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robert watson-watt from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia sir robert watson-watt born robert alexander watson-watt 13 april 1892 brechin, angus, scotland, uk died 5 december 1973 (aged 81) inverness, scotland, uk known for radar notable awards • hughes medal (1948) • elliott cresson medal (1957) • fellow of the royal society[1] • kcb • fraes sir robert alexander watson-watt, kcb, frs, fraes (13 april 1892 – 5 december 1973) was a pioneer and significant contributor to the development of radar. radar was initially nameless and researched elsewhere but it was greatly expanded on 1 september 1936 when watson-watt became superintendent of a new establishment under the air ministry, bawdsey research station near felixstowe, suffolk. work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called chain home along the east and south coasts of england in time for the outbreak of the second world war in 1939. this system provided the vital advance information that helped the royal air force win the battle of britain.[1][2] contents • 1 early years • 2 early experiments • 3 radar o 3.1 the air defence problem o 3.2 aircraft detection and location o 3.3 civil service trade union activities • 4 contribution to second world war • 5 honours • 6 legacy • 7 family life • 8 references • 9 sources • 10 external links early years born in brechin, angus, scotland, on 13 april 1892 watson-watt (the hyphenated name is used herein for consistency, although this was not adopted until 1942)[3] was a descendant of james watt, the famous engineer and inventor of the practical steam engine. after attending damacre primary school and brechin high school,[4] he was accepted to university college, dundee (then part of the university of st andrews but became the university of dundee in 1967). watt had a successful time as a student, winning the carnelley prize for chemistry and a class medal for ordinary natural philosophy in 1910.[5] he graduated with a bsc in engineering in 1912, and was offered an assistantship by professor william peddie, the holder of the chair of physics at university college, dundee from 1907 to 1942. it was peddie who encouraged watson-watt to study radio, or "wireless telegraphy" as it was then known and who took him through what was effectively a postgraduate class of one on the physics of radio frequency oscillators and wave propagation. at the start of the great war watson-watt was working as an assistant in the college's engineering department.[6] early experiments in 1916 watson-watt wanted a job with the war office, but nothing obvious was available in communications. instead he joined the meteorological office, which was interested in his ideas on the use of radio for the detection of thunderstorms. lightning gives off a radio signal as it ionizes the air, and his goal was to detect this signal to warn pilots of approaching thunderstorms. the signal occurs across a wide range of frequencies, and could be easily detected and amplified by naval longwave sets, in fact, lightning was a major problem for communications at these common wavelengths.[7] his early experiments were successful in detecting the signal and he quickly proved to be able to do so at ranges up to 2,500 km. however, there was some difficulty in determining location. this was accomplished by rotating a loop antenna to maximise (or minimise) the signal, thus "pointing" to the storm. however, the strikes were so fleeting that it was very difficult to turn the antenna in time to positively locate one. instead, the operator would listen to many strikes and develop a rough average location.[7] at first, he worked at the wireless station of air ministry meteorological office in aldershot, hampshire. in 1924 when the war department gave notice that they wished to re-occupy their aldershot site, he moved to ditton park near slough, berkshire. the national physical laboratory (npl) was already using this site and had two main devices that would prove pivotal to his work.[7] the first was an adcock antenna, an arrangement of four masts that allowed the signal to be directed through phase differences. using these as two separate loop antennas at right angles, one could make a simultaneous measurement of the lightning's direction in two axes. however, displaying the fleeting signals was a problem. this was solved by the second device, the we-224 oscilloscope, recently acquired from bell labs. by feeding the signals from the two antennas into the x and y channels of the oscilloscope, a single strike caused the appearance of a line on the display, indicating the direction of the strike. the scope's relatively "slow" phosphor allowed the signal to be read long after the strike had occurred.[8] watt's new system was being used in 1926 and was the topic of an extensive paper by watt and herd.[9] the met and npl radio teams were amalgamated in 1927 to form the radio research station with watt as director. continuing research throughout, the teams had become interested in the causes of "static" radio signals, and found that much could be explained by distant signals located over the horizon being reflected off the upper atmosphere. this was the first direct indication of the reality of the heaviside layer, proposed earlier but at this time largely dismissed by engineers. to determine the altitude of the layer, watt, appleton and others developed the 'squegger' to develop a 'time base' display, which would cause the oscilloscope's dot to move smoothly across the display at very high speed. by timing the squegger so that the dot arrived at the far end of the display at the same time as expected signals reflected off the heaviside layer, the altitude of the layer could be determined. this time base circuit was key to the development of radar.[10] after a further reorganization in 1933, watt became superintendent of the radio department of npl in teddington. radar the air defence problem during the first world war, the germans had used zeppelins as long-range bombers over london and other cities and defences had struggled to counter the threat. since that time aircraft capabilities had improved considerably and the prospect of widespread aerial bombardment of civilian areas was causing the government anxiety. heavy bombers were now able to approach at altitudes that anti-aircraft guns of the day were unable to reach.