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Hindi

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Inglés

such type of securities which have a long life for redemption .

Hindi

ऐसी प्रतिभूतियां जिनके शोधन की अवधि बहुत लम्बी होती है ।

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Inglés

a family of trees which has a rich medicinal value .

Hindi

वृक्षों का एक वर्ग जिस का औषधी मुल्य बहुत अधिक है ।

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Inglés

such type of securities which have been assigned different categories .

Hindi

ऐसी प्रतिभूतियां जिन्हें अलग - अलग श्रेणियों में बांटा गया हो ।

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Inglés

a type of respiration which makes a louder sound that normal .

Hindi

श्वसन का एक प्रकार जो सामान्य से तेज आवाज उत्पन्न करता है .

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such type of goods which have more show value than their utility .

Hindi

ऐसा माल जिसे रखना इज्जत दिखाने के लिए हो न कि उनकी उपयोगिता के दृष्टिकोण से ।

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Inglés

when you have make a payment

Hindi

mujhe karna padega

Última actualización: 2017-04-21
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Inglés

such type of demands which have been made in addition to the original one .

Hindi

ऐसी मांग जो मूल मांग के अतिरिक्त हो ।

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a type of mustard plant which is commercially grown for it seeds which have a edible value .

Hindi

एक प्रकार का सरसो का पौधा जिसे वाणिज्यिक तौर पर उसके बीजो के लिए लगाया जाता जो खाद्य मूल्य रखते है ।

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Inglés

such type of services which have been devised some specific purposes or which meet the needs .

Hindi

इस प्रकार की सेवाएं जो किसी विशेष प्रयोजन के लिए बनाई गई हों अथवा किसी निर्धारित आवश्यकता की पूर्ति हेतु हों ।

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so he told his archers , stand guard by the trees which have the largest number of mangoes .

Hindi

उसने 59 अपने धनुर्धरों से कहा , जिन पेड़ों पर ज्यादा फल हैं उनकी चौकसी करो ।

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Inglés

which man is cutting the tree he make a painting of trees

Hindi

which man cutting the tree he is make a painting a tree

Última actualización: 2022-04-21
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Inglés

surely we sent upon them a single cry , so they were like the dry fragments of trees which the maker of an enclosure collects .

Hindi

हमने उन पर एक सख्त चिंघाड़ भेज दिया तो वह बाड़े वालो के सूखे हुए चूर चूर भूसे की तरह हो गए

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surely we sent upon them a single cry , so they were like the dry fragments of trees which the maker of an enclosure collects .

Hindi

हमने उनपर एक धमाका छोड़ा , फिर वे बाड़ लगानेवाले की रौंदी हुई बाड़ की तरह चूरा होकर रह गए

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Inglés

the type of medications currently available for oral treatment of non - insulin dependent diabetes are the sulphonylureas which have been in use for more than 25 years .

Hindi

मधुमेह इंसुलिन अनिर्भर मधुमेह टाइप 2 के उपचार के लिए जो खायी जाने वाली दवाएं उपलब्ध हैं उन्हे सल्फोनाइलयूरिया कहते हैं जिनका 25 से भी अधिक वर्षो से निरंतर प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

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the biggest causes of global warming are deforestation, factories, electricity wastage, etc. deforestation reduces the number of trees, which means there will be more carbon dioxide in the air. factories produce a lot of greenhouse gases, and most electricity requires burning fossil fuels

Hindi

ग्लोबल वार्मिंग का सबसे बड़ा कारण वनों की कटाई, कारखाने, बिजली की बर्बादी आदि हैं। वनों की कटाई से पेड़ों की संख्या कम हो जाती है, जिसका अर्थ है कि हवा में अधिक कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड होगा। फैक्ट्रियां बहुत अधिक ग्रीनहाउस गैसों का उत्पादन करती हैं, और अधिकांश बिजली के लिए जीवाश्म ईंधन जलाने की आवश्यकता होती है

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this games , played all across the world has innumerable informal forms which include indoor cricket , french cricket , kwik cricket and all the types of card and board games which have been inspired by cricket . the rules in these forms change so that the game becomes convenient to play in limited spaces .

