to be with his only brother, Mahendra Prasad, who was eight years older than him and who had joined the Patna College. When Mahendra Prasad moved to Calcutta in 1897, Rajendra was admitted into the Hathwa High School. Soon he rejoined the Chapra Zilla School, from where he passed the Entrance examination of the Calcutta University at the age of eighteen, in 1902, standing first in the first division. When it is remembered that the educational jurisdiction of the Calcutta University extended from Sadiya, the easternmost frontier of British India, to a little beyond Peshawar on the north-west, the feat appears truly remarkable. He had been married for five years at that time. His wife Rajbanshi Devi was a true-to-tradition Hindu lady, merging her identity totally in that of the husband. After passing the Entrance examination Rajendra Prasad joined the Presidency College, Calcutta, and both brothers lived together for a time in room of the Eden Hindu Hostel. A plaque still commemorates his stay, for practically the whole of his University career, in that room. Not many from Bihar had joined that metropolitan institution. But, before long, Rajendra Prasad gained immense popularity. This was demonstrated in a remarkable early moment in 1904 when as a Third year student he won in the first annual election for the post of Secretary of the College Union against a senior student belonging to a rich aristocratic family of Calcutta. Those were days when junior students did not speak to their seniors unless spoken to. Rajendra Prasad had, moreover, neither sought nor worked for the post. Dr. P.K. Roy, the Principal, in whose presence the election had taken place by show of hands, was astounded by the result, more than a thousand against seven, and enquired as to what made Rajendra Prasad so popular. The great scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose and the highly respected P.C. Ray wanted him to offer Science, but he preferred Arts, for though he had topped in I.A. he had not topped in the Science subjects. While his remarkable distinguished academic career continued and he capped it with a First in the M.A. and a First in Master of Law, other ideas occupied his mind and heart. He had been initiated into the cult of 'Swadeshi' by his elder brother, even before his arrival in Calcutta. Now he joined, while in B.A. (Hons.) Class, the Dawn Society run by Satish Chandra Mukherjee, Sister Nivedita, Surendranath Banerjea and many other luminaries gave discourses here. There were debating and essay-writing competitions and he bagged many of the prizes. A new awareness was dawning on him. The anti-partition agitation stirred him. The processions, the slogans, the speeches touched new chords. He collected the Bihari students in Calcutta and they conducted activities similar to those conducted by the Dawn Society. The formation of the Bihari Students' Conference followed in 1908. It was the first organization of its kind in the whole of India. It not only led to an awakening, it nurtured and produced practically the entire political leadership of the twenties in Bihar. At the time he set himself up as a legal practitioner in Calcutta in 1911, apprenticed to Khan Bahadur Shamsul Huda, he also joined the Indian National Congress and was elected to the A.I.C.C. A year earlier, he impressed Sir Asutosh Mukherjee so deeply that the latter offered him a Lectureship in the Presidency Law College. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the greatest political leader of India in those days, had met him in Calcutta a year earlier and had exhorted him to join the Servants of India Society in Poona. Due to lack of good management the family estate was in bad shape and Rajendra Prasad was looked upon as the retriever. But had had no doubts about what he should do. Though he could not bring himself to have a straight talk with Mahendra Prasad, his elder brother, he sought his permission and blessing to join Gokhale through a letter in which he gave vent to his innermost thoughts. "Ambitions I have none," he had concluded, "except to be of some service to the Motherland". The shock and the anguish of his brother, however, held him to the family. About that time his mother died and his only sister Bhagwati Devi, fifteen years older than him, returned to her parents' home, a widow at nineteen, and in a way, took the place of his mother. In 1916 Rajendra Prasad shifted to Patna on the establishment of the High Court of Bihar and Orissa. Soon, he succeeded in gaining a marked ascendancy, not only over the clients and his colleagues at the Bar, but even more so on the Judges. His incisive intellect and phenomenal memory were no doubt great assets, but what really established his supremacy, over the minds of the judges in particular, was his innate integrity and purity of character, his inability to stoop to any tactics to score a point, to win a case. Often enough when his adversary failed to cite a precedent, the Judges asked Rajendra Prasad to cite a precedent against himself. Rajendra Prasad had first seen Gandhiji at a meeting held in Calcutta in 1915 to honour him. He was called 'Karmavir Gandhi' in those days. In the December 1916 session of the Congress, held at Lucknow, he again saw Gandhiji. He knew that the Champaran Kisan leader Rajkumar Shukla and Braj Kishore Prasad had requested Gandhiji to pay a visit to Champaran. The session had also adopted a resolution on the Champaran situation. In the April 