Ask Google

Results for lung cancer is the major cause of s... translation from English to Malay

Human contributions

From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.

Add a translation

English

Malay

Info

English

Believers, what is the matter with you that when you are asked to go forth in the cause of God, you cling slothfully to the land?

Malay

Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Mengapa kamu, apabila dikatakan kepada kamu: "Pergilah beramai-ramai untuk berperang pada jalan Allah", kamu merasa keberatan (dan suka tinggal menikmati kesenangan) di tempat (masing-masing)?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

And what is the matter with you that you spend not in the Cause of Allah? And to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth.

Malay

Dan mengapa kamu tidak membelanjakan harta benda kamu pada jalan Allah? - Padahal Allah jualah yang mewarisi langit dan bumi (serta segala isinya).

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

English

What is the matter with you, when it is said to you, “Mobilize in the cause of God,” you cling heavily to the earth?

Malay

Mengapa kamu, apabila dikatakan kepada kamu: "Pergilah beramai-ramai untuk berperang pada jalan Allah", kamu merasa keberatan (dan suka tinggal menikmati kesenangan) di tempat (masing-masing)?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

O ye who believe! what is the matter with you, that, when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of Allah, ye cling heavily to the earth?

Malay

Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Mengapa kamu, apabila dikatakan kepada kamu: "Pergilah beramai-ramai untuk berperang pada jalan Allah", kamu merasa keberatan (dan suka tinggal menikmati kesenangan) di tempat (masing-masing)?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Pollution causes colon is the cause of which can be seen through the naked eye meaning that the sources are easily identified and where applicable the release of industrial wastewater and domestic sewage directly into the river without any treatment.

Malay

Pencemaran punca bertitik merupakan punca yang boleh dilihat menerusi mata kasar dan mudah dikenalpasti di mana berlaku aktiviti pelepasan air sisa kumbahan dari industri dan domestic terus disalurkan ke dalam sungai tanpa sebarang rawatan.

Last Update: 2016-09-12
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Do you think that giving a drink of water to the pilgrims and going on a visit to the Sacred Mosque, is the same as believing in God and the Last Day, and striving in the cause of God?

Malay

Adakah kamu sifatkan hanya perbuatan memberi minum kepada orang-orang yang mengerjakan Haji, dan (hanya perbuatan) memakmurkan Masjid Al-Haraam itu sama seperti orang yang beriman kepada Allah dan hari akhirat serta berjihad pada jalan Allah?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Those who abandoned their homes for the cause of God and who then died or were murdered will receive honorable sustenance from God; He is the Most Generous and Munificent.

Malay

Dan orang-orang yang berhijrah pada jalan Allah, kemudian mereka terbunuh atau mati, sudah tentu Allah akan mengurniakan kepada mereka limpah kurnia yang baik. Dan (ingatlah) sesungguhnya Allah adalah sebaik-baik pemberi limpah kurnia.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

O you who have believed, what is [the matter] with you that, when you are told to go forth in the cause of Allah, you adhere heavily to the earth?

Malay

Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Mengapa kamu, apabila dikatakan kepada kamu: "Pergilah beramai-ramai untuk berperang pada jalan Allah", kamu merasa keberatan (dan suka tinggal menikmati kesenangan) di tempat (masing-masing)?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth?

Malay

Mengapa kamu, apabila dikatakan kepada kamu: "Pergilah beramai-ramai untuk berperang pada jalan Allah", kamu merasa keberatan (dan suka tinggal menikmati kesenangan) di tempat (masing-masing)?

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

God is well pleased with the foremost ones of those who left their homes for the cause of God, those who helped them after their arrival in Medina and those who nobly followed these two groups. He has prepared gardens for them wherein streams flow and wherein they will live forever. This, certainly is the supreme triumph.

Malay

Dan orang-orang yang terdahulu - yang mula-mula (berhijrah dan memberi bantuan) dari orang-orang "Muhajirin" dan "Ansar", dan orang-orang yang menurut (jejak langkah) mereka dengan kebaikan (iman dan taat), Allah reda akan mereka dan mereka pula reda akan Dia, serta Ia menyediakan untuk mereka Syurga-syurga yang mengalir di bawahnya beberapa sungai, mereka kekal di dalamnya selama-lamanya; itulah kemenangan yang besar.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Evil: So fight ye against the friends of Satan: feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.