[11] with enemy airfields across the english channel potentially only 20 minutes’ flying-time away, bombers would have dropped their bombs and be returning to base before any intercepting fighters could get to altitude. the only answer seemed to be to have standing patrols of fighters in the air at all times but, with the limited cruising time of a fighter, this would require a huge air force. an alternative solution was urgently needed and in 1934, the air ministry set up a committee, the cssad (committee for the scientific survey of air defence), chaired by sir henry tizard to find ways to improve air defence in the uk. nazi germany was rumoured to have a "death ray" using radio waves that was capable of destroying towns, cities and people. in january 1935, h.e. wimperis, director of scientific research at the air ministry, asked watson-watt about the possibility of building their version of a death-ray, specifically to be used against aircraft.[citation needed] watson-watt quickly returned a calculation carried out by his colleague, arnold wilkins, showing that the device was impossible to construct, and fears of a nazi version soon vanished. however, he also mentioned in the same report a suggestion that was originally made to him by wilkins, who had recently heard of aircraft disturbing shortwave communications, that radio waves may be capable of detecting aircraft: "meanwhile attention is being turned to the still difficult, but less unpromising, problem of radio detection and numerical considerations on the method of detection by reflected radio waves will be submitted when required." wilson's idea, checked by watt, was promptly presented by tizard to the cssad on january 28.[12] aircraft detection and location memorial at the daventry site of the first successful radar experiments. 52.195982°n 1.050121°w closeup of memorial plaque on 12 february 1935, watson-watt sent the secret memo of the proposed system to the air ministry, detection and location of aircraft by radio methods. although not as exciting as a death-ray, the concept clearly had potential but the air ministry, before giving funding, asked for a demonstration proving that radio waves could be reflected by an aircraft.[13] this was ready by 26 february and consisted of two receiving antennas located about 6 miles (9.7 km) away from one of the bbc's shortwave broadcast stations at daventry. the two antennas were phased such that signals travelling directly from the station cancelled themselves out, but signals arriving from other angles were admitted, thereby deflecting the trace on a crt indicator (passive radar).[14] such was the secrecy of this test that only three people witnessed it: watson-watt, his colleague arnold wilkins, and a single member of the committee, a. p. rowe. the demonstration was a success; on several occasions a clear signal was seen from a handley page heyford bomber being flown around the site. most importantly, the prime minister, stanley baldwin, was kept quietly informed of radar's progress. on 2 april 1935, watson-watt received a patent on a radio device for detecting and locating an aircraft. in mid-may 1935, wilkins left the radio research station with a small party, including edward george bowen, to start further research at orford ness, an isolated peninsula on the suffolk coast of the north sea. by june they were detecting aircraft at a distance of 16 miles (26 km), which was enough for scientists and engineers to stop all work on competing sound-based detection systems. by the end of the year the range was up to 60 miles (97 km), at which point plans were made in december to set up five stations covering the approaches to london. one of these stations was to be located on the coast near orford ness, and bawdsey manor was selected to become the main centre for all radar research. in an effort to put a radar defence in place as quickly as possible, watson-watt and his team created devices using existing available components, rather than creating new components for the project, and the team did not take additional time to refine and improve the devices. so long as the prototype radars were in workable condition they were put into production.[15] they soon conducted "full scale" tests of a fixed radar radio tower system that would soon be known as chain home, an early detection system that attempted to detect an incoming bomber by radio signals.[15][16] the tests were a complete failure, with the fighter only seeing the bomber after it had passed its target. the problem was not the radar, but the flow of information from trackers from the observer corps to the fighters, which took many steps and was very slow. henry tizard with patrick blackett and hugh dowding immediately set to work on this problem, designing a 'command and control air defence reporting system' with several layers of reporting that were eventually sent to a single large room for mapping. observers watching the maps would then tell the fighter groups what to do via direct communications.[15] by 1937 the first three stations were ready, and the associated system was put to the test. the results were encouraging, and an immediate order by the government to commission an additional 17 stations was given, resulting in a chain of fixed radar towers along the east and south coast of england.[15][16] by the start of the second world war, 19 were ready to play a key part in the battle of britain, and by the end of the war over 50 had been built. the germans were aware of the construction of chain home but were not sure of its purpose. they tested their theories with a flight of the zeppelin lz 130, but concluded the stations were a new long-range naval communications system. as early as 1936, it was realized that the luftwaffe would turn to night bombing if the day campaign did not go well, and watson-watt had put another of the staff from the radio research station, edward bowen, in charge of developing a radar that could be carried by a fighter. night time visual detection of a bomber was good to about 300 m, and the existing chain home systems simply did not have the accuracy needed to get the fighters that close. bowen decided that an airborne radar should not exceed 90 kg (200 lb) in weight, 8 ft³ (230 l) in volume, and require no more than 500 watts of power. to reduce the drag of the antennas the operating wavelength could not be much greater than one m, difficult for the day's electronics. "ai" - airborne interception, was perfected by 1940, and was instrumental in eventually ending the blitz of 1941. bowen also fitted airborne radar to maritime patrol aircraft (known in this application as "asv" - air to surface vessel) and this eventually reduced the threat from submarines.