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Became

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Última actualización: 2020-10-15
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opera became

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romantic opera

Última actualización: 2020-01-29
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She became invisible for seconds

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She became invisible for seconds

Última actualización: 2020-10-22
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how pilandok became a sultan summary

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how pilandok became a sultan summary

Última actualización: 2020-09-18
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The penisThe wound became infected and pus filled.

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The penisThe wound became infected and pus filled.

Última actualización: 2020-06-23
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how pilandok became a sultan summary/trackback/

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how pilandok became a sultan summary / trackback /

Última actualización: 2016-07-19
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I was a girl in the village doing alright Then I became a princess overnight Now I gotta figure out how to do it right So much to learn And see Up in the castle with My new family in his store thats for royalty A whole enchanting world is waiting for me Am so excited to be... Sofia the first. I'm finding out what being royal is all about Sofia the first Making My way its an agential everyday. Its gonna be My time to show them that I'm. Sofia the first...

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Última actualización: 2020-07-13
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Indeed, the movie became an eye- opener for me due to the fact that it made me realize that it is not the amount of salary you receive that matters but the relationship you’ve built in your community and your heart for those who’s in need of your service. Since, the film made a great impact to me; I do not want to be selfish about it.

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The movie struck me so much that it gave me a broader understanding on becoming a public health worker. To give us a little background, Mulanay is a film about a professional doctor (Dr. Ria Espinosa) who could have followed her dreams and have a better future abroad but rather chose to follow her heart and render her service in the city province. Because of this, I admired her humility and compassion for the community and even the time and the knowledge that she imparted them. Indeed, the movie

Última actualización: 2020-03-27
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In 1521, Magellan sailed from the island of Homonhon, Samar to the island of Limasawa, Leyte, where the first recorded blood compact was held between Rajah Kolambu and Magellan on March 29 of the same year. Leyte was named “Felipina” by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, the Spanish navigator, after King Philip of Spain, in February 1543. The name was later given to the whole archipelago. Leyte suffered from the separate raids of Muslims Sultans, Pagdalanum Buhiran and Kudarat, and Suluans. Aside from the Muslim raids, Datu Bankaw of Limasawa and his son Pagali, revolted against the Spanish conquistadors but superior Spanish arms quelled them. In 1735, it became a politico-military province, with Samar under its jurisdiction. Samar and Leyte were separated in 1768. The first capital of Leyte was Carigara then Palo, Tanauan, and finally, Tacloban. During the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Imperial Forces, the American troops led by General Douglas MacArthur and President Sergio Osmena landed at Palo, Leyte on October 20, 1944.

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english waray

Última actualización: 2019-01-31
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This story was written during American Colonization, when the colonizers introduced English to the education system, along with American culture. Characters Period it was written "Greta Garbo", a short story depicts a young Filipina woman, Monina Vargas, who greatly idealizes the American actress Greta Garbo. This short story shows Monina inside a train headed to Baguio. While she waits for her boyfriend, Octavio who she refers to as John, the reader witnesses the flashbacks and gets to learn more about her personality. Monina gets out of the train Author describes Monina's characteristics: small eyes, "tabis tari" ng manok ang eyebrow, has a very small face (looks like mestisa), has a small mouth and thin lips She calls herself "GG", and also uses it for letters and signatures Gives pictures of herself to her friends Greta Garbo is an American actress, Monina's ideal person Watches all her shows John Gilbert and Greta Garbo appeared together in a few films Became a real-life couple In the story, Octavio Razon is Monina's "John Gilbert" Octavio is a pilot Had wrinkles on her forehead Enjoyed skating Flashback of how she and Octavio first met and all the men that dated Monina "Talaang ginto" Why Octavio: experienced a "drunken" type of love; passionate hugs and deep kisses Back to the present Case of mistaken identity 3 days before tickets bought Tribune magazine society page Sees a picture of Octavio with his wife Monina is indecisive about whether to stay or go Out of disbelief, she jumps off the train Falls and hurts face THE END Significance of Greta Garbo

Inglés

This story was written during American Colonization, when the colonizers introduced English to the education system, along with American culture. Characters Period it was written "Greta Garbo", a short story depicts a young Filipina woman, Monina Vargas, who greatly idealizes the American actress Greta Garbo. This short story shows Monina inside a train headed to Baguio. While she waits for her boyfriend, Octavio who she refers to as John, the reader witnesses the flashbacks and gets to learn more about her personality. Monina gets out of the train Author describes Monina's characteristics: small eyes, "tabis tari" ng manok ang eyebrow, has a very small face (looks like mestisa), has a small mouth and thin lips She calls herself "GG", and also uses it for letters and signatures Gives pictures of herself to her friends Greta Garbo is an American actress, Monina's ideal person Watches all her shows John Gilbert and Greta Garbo appeared together in a few films Became a real-life couple In the story, Octavio Razon is Monina's "John Gilbert" Octavio is a pilot Had wrinkles on her forehead Enjoyed skating Flashback of how she and Octavio first met and all the men that dated Monina "Talaang ginto" Why Octavio: experienced a "drunken" type of love; passionate hugs and deep kisses Back to the present Case of mistaken identity 3 days before tickets bought Tribune magazine society page Sees a picture of Octavio with his wife Monina is indecisive about whether to stay or go Out of disbelief, she jumps off the train Falls and hurts face THE END Significance of Greta Garbo