Malay

Orang-orang yang beriman, berperang pada jalan Allah; dan orang-orang yang kafir pula berperang pada jalan Taghut (Syaitan). Oleh sebab itu, perangilah kamu akan pengikut-pengikut Syaitan itu, kerana sesungguhnya tipu daya Syaitan itu adalah lemah.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And those who after they have been wronged emigrated for the Cause of Allah, We will lodge them with a good (life) in this world, but greater still is the wage of the Everlasting Life, if they but knew;

Malay

Dan orang-orang yang berhijrah kerana Allah, sesudah mereka dianiaya (ditindas oleh musuh-musuh Islam), Kami akan menempatkan mereka di dunia ini pada tempatnya yang baik; dan sesungguhnya pahala (amal mereka yang baik itu) lebih besar di akhirat kelak, kalaulah mereka mengetahui.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

PERSONALITY PROCESSES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Needs and Subjective Well-Being Around the World Louis Tay University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign Ed Diener University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska Across a sample of 123 countries, we examined the association between the fulfillment of needs and subjective well-being (SWB), including life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Need fulfillment was consistently associated with SWB across world regions. Life evaluation was most associated with fulfilling basic needs; positive feelings were most associated with social and respect needs; and negative feelings were most associated with basic, respect, and autonomy needs. Societal need fulfillment predicted SWB, particularly for life evaluation, beyond individuals’ fulfillment of their own needs, indicating the desirability of living in a flourishing society. In addition, the associations of SWB with the fulfillment of specific needs were largely independent of whether other needs were fulfilled. These trends persisted when household income was taken into account. The emergent ordering of need fulfillment for psychosocial needs were fairly consistent across country conditions, but the fulfillment of basic and safety needs were contingent on country membership. Keywords: universal needs, subjective well-being, societal context, ordering of needs, income In the current study, we examined the association between need fulfillment and subjective well-being (SWB). For many years, the idea of universal needs was out of favor because it was widely believed that socialization uniquely shapes the causes of wellbeing for each person and in each culture. Furthermore, it was often assumed that people adapt to circumstances so that in the long run only temperament influences SWB. However, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in universal influences on “happiness” that might derive from universal aspects of human nature (Konner, 2002). For instance, Howell and Howell (2008) suggested that the declining marginal utility of money might be due to the fact that income influences SWB primarily when it is associated with the fulfillment of basic physical needs. Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, and Schaller (2010) suggested that Maslow’s (1954) list of needs might be derivable from evolutionary theory (see also Hill & Buss, 2007). These approaches are compatible with the idea that the respect of others, learning new things, and supportive social relationships are fundamental universal needs that do not require secondary pairing with more basic needs to influence SWB. Ryff and Keyes (1995) and Ryan and Deci (2000), like Maslow (1954) before them, proposed that there are universal human needs and that fulfillment of them is likely to enhance a person’s feelings of well-being. These theorists suggest that there are psychological needs, such as for close social relationships, mastery, and autonomy, which are wired into humans, and therefore, fulfilling these needs should lead to higher SWB. Coming from a sociological tradition, Veenhoven and Ehrhardt (1995) argued for “livability theory,” the idea that some societies have a higher quality of life because they have characteristics that are universally desirable for humans. Conversely, the anthropologist Edgerton (1992) argued that there are “sick societies” that do not produce happiness and health. What these views have in common is the idea that certain circumstances are required for high quality of life in all cultures and for all individuals. There are also likely individual and cultural differences in what people desire and find rewarding, but these can coexist with the universals. The present research builds on the study by Diener, Ng, Harter, and Arora (2010) in which the focus was on the role of income in predicting SWB; specifically, basic and psychosocial need fulfillment was found to be a channel by which income raises life evaluation. Given the primacy of needs in SWB, we seek to probe further to differentiate the role of the various needs in SWB. There are a number of implications and questions that follow from the proposal that the level of SWB can be explained by the fulfillment of universal human needs: 1. If the needs are indeed universal, they should apply to all individuals in all cultures. Although, there are individual different theories of needs (e.g., Murray & Kluckhohn, 1948), the theories This article was published Online First June 20, 2011. Louis Tay, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign; Ed Diener, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign and The Gallup Organization, Omaha, Nebraska. We acknowledge Carolyn Anderson and Jeroen Vermunt. We are grateful for their helpful suggestions on the multilevel item-response theory analysis. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Louis Tay, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana— Champaign, 603 East Daniel Street, Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: sientay@illinois.edu Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, Vol. 101, No. 2, 354–365 © 2011 American Psychological Association 0022-3514/11/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0023779 354 we test suggest that certain needs are universal in all humans and, therefore, should be related to SWB in all cultures. 2. Inherent in the idea of universal needs is that fulfillment explains some portion of variance in SWB. There are other influences on SWB, such as culture (Oishi, 2010; Triandis & Suh, 2002) and temperament (Lucas & Diener, 2008). However, if the needs are indeed built into people because they aid survival, it is likely that humans are constructed so as to experience the fulfillment of the needs as rewarding and the deprivation of them as punishing. An issue related to this is whether the deprivation of needs is synonymous with low SWB and whether the fulfillment of needs is associated with high SWB. 3. The needs should have a degree of independence from each other, with each making a contribution to SWB beyond the effects of the others. That is, regardless of whether other needs are met, each need will enhance well-being to some extent when it is fulfilled. The analogy of psychological needs to vitamins was drawn by Maslow (1954). Like vitamins, each of the needs is individually required, just as having much of one vitamin does not negate the need for other vitamins. All needs should independently contribute to SWB. Just because one has, for example, a large amount of food and safety, it does not follow that one’s need for social support diminishes. On the other hand, it may be that the fulfillment of multiple needs exerts synergistic effects to enhance SWB. For instance, does the fulfillment of respect and social needs lead to higher SWB over and above what might be expected from each alone? 4. Another important question is whether the societal context influences the importance of need fulfillment on SWB. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) suggested that one limitation of humanistic psychology was that it overemphasized individual wellbeing without giving enough attention to collective well-being. With this in mind, we examined whether there are any independent effects of societal need fulfillment on people’s individual wellbeing. People’s well-being might depend not only on their success but also on the well-being of those around them (Christakis & Fowler, 2009), and therefore, the need fulfillment of others might influence a person’s well-being beyond the fulfillment of their own personal needs. 5. A final issue is whether needs are fulfilled in the order predicted by Maslow’s (1954) motivational theory. Past researchers found mixed evidence for the needs emerging in the order suggested by Maslow (Hagerty, 1999; Rauschenberger, Schmitt, & Hunter, 1980; Wicker, Brown, Wiehe, Hagen, & Reed, 1993). Thus, we examined the patterns in which needs are fulfilled and the degree to which societal contexts moderate the emergent ordering. The Gallup World Poll (GWP) included questions about six needs and three types of SWB. Because the GWP was so large and diverse, including the 123 countries used in this analysis that comprise the vast majority of the world’s adult population, generalizable inferences about humanity can be drawn. We examined needs derived from the work of Maslow (1954), Deci and Ryan (2000), Ryff and Keyes (1995), and others such as De Charms (1968) and Csikszentmihalyi (1988): ● Basic needs for food and shelter ● Safety and security ● Social support and love ● Feeling respected and pride in activities ● Mastery ● Self-direction and autonomy The needs we examined were dictated in part by the aforementioned theories of Maslow, Deci and Ryan, Ryff and Keyes, and Csikszentmihalyi and in part by the measures that were included in the GWP. We did not have a specific measure of self-acceptance, which is included in Ryff and Keyes’s theory, but we did have measures of “felt proud” and “are respected” to reflect Ryff and Keyes’s and Maslow’s concept of being respected and feeling worthy of respect. Our mastery need measure included “doing what one does best” and “learning new things” and, thus, reflects both mastery and growth. Thus, we had measures of Deci and Ryan’s needs and most of Maslow’s and Ryff and Keyes’s needs, although our measures do not map perfectly onto some categories. Nonetheless, our measures do reflect a broad and