Hindi

दुनिया भर में खेले जाने वाले इस खेल के असंख्य अनौपचारिक रूप हैं जिसमें शामिल है इनडोर क्रिकेट फ्रांसीसी क्रिकेट बीच क्रिकेट क्विक क्रिकेट और सभी प्रकार के कार्ड खेल और बोर्ड खेल जो क्रिकेट से प्रेरित हैं . इन रूपों में अक्सर नियम बदल दिए जाते हैं ताकि सिमित स्रोतों में खेल को खेलने योग्य बनाया जा सके या सहभागियों के लिए इसे अधिक मनोरंजक और आसन बनाया जा सके .

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introduction to owls owls are very interesting birds, and one that many other types of birds are afraid of. in fact, fake owls are often placed on top of buildings to keep pigeons and other types of birds from making nests there. the owl is said to be a symbol of wisdom and they make a unique sound at night that is distinctly identifiable. the owl is one of the species of birds that you do don’t see very often though, but only hear. this is due to the fact that the owl isn’t a bird that is out during the day. they are known to be very active at night only. there are two main categories of owls – barn owls and typical owls. you will find quite a difference when it comes to the size of different species of owls out there. some of them are only about 4 inches when fully mature with the largest ones being about 28 inches fully grown. they vary in color too depending on the region where they live. they blend in well with their surroundings which makes it hard to spot them unless you are avidly searching for them in a given environment.

Hindi

साइबेरियन क्रेन

Última actualización: 2016-08-03
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as you like it historical background of the play introduction to shakespeare when i read shakespeare i am struck with wonder that such trivial people should muse and thunder in such lovely language. d. h. lawrence quote (1885 - 1930) william shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in startford-on-avon... 1402 words | 4 pages as you like it, characters in as you like it, poetry, metre (poetry) essay in hindi | passport application form | government of india,ministry of external affairs | | | service required application reference number 12-0003296889 applying for fresh type of application normal type of passport booklet normal validity required 10 years applicant details applicant's name anurag choudhary... 349 words | 1 pages hindi essay © nordic school of public health issn 1104-5701 isbn 91-7997-151-2 mph 2006:18 dnr u12/02:142 master of public health – essay – title and subtitle of the essay hygiene, eating habits and oral health among children in three nepalese public high schools author kerstin westbacke author's... 2275 words | 11 pages maxillary central incisor, deciduous teeth, canine tooth, tooth essay on pet animal in hindi night of the scorpion night of the scorpion is a poem by ‘nissim ezekiel’. it tells the story of a rural boy(the poet),whose mother was stung by a scorpion .the illiterate village folk try to curse the poison away & are blinded by their superstitions .the boy’s father is a skeptic, rationalist who... 317 words | 1 pages essay on disadvantage of science in hindi lakes are most abundant in high northern latitudes and in mountain regions, particularly those that were covered by glaciers in recent geologic times. the primary sources of lake water are melting ice and snow, springs, rivers, runoff from the land surface, and direct precipitation. in the upper part... 738 words | 2 pages earthquake, mercalli intensity scale, tsunami, heavy water my pet dog essay in hindi socio-economic details : gender nationality marital status social status male indian married sc telugu telugu (for office use only) id no. english hindi sanskrit candidate’s latest photo female others un married st bc rural ph urban others if any specify : area which you are living comes under... 417 words | 2 pages identity document fire prevention essay in hindi & english what is fire prevention? 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nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays? 15:37 wot if tere is repetation so wt to do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls... 465 words | 4 pages hindi source and publication of the story: ³a fishy story´ is taken out from jerome k jerome¶sfamous comic novel ³ three men in a boat (to say nothing of the dog) ´ (1889). it can be read as a separate episode. three men in a boat (to say nothing of the dog ), publishedin 1889, is a humorous account... 731 words | 2 pages three men in a boat hindi call me! unfaithfully yours, rameez m/ http://www.ndtv.com/video/player/news/michelle-obama-make-a-difference/173832 first find a suitable essay in english (google search). copy it into a notepad or any text editor for saving it. then open google translate. paste it in the text box provided... 354 words | 1 pages hindi sunday, 20 december 2009 how to improve your life with self-hypnosis the art of self-hypnosis often gets dismissed as being "new age." however, just like nearly everything in life, if you truly believe in yourself and the practice, it can prove to be very helpful. what is self-hypnosis? 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Hindi