[citation needed] watson-watt justified his choice of a non-optimal frequency for his radar with his often-quoted “cult of the imperfect,” which he stated as “give them the third-best to go on with; the second-best comes too late, [and] the best never comes.” civil service trade union activities between 1934 and 1936, watson-watt was president of the institution of professional civil servants, now a part of prospect, the "union for professionals". the union speculates that at this time he was involved in campaigning for an improvement in pay for air ministry staff.[17] contribution to second world war sir robert alexander watson-watt, ca. 1944 in his english history 1914–1945, historian a. j. p. taylor paid the highest of praise to watson-watt, sir henry tizard and their associates who developed and put in place radar, crediting them with being fundamental to victory in the second world war.[18] in july 1938 watson-watt left bawdsey manor and took up the post of director of communications development (dcd-rae). in 1939 sir george lee took over the job of dcd, and watson-watt became scientific advisor on telecommunications (sat) to the ministry of aircraft production, travelling to the usa in 1941 to advise them on the severe inadequacies of their air defence efforts illustrated by the pearl harbor attack. he was knighted in 1942.[19] sir robert descends from a plinth in trafalgar square, london in 1961 after speaking at a rally protesting at the spread of nuclear weapons ten years after his knighthood, watson-watt was awarded £50,000 by the uk government for his contributions in the development of radar. he established a practice as a consulting engineer. in the 1950s he moved to canada and later he lived in the usa, where he published three steps to victory in 1958.[citation needed] around 1958 he appeared as a mystery challenger on the american television programme to tell the truth. watson-watt reportedly was pulled over for speeding in canada by a radar gun-toting policeman. his remark was, "had i known what you were going to do with it i would never have invented it!"[citation needed] he wrote an ironic poem ("rough justice") afterwards: pity sir robert watson-watt, strange target of this radar plot and thus, with others i can mention, the victim of his own invention. his magical all-seeing eye enabled cloud-bound planes to fly but now by some ironic twist it spots the speeding motorist and bites, no doubt with legal wit, the hand that once created it.[20] honours • in 1945 watson-watt was invited to deliver the royal institution christmas lecture on wireless. • in 1949 a watson-watt chair of electrical engineering was established at university college, dundee.[21] • in 2013 he was one of four inductees to the scottish engineering hall of fame.[22][23] legacy memorial to the birth of radar, at stowe nine churches, naming watson-watt and arnold wilkins on 3 september 2014 a statue of sir robert was unveiled in brechin by hrh the princess royal.[24] on 4 september watson-watt featured in the bbc two drama castles in the sky, with eddie izzard in the role. reviewing the film the daily telegraph concluded: "overall, it all felt a bit worthy. this was history that everybody should know, but the erection of a statue might have done the job just as well."[25] family life watson-watt was married[26] on 20 july 1916 in hammersmith, london to margaret robertson, the daughter of a draughtsman; they later divorced and he remarried in 1952 in canada.[27] his second wife was jean wilkinson, who died in 1964.[28] he returned to scotland in the 1960s. in 1966, at the age of 72, he proposed to dame katherine trefusis forbes, who was 67 years old at the time and had also played a significant role in the battle of britain as the founding air commander of the women's auxiliary air force, which supplied the radar-room operatives. they lived together in london in the winter, and at "the observatory" – trefusis forbes' summer home in pitlochry, perthshire, during the warmer months. they remained together until her death in 1971. watson-watt died in 1973, aged 81, in inverness. both are buried in the churchyard of the episcopal church of the holy trinity at pitlochry. references 1. ratcliffe, j. a. (1975). "robert alexander watson-watt 13 april 1892 -- 5 december 1973". biographical memoirs of fellows of the royal society 21: 548–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1975.0018. 2. watson-watt, sir robert; the pulse of radar, dial press, 1959 3. london gazette issue 35618 published on 3 july 1942. page 39 4. "sir robert watson-watt". dick barrett. retrieved 26 february 2008. 5. "100 years ago...". archives records and artefacts at the university of dundee. retrieved 12 july 2011. 6. shafe, michael (1982). university education in dundee 1881–1981: a pictorial history. dundee: university of dundee. pp. 58, 75 and 88. 7. brown 1999, p. 45. 8. brown 1999, p. 46. 9. r. a. watt and j. f. herd, "an instantaneous direct-reading radiogoniometer", journal of the institution of electrical engineers, volume 64 (february 1926), pp. 611-622. 10. o. s. puckle, "time bases, their design and development", chapman & hall, 1943 11. evans, r.j. (18 september 2008). "hitler and the origins of the war, 1919–1939". lecture transcript. gresham college. retrieved 16 august 2009. 12. buderi, robert (1996). the invention that changed the world: how a small group of radar pioneers won the second world war and launched a technical revolution (1998 ed.). simon & schuster. p. 55. isbn 0-684-83529-0. 13. "robert watson-watt". the radar pages. retrieved 14 december 2007. 14. "passive covert radar – watson-watt's daventry experiment revisited". iet. retrieved 13 december 2008. 15. corrigan, r. (24–25 september 2008). "airborne minefields and fighter command's information system" (pdf). andrés guadamuz/the university of edinburgh, school of law. retrieved 16 august 2009. 16. "tribute plan for radar inventor". bbc. 1 november 2006. retrieved 16 august 2009. 17. "under the radar?". prospect. p. 10. retrieved 4 october 2015. 18. taylor, a. j. p. (1992). english history, 1914-1945. oxford; new york: oxford university press. p. 392. 19. london gazette issue 35586 published on 5 june 1942. page 2 20. administrator. "microwaves101 – a rough justice". microwaves101.com. 21. shafe, michael (1982). university education in dundee 1881–1981: a pictorial history. dundee: university of dundee. p. 106. 22. "scottish engineering hall of fame". engineeringhalloffame.org. 23. "scottish engineering greats inducted into hall of fame". thecourier.co.uk. 24. "bbc news – statue of radar pioneer watson-watt unveiled in brechin". bbc news. 25. jake wallis simons (5 september 2014). "cas