1917, A.I.C.C. session, held in Calcutta, Gandhiji and Rajendra Prasad sat very close to each other but he did not know that Gandhiji was to be taken to his residence in Patna on his way to Champaran. He, therefore, left for Puri when the session ended. When Gandhiji reached Rajendra Prasad's residence in Patna next morning, the servant took him to be a client and a villager and showed him the servant's bathroom and the well outside. Barefooted, clad in half achkan, dhoti and Kathiawadi purgree, carrying in a roll his bedding and a few dhotis and some food in a tin box, Gandhiji looked very much an illiterate villager. Gandhiji did not know what to do next, when, hearing of his arrival, Mazharul Haq came and took him to his palatial residence, Sikander Manzil. There was a similar situation at Muzaffarpur Junction Station where Acharya Kripalani, a Professor in the local College, had come to receive Gandhiji with a large number of students. None had seen Gandhiji. None recognized him. On return to Patna Rajendra Babu learnt all that had happened and hastened to Motihari. He regarded his meeting with Gandhiji as the turning point in his career. He stayed with Gandhiji till his trial was over. Thereafter, things in the country took a different course, by reason of the Rowlatt Act and the Punjab upheaval, and in 1920, even before the civil disobedience and non-cooperation resolution of the special session of the Congress held in Calcutta in September had been confirmed by the regular session held in December at Nagpur, he took the plunge. He openly pledged himself to defy unrighteous laws, and resort to civil disobedience and non-cooperation and thus he constituted himself more or leass as an outlaw in the eyes of the British Government in India. The decades that followed were years of intense activity and heavy suffering. He ceased to be a Senator of the University to the regret of the British Vice-Chancellor. He withdrew his sons, Mrityunjaya and Dhanajjaya, and his nephew, Janardan from the Benares Hindu University and other schools. He wrote articles for Searchlight and the Desh and collected funds for these papers. He toured a lot, explaining, lecturing, exhorting. He was the life-breath of the constructive programme and a great votary of Khadi. He was the first leading political figure in the Eastern Provinces to join forces with Gandhiji at a time when the latter was without a large and effective following. Another such leader from the West who joined Gandhiji was Vallabhbhai Patel. During the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha Rajendra Babu and Vallabhbhai came closer. Rajendra Babu cherished Sardar's friendship as one of the most pleasant memories of his life. He often went to Sabarmati and toured the country with Gandhiji. He suffered several terms of rigorous imprisonment. He suffered privations for want of a regular income of his own. All the while he suffered from asthma. He would not accept any financial assistance from the Congress or from any other source and depended mostly on his elder brother. He was in jail when on 15 January, 1934 the devastating earthquake in Bihar occurred. He was released two days later. Though ailing, he set himself immediately to the task of raising funds and organizing relief. The Viceroy also raised a fund for the purpose. While his fund swelled to over 38 lakhs, the Viceroy's fund, despite his great influence, resources and prestige, remained at one third of the amount. The way relief was organized left nothing to be desired. Nationalist India expressed its admiration by electing him to the President of the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress. Mahendra Prasad, his elder brother, had died. The Congress through a resolution remembered his social services and his devotion to the national cause. When the Congress Ministries were formed in 1937, it was the Parliamentary Board consisting of Sardar Patel, Rajendra Babu and Maulana Azad, which really and effectively provided guidance and control. In 1939 when Subhas Chandra Bose had to be relieved of the office of the Congress President, it was Rajendra Prasad who was persuaded to face the crisis and overcome it. The Congress faced another crisis when Acharya Kripalani resigned and Rajendra Babu had to step into the breach, even though he happened to be India's Food and Agriculture Minister and President of the Constituent Assembly. He realized that industrialism had disrupted the web of village life woven and integrated for centuries. It had to be re-woven into a new pattern. He wanted that pattern to be inspired by Gandhian values; human needs and acquisitiveness to be regulated through self-discipline; agricultural production to be maximized, village industries to be resuscitated and their scope enlarged; the old sense of community to be recaptured. But he found that the country was unable to resist the pull of industrialization, even hurriedly thought-out industrialization, and he was not happy at the development. This was one reason why he declined to accept the Chairmanship of the Planning Commission. This was why, when Wavell informally enquired what portfolio he would choose if he were to choose it for himself, he said that he hardly needed time to think about it. It had to be Food and Agriculture. Wavell was amused and there was an unspoken why. "Well", Rajendra Babu went on, "the subject is familiar to me. He knew all that the best farmer knows about agricultural operations