diverse set of needs, including basic, safety, and psychosocial needs. This analysis greatly expanded on the earlier study by Diener and colleagues (2010) by focusing on whether needs are necessary and sufficient for SWB across the world, the extent to which fulfilled needs produce independent or synergistic effects for SWB, whether societal fulfillment of needs leads to an increase in SWB beyond individual fulfillment of needs, and how needs are fulfilled in relation to one another. We examined each of the six needs in relation to three types of SWB—life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Because recent scholarship suggested that types of SWB are separable, distinct (Kahneman, 1999; Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996), and differentially related to factors such as income (Diener et al., 2010), it is plausible that the needs might have different associations with different types of SWB. Maslow (1954) proposed that the fulfillment of universal needs would lead to both health and “happiness.” We have come to understand that “happiness” is in fact composed of discrete elements. Life evaluation, positive feelings, and negative feelings form clearly separable factors in selfreport, informant reports, and experience sampling (Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996). Thus, it is possible that the fulfillment of certain needs is more strongly associated with some types of “happiness” than with others. For instance, there seems to be a close connection between social relationships and extraversion, on one hand, and positive feelings, on the other (Bradburn, 1969; Lucas, Diener, Grob, Suh, & Shao, 2000), and a lesser relation between negative feelings and sociability. Similarly, one might hypothesize that feeling unsafe could produce negative emotions but that being safe might not produce long-lasting positive feelings. Summary of Research We assessed the relation of needs with SWB in each of eight sociocultural regions of the world—from Europe to Africa to Latin America. The GWP included rural and poor populations that have been underrepresented in past studies of SWB. Our goal was to examine the association of six needs with each of the three types of SWB, with representative samples across the major regions of the world, with the aim of answering several questions: What are UNIVERSAL NEEDS AND WELL-BEING 355 the associations of need fulfillment with SWB, and how general are these associations across cultures? Is the deprivation or fulfillment of needs linked to low and high SWB, respectively? Is the association of specific needs with SWB dependent on the fulfillment of other needs? Is there any influence on SWB of societal need fulfillment beyond individual need fulfillment? Finally, are needs typically fulfilled in the order described by Maslow? Method Sample The Gallup Organization conducted surveys of 155 countries, across the years 2005–2010, aimed at representing 95% of the world’s population. Representative sampling of the entire adult population within each nation was undertaken. In wealthy nations, this was achieved through telephone surveys based on randomdigit dialing, and in poorer nations in which telephones are less ubiquitous, this was accomplished by door-to-door interviews, with residences selected from geographical primary sampling units of household clusters (The Gallup Organization, 2009). Respondents within households were selected based on either the latest birthday or the Kish grid method. Up to three contacts per household, at different times of day, were used. A few regions of certain nations were not sampled due to safety concerns. In 123 nations, the GWP included the relevant need and SWB items. The nations we examined included representation from 66% of the world’s population. Within each country, analyses were conducted on individuals who responded to need and SWB items. Altogether, 60,865 individuals were asked the relevant survey items, with a mean of 494 respondents in each country. Out of these 60,865 individuals, 41,933 individuals were asked about their household income. The interviewers were individuals from each nation and were trained in interviewing techniques. Several features of the survey were designed to make responding easier for those not familiar with questionnaires, for example, simple yes–no responding to many items. The Gallup Organization has many decades of experience conducting surveys in diverse regions of the world. See the following website for methodological details on the sampling and measures: http:// www.gallup.com/se/128147/Worldwide-Research-Methodology .aspx World Regions In order to examine the universality of our findings across cultures, we divided nations into eight cultural regions that are similar to those used in the CIA Factbook, an authoritative source of world information. Societies within each region are not identical but share common features in terms of history, economic development, language root, religion, and so forth. Our eight regions were (a) Africa, (b) East and South Asia, (c) former Soviet Union nations, including Eastern Europe, (d) Latin America, (e) Middle East, (f) Northern Europe and Anglo