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mini biography britney jean spears was born in mccomb (mississippi) and raised in rural louisiana (kentwood) to jamie spears and lynne spears. as a child, britney attended dance classes, and she was great at gymnastics, winning many competitions and the like. but, most of all, britney loved to sing. at age 8, britney tried out for "the all new mickey mouse club" (1989), but was turned down due to her young age. this directed her to an off-broadway show, "ruthless", for a 2-year run as the title character. at age 11, she again tried for "the all new mickey mouse club" (1989) and, this time, made it as a mouseketeer alongside many stars of today (justin timberlake and j.c. chasez of *nsync and ryan gosling). her big break, however, came when she was signed as a jive recording artist in the late 90s. with the release of her debut album, "...baby one more time" in early 1999, britney became an international success, selling 13 million copies of "baby" and 9 million (as of july 2001) of her sophomore album, "oops!...i did it again", released in may of 2000. imdb mini biography by: matt zerby mini biography "pop phenomenon" doesn't come close to describing britney spears. the name is legend around the world. so famous is britney spears now that it's impossible to imagine a world in which she doesn't exist. born to parents jamie spears and lynne spears, britney is their second child of three. her older brother, bryan spears, was born in april 1977 and her younger sister, jamie lynn spears, was born in april 1991. they later moved to kentwood, louisiana. from a young age, britney was always fixing to be a star with idols such as madonna, mariah carey and whitney houston, the young britney could always be heard singing, no matter what else was going on around her. after taking extensive dance and vocal lessons and performing in numerous talent shows and fairs, britney auditioned for "the all new mickey mouse club" (1989) tv series [1989-1994] when she 8, however, she was too young to get the part. instead, britney, her mother and baby sister moved to new york where she starred in several tv adverts and an off-broadway play, "ruthless", where she was understudy with natalie portman. her love of music and dance took over and, 2 years later, she auditioned for a part on "mickey mouse" again and, this time, won the part along with christina aguilera and justin timberlake. as a mouseketeer, britney received extensive training in dance, drama and singing and had to grow up a lot during that time. however, after the show was canceled two years later, britney returned home and did "the normal teenager thing", attending pool parties and she was also the homecoming queen. as a young teenager, britney soon grew restless again and this time was desperate to become a star yet again. again, she traveled to new york and sent out demo tapes to various labels including sony and mercury, but was turned down. it was jive records that finally took the young britney on and set out on making her the star she is today. she hit the studio with writers/producers, such as max martin and eric foster white, and the result was her debut album. in late 1998, jive released her debut single "(hit me) baby one more time" which was a pop hit around the globe, accompanied by the sixteen-year-old first of many controversial acts - the video, which featured britney dressed in a catholic schoolgirl uniform, baring her midriff, which was soon to become her trademark. nonetheless, the single was a smash worldwide and britney was instantly a household name. she toured with the popular boy band *nsync and the single shot to the top of the charts for 3 weeks. her debut album was released a few months later in early 1999 and, like the single, took to the top of the album charts, where it remained number one for six weeks. the album has now sold millions worldwide and is officially 14 x platinum in the us. her next controversial act, after the video, was to take the cover of rolling stones magazine in a suggestive pose, but as britney mania took off, the 17-year-old became more and more popular. appealing to young girls, teenage boys and older men, britney was on her way, yet nobody could have predicted at that time the impact she would have on pop culture. the second single, "sometimes", was released in june 1999 followed by the top 10 hit "crazy" in september and "from the bottom of my broken heart" soon after. britney ended 1999 selling over 10 million copies of her debut and, as the billboard top female pop artist (singles and albums), top new pop artist, top billboard 200 album artist and top 100 singles artist - female. the american awards, mtv and teen choice awards soon began rolling in and, in early 2000, britney was nominated for two grammy awards. at just 18, britney released her second album in 2000, the #1 smash "oops! i did it again" and single of the same title, which topped the singles chart for 5 weeks. smash singles "stronger" and "lucky" followed but, it was around this time, that britney was beginning to raise more than a few eyebrows. it seemed some people weren't too happy with the message she was sending their impressionable young children. on one hand, britney was the perfect picture of innocence, declaring herself a virgin until marriage yet, on the other hand, she was sexually charged and provocative, with performance such as the mtv video music awards in 2000, when her costume made her appear scantily-clad. as the young woman was growing up, it seemed there was an internal conflict between her, her management and her mother, all pulling her in different directions. yet the image the public saw was a gorgeous young woman, beautifully dressed and damn close to perfection, often labeled the "pop princess" around the world. still, the awards kept rolling in and, in early 2001, britney struck a lucrative deal with pepsi-cola for sponsorship and advertising. the 19-year-old was growing up fast, with the media constantly fixed on what she was and wasn't doing, her "rivalry" with former fellow mouseketeer christina aguilera and also her blossoming relationship with *nsync heartthrob justin timberlake. britney was keen that people saw her as a growing woman as she began to ready the public for her next lp release in late 2001. in november, she hit the top 10 with the sexually charged "i'm a slave 4 u" which took a completely different turn in musical direction from her previous singles and, in the same month, released her third lp, self-titled "britney", which shot to the top of the albums charts, breaking records for a female artist. her performance of "slave" at the mtv vma's caused outrage among animal rights campaigners, as she performed with a live giant snake and wearing little herself. it was a far cry from the britney of just three years ago, and perhaps the critical