and practices. But he also realized that certain improvements had to be effected on those methods. The slogan 'Grow More Food' was given by him and the campaign was initiated by the Food Ministry under his guidance. He could not, however, continue for long in that Ministry and ensure compliance with the policies initiated by him. But, before he relinquished charge, he did, as Gandhiji wanted, effect decontrol of foodgrains, and though officials and public men alike had prophesied disaster, nothing untoward happened. His stewardship of the Constituent Assembly was exemplary. He guided, regulated, controlled, but did so with such infinite patience, skill, grace and firmness that not only none had a sense of grievance but all felt that the discussions were always full, free and frank and left nothing to be desired. During the very first session of the Constituent Assembly, he had announced that though the Assembly was born under limitations it would outgrow those and function as a sovereign body, recognizing no outside authority. The proceedings of the last day of the Constituent Assembly read like pages from a book of tributes and, in a way, indicate how loved and respected he was by each section of the House. His elevation to the Presidentship in 1950 came as a matter of course. There were some doubts in some quarters. Could a person who was temperamentally a peasant, who lived and dressed like one, impress in an office where ceremonialism and gilded trappings counted? But nothing else was possible. He was the only choice and there could not be another. As President, he exercised his moderating influence and moulded policies or actions so silently and unobtrusively that many were led to think that, unlike any other Head of State, he neither reigned nor ruled. He never worried about what people said about him. He never looked into the mirror of history. There were occasions when he differed from the Prime Minister. But that was nothing new. They had differred for almost three decades and yet worked together in the Congress. The differences never embittered their personal relations. Perhaps, both realized that they arose out of their differing backgrounds, beliefs, approaches and attitudes. It was in 1960 that he announced his intention to retire, and though there were many regrets and many tried to persuade him to continue for a third term, his mind was made up. Jayaprakash Narayan welcomed the decision, suggesting that his direct guidance might be available after retirement to the Sarvodaya Movement. But the 1961 illness, severed and protracted, shattered Rajendra Prasad's health completely. Many therefore, worried at his decision to go back to the Sadaquat Ashram. How could he guide any constructive movement with that frail body of his? Would not the inconveniences of the Ashram prove too much for his health? His elder sister Bhagwati Devi had passed away in the night of 25 January, 1960. She doted on her dearly-loved younger brother, to whose house she had returned within two years of her marriage, a widow at nineteen. It must have taken Rajendra Babu all his will power to have taken the Republic Day salute as usual, on the following day, seemingly unruffled. It was only on return from the parade that he set about the task of cremation. Within months of his retirement, early in September 1962, passed away his wife Rajbanshi Devi, whose contribution to making him what he was, though indirect, was considerable. Frail and an invalid for a long time, she was the very embodiment of the spirit of renunciation, selflessness, self-effacement and devotion. She had asked for little and though she had been only partly a companion to him, she had silently encouraged him and never stood in the way. Her husband's will was her will, his pleasure hers. Not many words were exchanged between the two - they would sit quietly together for hours - and yet their silent communion filled the atmosphere with distinct aura. No wonder, his last days were days of agony. The Chinese aggression had shaken him completely. He had apprehended the danger. He had thought of the dreaded possibility. But "perhaps those who thought otherwise knew better". This consolation was shaken away by the naked aggression. His will to live was weakening. In a letter to one devoted to him, he wrote a month before his death: "I have a feeling that the end is near, end of the energy to do, end of my very existence". And so, when the end came suddenly on 28 February, 1963, he was not unprepared. He died, after a few hours' illness, with 'Ram Ram' on his lips. Ever since the present Contributor came near him in 1933, the bond grew stronger as the years passed. Rajendra Prasad had great affection for him and valued his judgement. Rajendra Babu and the present Contributor were together in the Birla House when the Interim Government was formed in September 1946. Rajendra Babu said, "We must now move to our residences" The present contributor had brought nothing except his clothes, and wondered as to how to go about setting up a home. When he reached No. Queen Victoria Road - now Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road - in the evening, he was pleasantly surprised to find that not only were all provisions and utensils and crockeries there, but even the statue of goddess Lakshmi had not been forgotten. Rajendra Babu shared Gandhiji's great vision, the making of a new man in a new society. His mind was capable of broad sweeps. But it would take