nations, (g) Southeast Asia, and (h) Southern Europe. Measures Translation. In each nation, bilingual speakers translated the survey into one or more widespread languages. The translations were then reviewed by second bilingual speakers, who recommended refinements. Because of the very large number of different languages used in the surveys, it is unlikely that language differences created the systematic patterns of finding, although it is possible that they introduced random measurement error that reduced the size of correlations we found. In many cross-cultural studies that employ a small number of nations, translation can represent a systematic contaminant because translation differences could produce what appear to be cultural differences. However, with hundreds of translations used across over 100 nations, this concern is greatly reduced. Indeed, recent analyses of emotion terms of various translations across the world revealed pan-cultural dimensions (Tay, Diener, Drasgow, & Vermunt, 2011). SWB. Both cognitive and affective components of SWB (Diener, 1984, 2000) were assessed, which Kahneman (1999) has called remembered versus experienced well-being. A global life evaluation measure (Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale; Cantril, 1965) asked respondents to evaluate their current life on a ladder scale, with steps ranging from 0 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Positive and negative feelings were assessed by aggregating items that tapped feelings experienced a lot in the previous day, on a dichotomous scale format (1  yes, 0  no). Positive items included “smile/laugh” and “enjoyment”; negative items included “worry,” “sadness,” “depression,” and “anger.” Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for positive and negative emotions were .58 and .65, respectively. The reliabilities appear to be acceptable, given the dichotomous scale format and the short scale lengths. Needs. Basic needs for food and shelter were satisfied when in the past 12 months a respondent (a) had enough money for food, (b) had enough money for shelter, and (c) did not go hungry. Safety and security needs were met when individuals (a) felt safe walking alone, (b) did not have money and/or property stolen during the past 12 months (from either them or their family members), and (c) were not assaulted during the past 12 months. Similarly, social support and love were met when the respondents indicated that they (a) experienced love yesterday and (b) have others they can count on for help in an emergency. Respect and pride in activities were fulfilled for respondents who (a) felt they were treated with respect and (b) were proud of something. Mastery was met when an individual (a) had the experience of learning something and (b) did what she or he does best at work. Finally, coding for self-direction and autonomy was based on two variables: whether individuals could (a) choose how their time was spent and (b) whether they experienced freedom in life. In the following analyses and results, these variables are labeled, respectively, as “basic,” “safety,” “social,” “respect,” “mastery,” and “autonomy.” Needs were operationally defined as met (1) or unmet (0) through combinations of surveyed items, all of which were answered on a dichotomous yes–no scale. A need was scored as fulfilled (1) only if all items pertaining to that need were answered affirmatively and otherwise was scored as unfulfilled (0). Results The means and standard deviations for both individual- and country-level data are presented in Table 1. As can be seen, there is large variability between individuals in the fulfillment of needs and in SWB, as well as substantial variability among nations. It is important to note that there are no ceiling or floor effects on any of the variables. 356 TAY AND DIENER The Effects of Needs on SWB Correlations and Hierarchical Regressions of Needs and SWB Table 2 presents the zero-order correlations for the world and eight cultural regions among the six universal needs, log-income, and three SWB variables. An analysis of relative importance was conducted to assess the proportional contribution of each need to the variance accounted for in predicting SWB (Grömping, 2006). The relative weights shown in Table 3 take into account dependence on the order of entry in the regression by averaging over all possible orders (Kruskal, 1987). The rows in Table 3 present the Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Individual and Societal Data Measure Individuals Countries M SD M SD SWB Life evaluation 5.59 2.10 5.57 1.07 Positive feelings 0.75 0.36 0.74 0.09 Negative feelings 0.21 0.28 0.21 0.05 Needs Basic 0.67 0.47 0.66 0.21 Safety 0.53 0.50 0.54 0.15 Social 0.62 0.48 0.62 0.15 Respect 0.61 0.49 0.61 0.13 Mastery 0.49 0.50 0.48 0.13 Autonomy 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.14 Log household income 3.85 0.63 3.89 0.49 Note. SWB  subjective well-being. Table 2 Zero-Order Correlations of Needs and Subjective Well-Being for the World and Cultural Regions Region Measure Basic Safety Social Respect Mastery Autonomy Log income Life evaluation World (N  60,854) 0.31 0.08 0.18 0.11 0.15 0.12 0.40 Africa (N 

