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then he turned to his household, so brought out a roasted calf [as the property of ibrahim (abraham) was mainly cows].
kemudian ia masuk mendapatkan ahli rumahnya serta dibawanya keluar seekor anak lembu gemuk (yang dipanggang).
Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
failures of metallic materials due to wear, corrosion and/or fatigue often start at the surface of manufactured products. the quality of the surface produced by manufacturing processes has critical influence on the functional performance of the products. the concept of ―surface integrity (si)‖ was used to refer to the surface quality by field and kahles in 1964 and defined as ―the inherent or enhanced condition of a surface produced in machining or other surface generating operation‖ (field and kahles, 1964). they also developed a systematic method to study and evaluate the characteristic features of machined surfaces in three different levels as shown in table 1.1 (field et al., 1972). among these si factors, residual stress is one of the most frequently studied due to its proved relationship with fatigue life (leverant et al., 1979; sasahara, 2005). microstructural changes, especially ―white layer‖ formation, are also well investigated because they were proved to reduce fatigue life (hashimoto et al., 2006). recently, more and more studies on surface integrity have been reported by researchers from various countries due to its close relationship with functional performance of the manufactured products (jawahir et al., 2011). however, most of the current researches were conducted on difficult-to-machine materials, such as aisi 52100 steel, nickel-based superalloys and titanium alloys. the purpose of these studies was mainly to avoid the formation of undesirable surface integrity, including tensile residual stresses, white layer and other surface defects. the possibility of using manufacturing processes to improve functional 2 performance of manufactured products through inducing desirable surface integrity has not been well investigated.
Last Update: 2020-05-06
Usage Frequency: 1
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