Kannada

ಡಾ.ರಾಜೇಂದ್ರ ಪ್ರಸಾದ್

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Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four ‘big cats’ of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India. Choice of Tiger as National Animal Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation. Declining Population of Tiger There is a steep fall in the population of tigers in the world. Due to illegal smuggling of Tiger Skin and other body parts, there are very few tigers left in the world today. According to the World Census of Tigers, there are only 5000 -7000 tigers in the world today. Out of which, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar claim to have a population of 3000 to 4500 and India alone claims to have a population of 2500 to 3750. In India, out of the eight known races of the Panthera Tigris species, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region. Project Tiger in India Due to the extreme threat of extinction of the tiger species from the country, the Indian Government launched Project Tiger in 1973. Project tiger was focused to preserve the remaining tiger population in the country and increase the breeding of the species so that new population could be added to the existing one. Under this Project, 23 tiger reserves were established throughout the country, covering an area of 33,406 sq. km for providing safe and comfortable shelter to the tigers in the natural environment. By 1993, there was much improvement in the tiger population in the country. However despite the increase in population, the population of tigers in the country is still not satisfactory compared to the effort and money put in the project. This is due to the illegal poaching of the tigers and negligence of authorities towards the alarming situation of the tiger population in the country

Kannada

ಭಾರತದ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಪ್ರಾಣಿ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