Malay

citchat

Last Update: 2015-03-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and [for] the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, "Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?"

Malay

Dan apakah yang menghalang kamu (maka kamu) tidak mahu berperang pada jalan Allah (untuk menegakkan ugama Islam) dan (untuk menyelamatkan) orang-orang yang tertindas dari kaum lelaki, perempuan dan kanak-kanak, iaitu mereka yang selalu (berdoa dengan) berkata: "Wahai Tuhan kami! Keluarkanlah kami dari negeri (Makkah) ini, yang penduduknya (kaum kafir musyrik) yang zalim, dan jadikanlah bagi kami dari pihakMu seorang pemimpin yang mengawal (keselamatan ugama kami), dan jadikanlah bagi kami dari pihakMu seorang pemimpin yang membela kami (dari ancaman musuh)".

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

And when the unbelievers established in their hearts fierce bigotry, the fierce bigotry of ignorance, Allah sent down His tranquility on His Messenger and the believers and firmly fastened to them the Word of 'taqwa' (there is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger, as it is the cause of righteousness) to which they have better right and are worthy of it.

Malay

(Ingatlah dan kenangkanlah ihsan Tuhan kepada kamu) ketika orang-orang yang kafir itu menimbulkan perasaan sombong angkuh yang ada dalam hati mereka (terhadap kebenaran Islam) - perasaan sombong angkuh secara Jahiliyah (yang menyebabkan kamu panas hati dan terharu), lalu Allah menurunkan semangat tenang tenteram kepada RasulNya dan kepada orang-orang yang beriman (sehingga tercapailah perdamaian), serta meminta mereka tetap berpegang kepada "Kalimah Taqwa", sedang mereka (di sisi Allah) adalah orang-orang yang sangat berhak dengan "kalimah Taqwa" itu serta menjadi ahlinya.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of Allah as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.

Malay

Dan orang-orang yang beriman dan berhijrah serta berjihad pada jalan Allah (untuk membela Islam), dan orang-orang (Ansar) yang memberi tempat kediaman dan pertolongan (kepada orang-orang Islam yang berhijrah itu), merekalah orang-orang yang beriman dengan sebenar-benarnya. Mereka beroleh keampunan dan limpah kurnia yang mulia.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Head and neck cancer (HNC) refers to tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx including nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx; and larynx, paranasal sinuses and the salivary glands (COSA 2011, NCSM 2010). There were 940 cases of nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed in 2007 and registered at National Cancer Registry, comprising of 685 males and 255 females. Nasopharyngeal cancer is the fourth most common cancer (5.2%) among Malaysian and the third most common cancer among males in Malaysia. Statistics showed that smoking and drinking rates are higher in men than in women (COSA 2011; NCR 2007). This is probably a reason why HNC incidence was more than 2 folds higher among males when compared to females (NCSM 2010). Among the ethnics, Chinese were found to have higher incidence rate of HNC compared to Malay and Indian. Recent genome-wide association study focused on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has identified genetic variants in Chinese population might be associated with the high incidence of HNC (Yuan et al. 2013). However, future studies with larger samples and functional evaluation are needed to validate the findings. In addition, HNC is most common in people aged 50 or older. However, the peak of age-specific incidence rate of HNC was at aged of 70 to 75 based on NCR (2007) statistics. Moreover, higher incidence rate found in developing countries, particularly in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Kabul) as compared to European or Western countries (Boyle et al. 2008). By far, tobacco smoking or chewing, alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing are the most common risk factors associated with HNC (Akhtar et al. 2012; Chang et al. 2005; Znaor et al. 2003). Betel nut is a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime with aqueous calcium hydroxide paste and tobacco, condiments and with or without sweeteners wrapped in a betel leaf (Jeng et al. 2001). Thus, chewing betel nuts is highly addictive and carcinogenic (nitrosamines) which play a significant role in the aetiology of oral cancer (Akhtar et al. 2012). Studies showed that the incidence of HNC for individuals who smoke, drink alcohol and chew betel nut has been reported to be 123-fold higher than drink alcohol alone (Jeng et al. 2001; Ko et al. 1995). Other observed risk factors are poor oral hygiene, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus (HPV) and occupational exposure to asbestos, formadehyde and nick (Attar et al. 2010; Kreimer et al. 2005). Nevertheless, recent studies found there is an association between diet and HNC (Jia et al. 2010). Studies showed that consumption of salted vegetables such as soybeans, canned pickle vegetable and salted fish and meat is associated with HNC particularly nasopharynx cancer. This is because cooking of such foods releases carcinogens, nitrosamines into the fumes that we breathe (SCS 2013; Jia et al. 2010).

Malay

perisian percuma menterjemah untuk netbook

Last Update: 2013-11-30
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

Some human translations with low relevance have been hidden.
Show low-relevance results.

Get a better translation with
4,401,923,520 human contributions

Users are now asking for help:



We use cookies to enhance your experience. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. Learn more. OK