प्रणव

Última actualización: 2015-07-21
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visthapan ke symasya infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. this article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. the authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. it reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions. studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities. unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. it is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of article 21 of the constitution of india. the judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under article 21. the founding fathers of the constitution, under article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. however, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement. also, the article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects. in the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive national policy on rehabilitation and resettlement (nprr) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of nprr, 2007. introduction "being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1. development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. one common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. it is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." however, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. pt. j.l. nehru said 'if you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2. indigenous people and tribal disproportionately affected studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. the scheduled tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3 impact of displacement forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. landlessness 2. joblessness 3. homelessness 4. marginalization. 5. food insecurity. 6. increased morbidity and mortality 7. loss of access to common property. 8. social disintegration.5 development- displacement and environment in achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. the large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. big dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. the pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. no wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. it is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late. human rights challenges that arise in relation to development-induced displacement there is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. human rights thus have to be considered independently. in 1986, the un general assembly adopted a declaration on the right to development7. the heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. the human rights that are affected : right to life the right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. the right to life is protected in the udhr (article 3) and the iccpr (article 6)8. in indian context, the supreme court in ollega tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9. moreover, unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."and so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment. right to own property the rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. the right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the udhr articles 17 as well as in article 6 of the icescr. rights to residence the eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. article 19(e) of the indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right. all these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12. defects in compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement policy for the government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. it's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. the limited provisions in the land acquisition act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the land acquisition took their cases to court. the value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. the laa thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession. the ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. however, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. what is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment. the ethics of development induced displacement and rehabilitation (didr) in dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? if so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees? according to peter penz,13 three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. the public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. the self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. in its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. the egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group. as penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. he concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. they include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. unfortunately, in most cases of didr, these conditions have been violated. international and national organisation and policies over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are: • the un guiding principles on internal displacement. • the oecd's guidelines for aid agencies on involuntary displacement and resettlement in development projects, 1992. • world bank's operational directive 4.30 on involuntary resettlement. • united nations and other international organizations- different agencies of un work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement. a. the representative of the secretary-general on idps the report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the guiding principles on protection against displacement. b. internal displacement unit using the guiding principles as an overall framework, the unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement c. world food program the essential condition for the provision of wfp food is the food insecurity of displaced people. d. un development programme undp in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations. e. un-habitat the twin goals of the habitat agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world. recommendations ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development : 1. states should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities. 2. states should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction. 3. sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all state projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site. 4. the state must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property. 5. resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law. 6. states should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16. 7. to make new law on rehabilitation and change the laa (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the laa (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition. 8. the very basis of the land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of fundamental rights, directive principles of state policy and special provisions for the scheduled castes / tribes and weaker sections. the effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. the issue of displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. to conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.