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In India, Republic Day honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into force on 25 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.[1] The Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 but was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, completing the country's transition toward becoming an independent republic. 26 January was selected for this purpose because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence (Purna Swaraj) was proclaimed by the Indian National Congress. It is one of three national holidays in India, other two being Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Contents 1 History 2 Celebrations 2.1 Delhi Republic Day parade 2.2 Beating Retreat 3 Gallery 4 Chief guest 5 See also 6 References History President Rajendra Prasad (in the horse-drawn carriage) readies to take part in the first Republic Day parade on Rajpath, New Delhi, in 1950. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012) India achieved independence from British rule on 15 August 1947 following the Indian independence movement noted for largely peaceful nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress. The independence came through the Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c. 30), an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth (later Commonwealth of Nations): India and Pakistan.[2] India obtained its independence on 15 August 1947 as a constitutional monarchy with George VI as head of state and the Earl Mountbatten as governor-general. The country, though, did not yet have a permanent constitution; instead its laws were based on the modified colonial Government of India Act 1935. On 28 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, with Dr.B. R. Ambedkar as chairman. While India's Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates of coming into force of its constitution. A draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.[3] The Assembly met, in sessions open to public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. Two days later, it came into effect throughout the nation. Celebrations The main Republic Day celebration is held in the national capital, New Delhi, at the Rajpath before the President of India. On this day, ceremonious parades take place at the Rajpath, which are performed as a tribute to India. In 2014, on the occasion of the 65th Republic Day, the Protocol Department of the Government of Maharashtra held its first parade on the lines of the Delhi Republic Day parade along the entire stretch of Marine Drive in Mumbai. Delhi Republic Day parade Main article: Delhi Republic Day parade To mark is held in the capital, New Delhi, from the Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (the President's residence), along the Rajpath, past India Gate.[4] Prior to its commencement, the Prime Minister lays a floral wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti, a memorial to unknown soldiers at the India Gate at one end of Rajpath, which is followed by two minutes silence in the memory of unknown soldiers. It is a solemn reminder of the sacrifice of the martyrs who died for the country in the freedom movement and the succeeding wars for the defence of sovereignty of their country. Thereafter he/she reaches the main dais at Rajpath to join other dignitaries, subsequently the President arrives along with the chief guest of the occasion. They are escorted on horseback by the President's Bodyguard. Beating Retreat Main article: Beating Retreat The Beating Retreat ceremony officially denotes the end of Republic Day festivities. It is conducted on the evening of 29 January, the third day after the Republic Day. It is performed by the bands of the three wings of the military, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The venue is Raisina Hills and an adjacent square, Vijay Chowk, flanked by the North and South block of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President's Palace) towards the end of Rajpath. The Chief Guest of the function is the President of India who arrives escorted by the (PBG), a cavalry unit. When the President arrives, the PBG commander asks the unit to give the National Salute, which is followed by the playing of the Indian National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana, by the Army developed the ceremony of display by the massed bands in which Military Bands, Pipe and Drum Bands, Buglers and Trumpeters from various Army Regiments besides bands from the Navy and Air Force take part which play popular tunes like Abide With Me, Mahatma Gandhi's favourite hymn, and Saare Jahan Se Achcha at the end.[5][6][7] Gallery Rashtrapati Bhavan been lit up. Soldiers at the Republic day parade 2013 at New Delhi. Agni-V missile and Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher at the Republic day parade 2013. Balloons with tricolour are seen. BSF-Republic day.jpeg Chief guest Countries invited as chief guests for the Republic Day parade. Erstwhile Yugoslavia (twice invited) has not been depicted in the map. Since 1950, India has been hosting head of state or government of another country as the state guest of honour for Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi. During 1950-1954, Republic Day celebrations were organized at different venues (like Irwin Stadium, Kingsway, Red Fort and Ramlila Grounds).[8] It was only starting 1955 when the parade in its present form was organized at Rajpath.[8] The guest country is chosen after a deliberation of strategic, economic and political interests. During 1950s-1970s, a number of NAM and Eastern Bloc countries were hosted by India. In the post-Cold War era, India has also invited several Western leaders on a state visit during the Republic Day. It is notable that before India fought bloody wars with China and Pakistan, leaders from these countries were invited as state guests for the Republic Day celebrations. Interestingly, Pakistan Food and Agriculture Minister was the second state guest from that country for Republic Day in 1965, a few days after which the two countries went to a war. Countries which have been invited multiple times include India's neighbours (Bhutan, and Sri Lanka), defence allies (Russia/USSR, France and Britain), trade partners (Brazil) and NAM allies (Nigeria and erstwhile Yugoslavia). Bhutan and France have the distinction of being the guest of honour for the maximum (four) number of times followed by three visits each from Mauritius and USSR/Russia.

Kannada

ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ ದಿನ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

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