moment when what some people would say "she started going downhill". sales of her third album, while impressive, where not nearly as high as her former releases, perhaps due to the increase of new pop female singers flooding the market, yet britney, still incredibly popular, carried on. in early 2002, the 20-year-old britney released "i'm not a girl, not yet a woman", taken from the soundtrack of her debut movie crossroads (2002/i), which was released in february of that year. she soon after hit the charts with "overprotected" and also toured worldwide on the "dream within a dream tour". yet, it seemed it was all getting too much for britney, her four year relationship with timberlake ended suddenly and very publicly and she soon announced she was to take 6 months off, after all, she had achieved so much by such a young age and in such a short space of time. her star was by no means fading, with "forbes" declaring her "the world's most powerful celebrity" in mid-2002. while she may have been on a break from her career, she was by no means breaking from the media, who followed her relentlessly, even more keen to track her down and find out what she was up to. britney was increasingly letting her pop princess crown slip, admitting she had lost her sacred virginity to timberlake, outside of marriage. britney could also be seen smoking and drinking to excess on wild nights out and famously breaking down in tears while being interviewed by diane sawyer about her parents (who were recently divorced) and her bitter split from timberlake. britney was linked to men such as fred durst of limp bizkit and openly kissed colin farrell at a movie premiere. however, she seemed to get herself back together for her new album released in late 2003. in a blitz of publicity which included the infamous "like a virgin" performance and madonna kiss at the mtv video music awards in august that year. the new album, "in the zone", was a bid to be seen as a woman and caused controversy with songs on it such as "breathe on me" and "touch of my hand" - which was about masturbation - however, the appeal of britney was still there and the album topped the billboard 200 albums charts. the first single to be lifted was "me against the music" a club hit that featured pop icon madonna and singing with her was a dream come true for britney. now 22, it seemed britney was in a lot more control over her career, yet her personal life still seemed to be slipping. in january 2004, britney got "married" to childhood friend jason allen alexander in a las vegas ceremony. the incident shocked the world, especially when the marriage was annulled 55 hours later and was described as "a joke taken too far" by her management. britney soon released one of her biggest singles, "toxic", which topped various charts around the world including the uk and canadian singles charts. the single was a smash-hit and silenced any critics that said britney no longer had what it took to make a comeback. she soon began her highly publicized and overtly sexual "onyx hotel tour", which was canceled a few months later after britney damaged her knee during a video shoot and had to receive medical treatment. other singles off the album included the gold-selling "everytime", which topped the uk singles charts and, like usual, also carried a fair amount of controversy for its video, which allegedly depicted the star committing suicide after a fight with her boyfriend, played by stephen dorff; however, this was "changed" to an accident in which she drowns yet reincarnates. it was around this time that britney began dating kevin federline, a former backup dancer who she had taken on tour with her a few months previously. the snag here was that kevin came with baggage - in the form of an "ex" girlfriend, heavily pregnant "moesha" (1996) actress shar jackson and their young child. britney and kevin soon became engaged and, in september 2004, were married in a secret ceremony, soon after the birth of kevin's second child. that same month, britney released a single off her upcoming "greatest hits" album (released in november 2004) a cover of bobby brown's 1988 hit "my prerogative". britney was a changed woman, no longer concerned with what the public thought of her or her appearance, she parted ways with her manager who she had had since she was 13, and was increasingly stepping out looking more "trailer trash" than multi-millionaire. in february 2005, britney won her first grammy for the single "toxic" as best dance recording. just two months later, it was announced britney was pregnant with her first child. a reality tv series "britney

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tersebutlah kisah, seekor raja burung parakeet hidup beserta rakyatnya di sebuah hutan di aceh. hidup mereka damai. kedamaian tersebut terganggu, karena kehadiran seorang pemburu. pada suatu hari pemburu tersebut berhasil menaruh perekat di sekitar sangkar-sangkar burung tersebut. spkr.gif (282 bytes) mereka berusaha melepaskan sayap dan badan dari perekat tersebut. namun upaya tersebut gagal. hampir semuanya panik,kecuali si raja parakeet. ia berkata, "saudaraku, tenanglah. ini adalah perekat yang dibuat oleh pemburu. kalau pemburu itu datang, berpura-puralah mati. setelah melepaskan perekat, pemburu itu akan memeriksa kita. kalau ia mendapatkan kita mati, ia akan membuang kita. tunggulah sampai hitungan ke seratus, sebelum kita bersama-sama terbang kembali. spkr.gif (282 bytes)keesokan harinya, datanglah pemburu tersebut. setelah melepaskan perekatnya, ia mengambil hasil tangkapannya. betapa ia kecewa setelah mengetahui burung-burung tersebut sudah tidak bergerak, disangkanya sudah mati. namun pemburu tersebut jatuh terpeleset, sehingga membuat burung-burung yang ada ditanah terkejut dan terbang. hanya raja parakeet yang belum terlepas dari perekat. iapun ditangkap. spkr.gif (282 bytes) raja parakeet meminta pada pemburu itu untuk tidak dibunuh. sebagai imbalannya ia akan selalu menghibur si pemburu. hampir tiap hari ia bernyanyi dengan merdunya. khabar kemerduan suara burung itu terdengar sampai ke telinga sang raja. spkr.gif (282 bytes)raja menginginkan burung parakeet tersebut. sang raja kemudian menukar burung itu dengan harta-benda yang sangat banyak. di istana sang raja, burung parakeet ditaruh didalam sebuah sangkar emas. setiap hari tersedia makanan yang enak-enak. spkr.gif (282 bytes)namun burung parakeet tidak bahagia. ia selalu ingat hutan aceh tempat tinggalnya. pada suatu hari ia berpura-pura mati. sang raja sangat sedih dan memerintahkan penguburannya dengan upacara kebesaran. ketika persiapan berlangsung, burung itu diletakkan diluar sangkar. saat itu ia gunakan untuk terbang mencari kebebasanya. ia terbang menuju hutan kediamannya. dimana rakyat burung parakeet setia menunggu kedatangannya