Hindi

visthapan ke symasya

Última actualización: 2015-01-27
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विद्वान सेटिंग 1 students’ research global media journal – indian edition/issn 2249 - 5835 sponsored by the university of calcutta/ www.caluniv.ac.in summer issue / june 2012 vol. 3/no.1 gender reflections in mainstream hindi cinema nidhi shendurnikar tere junior resea rch scholar department of political science, maharaja sayajirao university of baroda, gujarat , india website: http://www.msubaroda.ac.in email: mailtonidhi@sify.com , blog: www.68pagesofmylife.blospot.com abstract : cinema is meant and believed to entertain, to take the viewer to a world that is starkly different from the real one, a world which provides escape from the daily grind of life. cinema is a popular media of mass consumption which plays a key role in moulding opinions, constructing images and reinforcing dominant cultural values. the paper deals with representations of women characters in mainstream bollywood movies. it is deemed appropriate to exami ne this issue because women are a major chunk of the country‟s population and hence their portrayal on screen is crucial in determining the furtherance of already existing stereotypes in the society. the paper begins with a discussion on the field of femin ist film criticism and how mainstream hindi cinema has restricted itself to defined sketches of womanhood. it also undertakes some glimpses from popular films to analyse this process of stereotyping the „other‟ – considering that reality in mainstream cine ma is constructed from the male view point. a section is devoted to discussion on contemporary realistic brand of cinema and its understanding of women . in conclusion , a debate ensues on whether mainstream hindi cinema has been successful in portraying ind ian women of different shades in a society dominated by patriarchal values. key words : cinema, popular, media, women, bollywood, movies, stereotypes, feminist, mainstream, patriarchal feminist film criticism the issues of media, identity and gender are being discussed all over today. they have become integral to the discipline of media studies. the reason is the popularity and diversity of media as a source of mass consumption and its influence on constructing ideas and generating debate. the media scene in india has expanded in the recent times as there is a plethora of media choices available to the audiences. media structures and systems have also undergone a sea change with privatization and globalization. huge corporations with their own profit motiv es own media houses. media has been able to transcend borders and look at issues more holistically rather than in the context of nationalism. hence, these developments are bound to affect the manner in which media scrutinizes and covers any issue – gender being an important one. women are also major consumers of mass media and thus the way they are represented in media coverage is a major concern for the discipline. several international forums have recognized the ramifications of such a transformed media e nvironment on women‟s access to media, their role in the media structure and the presentation of their perspective in media coverage. i in this paper, there has been an attempt to examine the relationship between women and popular hindi cinema. while cinema in india is in itself a diverse strand of expression incorporating mainstream cinema which holds popular appeal, art/parallel cinema that engages with social issues, middle cinema and regional language cinema. the explorations in this paper are limited to mainstream/popular hindi cinema better known as 2 „bollywood‟ 1 because such cinema is seen to exercise widespread influence over people and enjoys mass appeal. popular cinema and culture derive from each other. films are believed to be the opium of the indi an masses as people rely on this medium to help them escape to a world of fantasy. ii in a very explicit way, cinema 2 has shaped the cultural, social and political values of people of this country. while, the other forms of cinema are also important when it comes to the representation of women, restricting to popular cinema is the core concern of the paper. the interest in films taken by feminists stems from concern about the under - representation and misrepresentation of women in cinema. it adopts a critical approach towards gender bias on celluloid. the feminist approach to cinema asks a few pertinent questions like how women are represented on screen, how women‟s issues are treated in cinema, what does feminism mean to film - makers, how does the feminist age nda manifest on screen, how is the women character positioned vis a vis the male character and what is the role of women film - makers and women writers in depicting women‟s issues through cinema. iii feminist critique of cinema has helped to view the reality p resented by cinema in a different way and thus has contributed significantly to the discipline of media studies as well as film studies. certain underlying aspects of a popular medium can only be brought to surface by criticism, scrutiny and introspection and feminists have attempted to do it with cinema as well as with other fields of study and practice. the links between women‟s studies and cinema are evident. after the women‟s movement, the field of women‟s studies has allied with almost every disciplin e to provide an alternative perspective of knowledge and reality as viewed by the practitioners and academia of the discipline. feminist theory took up a distinct stance in relation to the objectification, exclusion and silence of women in cinematic narrat ives. it also evaluated the stereotyping of female characters in cinema. for eg: in „visual pleasure and narrative cinema‟ (laura mulvey, 1975) , the male character was identified as the driver of the film‟s narrative, the character followed by the camera. the female character served as a spectacle to provide pleasure to the male spectator, for which mulvey used the term „gaze‟ . iv the theory of „absences and presences‟ was concerned with the absence of a certain type of female characters in films and the pres ence of the other type, which was seen to be influenced by patriarchal values. thus feminist theory in its critique of films incorporated the valorisation of women‟s experiences thereby posing a challenge to gender hierarchy as well as opening up new realm s for a post - gendered future. the paper in its ensuing sections will build an argument about the portrayal of women in hindi cinema based on various strands of f eminist film criticism which have certainly enriched our understanding of women on screen. the leading lady’s sketch though there exists a body of feminist film making in hindi cinema, the leading lady of hindi films has more or less played defined roles which conform to the values upheld by indian society. women in bollywood have been uni - dimensi onal characters, who are good or bad, white or black. there are no shades of grey. this dichotomy was reinforced in popular films which distinguished between the heroine and the vamp, the wife and the other woman. films have also been inspired to a large e xtent from religion and mythology whereby women characters were seen as the epitome of virtue and values, those who could do no wrong. the image of women as „sita‟ has been repeatedly evoked in many films after independence. through the ideas of loyalty an d obedience to the husband, hindi cinema successfully institutionalized patriarchal values. films like „dahej‟ (1950), „gauri‟ (1968), „devi‟ (1970), „biwi ho to aisi‟ (1988), „pati parmeshwar‟ (1988) depicted women as passive, submissive wives as perfect figure s and martyrs for their own families. in these films, though the practices of 1 according to wikipedia, bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the hindi - language film industry based in mumbai , maharashtra . the term is often incorr ectly used to refer to the whole of indian cinema ; it is only a part of the total indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing films in regional langua ges . it is one of the largest centers of film production in the world. 2 the term ‘cinema’ henceforth in this paper will signify mainstream/popular hindi films

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विद्वान सेटिंग

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