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reebok and adidas the athletic shoe industry in the united states was an $8.25 billion market in 2003. by 2010, industry revenue had hit $21.9 billion with sales of over 362 million shoes a year [ibis world]. the four largest companies (nike, new balance, and adidasreebok) controlled 70 percent of that market [cassidy 2004]. the industry grew from almost nothing in the early 1980s to a global powerhouse. reebok (ticker: rbk) can trace its history back to joseph william foster, who made some of the first spiked running shoes by hand in london—in 1895. in 1958, two grandsons started a companion company known as reebok. but, the modern version was born in 1979 when paul fireman saw the shoes at an international trade show and negotiated for north american distribution rights. at $60 a pair, the shoes were the most expensive running shoes in america [www.reebok.com]. in 1982, reebok helped launch the aerobic dance industry with a shoe specifically targeted to women. with explosive growth, the company went public in 1985. growth con- tinued, supported by the step reebok program in 1989. by 1995, the company had grown from $50 million in sales to over $3 billion in a decade. reebok’s 1993 sales of $2.9 billion placed it second behind $4.4-billion nike, inc. the nearly $1 billion increase in sales from 1989 to 1993 indicates reebok’s success in gaining market share. paul fireman, president and ceo of reebok paul fireman founded reebok in 1979 and remains the largest shareholder. from 1986 to 1990, fireman was one of the ten highest paid executives in the united states. under his control, reebok sales grew from $1.5 million in 1980 to $1.4 billion in 1987. in 1988, fire- man relinquished the ceo role to spend time working on other projects, including develop- ing golf courses in puerto rico and cape cod. in the late 1980s and early 1990s, reebok suffered from two weak marketing campaigns (“reeboks let u.b.u.” and “physics behind the physique”). more importantly, the aerobics fitness craze began to subside. women aero- bics shoes were a major component of reebok sales, so the sales decline hit them especially hard. in 1992, fireman returned as ceo. tom trainer, cio tom trainer joined reebok in 1991 as the chief information officer (cio). he noted that his role “is to enable the kid in reebok to stay fresh and creative while also allowing the grown- up corporation to compete in global markets” [pulliam and pereira 1995]. to accomplish these objectives, trainer implemented videoconferencing, computer-aided design, the in- ternet, and laptops for the sales force. the goal was to improve communications among em- ployees, faster development of products, and more effective sales presentations. before trainer joined reebok in 1991 as vice-president of information systems, the information systems area was less than up-to-date, with no global information system or way to look at data. communications, primarily by telephone and fax, between the manu- facturing partners and worldwide distribution network were slow. turnaround on new products was equally slow. this was a critical problem because reebok is a fashion-oriented business with three product cycles a year in footwear and five in apparel. while sales repre- sentatives from nike were walking in with laptops to display their lines, reps from reebok were walking into offices with bags of shoes. trainer’s early days were spent accomplishing short-term projects that got him points with the board of directors. he fired six of eight senior staff. he kept 85 percent of the old programming staff, retraining many of them. in addition to his is responsibilities, trainer drove the re-engineering process in the company. to do so, he spent a great deal of time on the road, building relationships with reebok executives around the world. he also studied sony corporation to learn ways that it meets customer needs. to accomplish his re-engineering, trainer formed five megaprocesses that streamlined procedures for production, sales and marketing, research and development, adminis- tration, finance, and distribution. in 1992, he presented a four-year, $75- million strategic information systems plan to reebok’s executive committee. the board approved it on the condition that it give reebok strategic advantage. to improve its communications, reebok installed a privately designed architecture for voice, video, and data. reebok communicates not only with its worldwide distribution base but also with its ad agency and other suppliers. it currently developed an electronic image library to enable product shots to be distributed to every country where reebok does business. the system dropped the new product lead time from six months to three, and, in some cases, 30 days. before the new ordering system was installed, orders were first printed out locally and faxed to the international headquarters in london. london would take all of the faxes and send them to the united states to be entered in the mainframe. different standards for shoe sizes from different countries added to the delay. once the information was entered in the mainframe, production and manufacturing would evaluate the orders. to improve this process, trainer developed a software package called passport. passport rationalizes product codes and shoe sizes. it also gives small distributors and sub- sidiaries access to the system through personal computers. it can also function as a module by plugging into larger systems. laptops were also given to the entire reebok sales force. when orders were paper based, replacing material in a shoe to change its price from $95 to $65 might take 30 days and mean a lost sale. with the new system, these changes could be made almost automati- cally. salespeople are able to check inventory and look into special orders. they can also access two years’ catalogs with full motion video and sound clips of reebok’s advertise- ments. lotus notes is used to store the catalogs with mail links through cc:mail. another reebok initiative is to use electronic data interchange with 10-15 percent of its retailers. this commitment enables goods to be tracked through shipping companies, customs, and warehouses. hoover, a data capture system to “suck in” information from da- tabases around the world, is linked to customer databases that track what customers have ordered and what they want. reebok experienced some problems implementing the new systems. particularly difficult was the effort to integrate the canadian operations into the u.s. business operation. concentrating development and support in the united states did not take into account the specifics of invoicing under the canadian law. this mistake added time and resources that had not been budgeted to the project. reebok early 1990s in the early 1990s, facing continuing declines in the aerobics’ market, fireman changed the focus and tried to expand into other areas. to a large extent, nike was killing the competi- tion—largely by focusing on star athletes and spending more than 10 percent of its revenue on marketing. in the early 1990s, fireman knew that he would have to compete directly in the sporting world [www.reebok.com]. his basketball market strategy copied a page from nike, and relied on the new “shaq attaq” line supported by shaquille o’neal from the or- lando magic. while sales did increase, they did not reach the 25 percent levels predicted by mr. fireman—reaching only 20 percent market share. additionally, fireman estimated in 1993 that the outdoor-wear division would sell $350 million worth of shoes in 1995. outdoor sales fell far short of the goal, reaching about $110 million. more importantly, expenses skyrocketed, increasing from 23.6 percent of sales in 1991 to 32.7 percent in june 1995. experts say shoe company expenses typically average about 27 percent of sales. investors blamed most of the increase on the cost of endorse- ments. nike late 1990s at the same time that reebok was suffering, nike reported a 55 percent jump in firstquarter 1995 earnings, with revenue increasing by 38 percent. part of the increase was from expanded international sales, with a 34 percent increase in orders from france and germany. sales in japan increased by 65 percent. nike also expanded sales of tennis shoes, partly through endorsements from tennis stars andre agassi and pete sampras. in the first quarter of 1995, revenue from tennis shoes increased by 92 percent with a 42 percent in- crease in orders. at the same time sales were increasing, nike managed to decrease its expense ratio. selling and administrative costs dropped to 22.3 percent of revenue from 25 percent in the prior year. much of the improvement came from an improved distribution system, including a new warehouse in belgium that consolidated operations from 30 different facilities in eu- rope. beginning in the late 1990s, the footwear industry lost its luster. however, nike revenue increased from $3.4 billion in 1998 to $9.0 billion in 2000 to $9.5 billion in 2001, to over $10 billion in 2003 [annual report]. in 2001, nike installed a customized retail supply chain system from i2 technologies, inc. the implementation, including ties to other erp systems, did not go well, and nike faced a serious inventory reduction and misplacement. nike management was disappointed in the problems, and nike chairman questioned: “this is what we get for $400 million?” reebok late 1990s in 1990, nike surpassed reebok in footwear sales. in the year ending in august 1995, nike had $4.7 billion in sales compared to reebok’s $3.37 billion. one of the largest battle- grounds was the retail foot locker stores owned by woolworth corp. the 2,800 retail stores sell 23 percent of u.s. sport shoes, representing $1.5 billion of the $6.5 billion u.s. market for athletic shoes. sales at foot locker stores account for almost 60 percent of the 1$ billion u.s. sales gap between reebok and nike. insiders note that the problems between reebok and foot locker go back to the days when reebok shoes were selling rapidly. foot locker wanted concessions on price and wanted reebok to make some styles exclusively for them. reebok was busy selling to other outlets and was unwilling or unable to alter its production and distribution systems. nike was eager to build custom products for foot locker and offered a dozen products exclusively at the chain. ex-employees at reebok note that the company had additional problems providing samples and design plans to foot locker, claiming that “sometimes the samples would come in late and sometimes not at all—which got foot locker mad. . . . sometimes, fashions last less than six weeks; if you don’t get it in right then, there goes a major sale.” mr. fireman responded by trying to improve relations with foot locker. he also offered to begin building exclusive styles for foot locker, but the introduction of the products was uncertain. he also noted that reebok was working hard to cut costs and improve its order and information tracking system. one problem that remained was that the clerks at foot locker stores tended to push the nike brands harder. by september of 1995, major shareholders were getting upset with reebok management. one of the leading outsider shareholders, glenn greenberg of chieftain capital management, noted that “the major shareholders have no confidence in the management of this company. if it was up to us, they would have changed horses or sold the company a long time ago.” reebok and the internet like other shoe manufacturers, reebok relies heavily on celebrity endorsements. signing alan iverson (nba rookie of the year in 1996) and venus williams (tennis sensation) gave reebok greater visibility in 2000. in 2000, reebok also increased its visibility by sponsoring the survivor television show with humorous ads. their web site followed these themes. in 1997, reebok installed radnet inc.’s webshare groupware system to maintain its web site. the system has tools for e-mail, discussion groups, and bulletin boards. the goal was to add interactivity to the site and build a community of users. marvin chow, reebok’s director of interactive marketing noted that “if you just try and use the web to sell them products, something is missing” [cole-gomolski 1998]. more importantly, the system makes it easy for reebok’s managers to add content. they can add data and pass it to salespeople and re- tailers automatically using a workflow engine. the company used quicktime from apple to create cds for its salespeople. using macromedia on its internet site, the company was able to update pricing, styles, and even new photos and displays on the fly. the data was downloaded directly to the sales laptops [dillon 1998]. interestingly, the web site is largely independent from the it department. roger wood, vice president of electronic commerce at reebok reports directly to the ceo and con- trols his own technology budget. he observes that “i am able to take down and build up fea- tures (of the web site) without some it overlord telling me what is good or bad” [cole- gomolski 1999]. in 2000, reebok stopped selling shoes direct from its web site. it was concerned about competing with the traditional retail outlets. so now the site focuses on image, tech- nical information about products, and then directs consumers to the retail partners. enterprise systems from sap facing weak sales, reebok began focusing on reducing costs in the late 1990s. net sales dropped from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $2.9 bil- lion in 1999 to about $2.8 billion in 2000. worse yet, from 1999 to 2000, gross margin declined from 38.5 percent to 37.9 percent. income (million $) year 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 revenue 3,485 3,128 2,993 2,865 2,900 net income 157 126 102 81 11 in 1995, trainer went to eli lilly [information week 1995]. the company ultimately replaced him with peter burrows as chief technology officer (cto). burrows knew that he needed to replace the aging, custom software that was being used to run the company. the problem was that nothing existed. in late 1995, he sent a dozen reebok workers to an sap r/3 course—the goal was to show sap that its system could not handle the complex details of the apparel industry. most products are created by hundreds of contract suppliers, gen- erally in southeast asia. product designs change constantly, and the company has to coor- dinate shipments to thousands of customers. ultimately, burrows convinced sap to develop a custom add-on system called the apparel footware solution (afs) module. to convince the company to spend the money, vf corp., the company that makes lee and wrangler jeans, also signed on to the project. the two companies helped design the specifications for the new software. the project was far more complex than sap anticipated, and the initial version was three months late. leroy allen, the cio at vf commented that “i think sap underestimated the amount of change that had to be made to standard r/3” [steadman january 1999]. burrows was counting on the system to handle the major transactions at reebok, so he could avoid the necessity of rewriting the old applications to become y2k compliant. by may, 1999, the system was still not fully operational. among other problems and bugs, the system was too slow to check product inventories and raw material stocks when retailers and distributors placed orders. burrows noted that “we’re not out of the woods, but sap is responding. it’s not something we’re taking lightly, and neither are they” [steadman may 1999]. in the meantime, another 60 apparel and footwear makers had purchased the sys- tem by early 1999. by 2000, reebok was running the system in only a couple of divisions, such as golf shoes. the company deferred implementation of the full system until at least mid- 2001. burrows noted that he was waiting for additional functionality scheduled for release 2.5 [steadman 2000]. despite the problems in getting the software developed, apparel manu- facturers had few other choices. by 2001, reebok had 115 retail stores running the afs system. burrows was pleased with the ability of the system to maintain accurate inventory records for the stores [mearian and songini 2001]. in january 2002, sap shipped release 3.0 of afs. with the bug fixes and new features, reebok continued to rollout the system in its divisions. burrows planned to gradually implement release 3.0 over a few years. burrows continues to push for new features such as a web-based system to handle business-to-business transactions with suppliers. in 2002, competitor nike completed rolling out afs 2.5 to its 5,000 end users [songini 2002]. competition and the future there is no question that the shoe industry is competitive. there is also no question that it is still dominated by nike. yet, reebok has made gains in the mid-2000s. the retro-trend bolstered sales for reebok when it re-released older models. (it also convinced nike to buy converse.) competition to sign new stars is also intense. most observers believe alan iver- son has significantly boosted reebok sales. in 2004, reebok struck a huge note in the inter- national market by signing yao ming to market a line of shoes in china. reebok will also market a line of yao ming shoes in the united states [marcial 2004]. somewhat surprisingly, reebok did well in 2003 selling a line of shoes endorsed by rap stars (jay-z and 50 cent). the shoes were also popular in england [thomaselli 2004]. on the other hand, reebok’s 2003 sales gain was also attributed to the feud between nike and foot locker. in 2002, nike pulled its top products from foot locker—trying to negotiate better prices. in november 2003, the companies resolved their problems and foot locker again began carrying more nike shoes. foot locker’s clout grew even more in 2004 when it purchased 353 footaction stores from bankruptcy [cassidy 2004]. although nike is still the strongest seller in the u.s. market, it has struggled to find a management team. in 2006, william d. perez stepped down after only 13 months as ceo. reportedly, perez often clashed with nike co-founder philip knight. knight promoted mark g. parker to the ceo position. the change reminded observers of the situation in 2000 when mr. knight returned to the ceo position to replace tom clarke as sales fell from 1994 to 2000 [lublin and kang 2006]. adidas in 2005, adidas-salomon ag in germany agreed to purchase reebok for $3.8 billion. the price represented a 34 percent premium over the existing stock valuation. the sale was closed in 2006. adidas, a pioneer in the shoe and sporting-goods industries had been strug- gling in the u.s. trying to find a way to compete with nike. adidas was largely considered the engineering leader and produced some of the technically best shoes on the market—but it lacked the marketing flash appeal of nike. for example, the company introduced a $250 running shoe containing a sensor and small motor that enabled it to adjust the tension and support based on the terrain. shortly after the acquisition was closed in 2006, paul fire- man left reebok [reebok web site]. a key element in the decision was reebok’s appeal in the urban market—due to its embrace of 50 cent and jay-z rappers. herbert hainer, ceo of adidas noted that “we will expand our geographic reach, particularly in north america, and create a footwear, apparel and hardware offering that addresses a broader spectrum of consumers and demographics.” the global market for athletic shoes is about $33 billion and about half of that total comes from america. in 2004 combined, reebok and adidas had about 20 percent of the u.s. mar- ket compared to nike’s 35 percent [karnitschnig and kang 2005]. adidas was formed by adi dassler after world war ii. it gained attention by creating soccer cleats that helped germany win the 1954 world cup

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