Última actualización: 2018-11-13
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Tagalo

google scholar citationsSince the last few decades technology has grown immensely and has brought major changes globally. Communication barriers have been reduced through technological advancement and new mediums are being introduced to connect global audiences. Social networking has become an international trend and has spread its reach to almost every corner of the world. With these advancements a major concern arises as in this age of huge technological development social networking sites are becoming more and more popular among students especially in Pakistan. Statistics for 2011 suggested that around 20,431,000 Pakistanis were using internet on a regular basis (DAWN, 2011) Social media is a phenomenon that has been developing in a rapid pace. Different scholars have described it in a different way and as Jacka and Scott (2011: 5) say “there is no single recognized definition of social media”. Drury (2008: 1) defines social media as “online resources that people use to share content: video, photos, images, text, ideas, insight, humor, opinion, gossip, news”. Safko and Brake (2008) further defined social media as “activities, practices, and behaviors among communities of people who gather online to share information, knowledge, and opinions using conversational media. Conventional media are Web-based applications that make possible for one to create and easily transmit content in the form of words, pictures, videos, and audios”. Different researcher explained their perspective regarding social media and we support Drury’s definition as it explains the role of social media in a precise statement. Social media has certainly became a global platform where sharing data internationally has become an international trend. There are handfuls of studies showing negative relationship between Facebook and its impact on academic performance including one which suggests how children with lower attention span focused more on Facebook and children with higher attention span spent less time on Facebook (Paul, Baker and Cochran, 2012). According to a survey conducted in 2014 there were 15.4 million people using Facebook which represented 8.5 percent of the total population (Haque, 2014). However, with these advancements a major concern arises as in this age of huge technological development social networking sites are becoming more and more popular especially among students Usage of internet has also been associated with physical and mental health as well as can have adverse impact on family life. According to Akhtar (2013) excessive usage of internet can become an addiction especially among students and it can cause academic problems. The author suggested that internet addiction can cause a fall in time spent on studies, major drop in grades, low interest in extracurricular activities and lack of interest in classes. Moreover, internet addiction among children has been associated with psychological and mental problems such as anxiety, depression and the feeling of loneliness. In certain researches social media has depicted a positive academic interaction and scholars have supported internet usage among students. However, adverse impact of social media has outweighed the positive aspects. First, excessive usage of social media has shown negative impact on student’s physical, psychological and family health. Moreover, excessive usage has also been associated with sleep deprivation, insomnia and chronic illnesses (O’Keeffe and Pearson, 2011).

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google scholar citations

Última actualización: 2018-05-19
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characteristicsSophocles was an ancient Greek poet and one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His plays belonged to the period after Aeschylus and earlier of Euripides. Based on the information provided by Suda, a 10th century encyclopedia, Sophocles wrote 123 plays during his lifetime, out of which only seven have survived in a complete form. These plays are Ajax, Antigone, Trachinian Women, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. It was believed that he remained the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens held during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles participated in thirty competitions, of which he won 24 and never went below second place in the rest. Among his plays, the two most famous tragedies, Oedipus and Antigone are generally known as the Theban plays, even though each play belonged to a part of a different tetralogy. Sophocles greatly influenced the drama. His main contribution was the addition of third actor which reduced the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. A crater on the surface of Mercury has been after this ace Greek poet and playwright. Sophocles Childhood and Life Sophocles was the son of Sophilus, who was a rich member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius. Sophocles was said to have been born in Attica. It is said that he was born few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, which is probably around 497/6 BC. Sophocles received his first artistic achievement in 468 BC, when he won first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus. According to Greek historian Plutarch, this victory was quite unusual. Unlike the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. According to him after being defeated, Aeschylus left for Sicily. “Triptolemus” was one amongst the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival. When Sophocles was sixteen, he was chosen to lead the paean, a choral chant to a God, celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. He was one of the ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces and was the junior colleague of Pericles. In the beginning of his career, Sophocles received patronage from the politician Cimon. Even when Cimon was ostracized by Pericles (Cimon's rival) in 461 BC, Sophocles received no harm. In 443/ 442 he became one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, and had the role to assist managing the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles. Based on the accounts of the Vita Sophoclis, he served as a general in the Athenian campaign against Samos in 441 BC. It was believed that Sophocles received this post because of his writing of Antigone. In 420 BC, when Asclepius was introduced to Athens, he welcomed it and set up an altar for the image of deity at his house. In 413, Sophocles was elected one of the commissioners who reacted to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War. Personal Life Sophocles first married to Nicostrata, with whom he had a son named Iophon. In the later life, he had relationship with a woman of Sicyon. She bore him a son called Ariston. It was believed that he had three more sons, but there is not much information about them. Death In the winter of 406/ 405 BC, Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety one. Like the other famous men from the ancient history, his death also inspired many apocryphal stories. One of the stories states that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his play, “Antigone” without pausing to take a breath. Whereas the other story suggests that he choked to death while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. The third story accounts that he died due to excessive happiness over winning his final victory at the City Dionysia. Works The earliest contribution of Sophocles to the drama was the introduction of the third actor which immensely reduced the role of the chorus and created better opportunities for character development and conflict between characters. Even his competitor Aeschylus, who dominated Athenian playwrights during Sophocles' early career, accepted the new idea and adopted it into his own work towards the end of his life. Aristotle gave Sophocles the credit of the introduction of skenographia, or scenery-painting. After the death of Aeschylus in 456 BC, Sophocles became the celebrated playwright in Athens. He emerged victorious in different dramatic competitions, 18 at Dionysia and 6 at Lenaea festivals. Apart from making innovations in the dramatic structure, he was also known for his deeper development of characters than the earlier playwrights. His widespread reputation helped him to get invitation from foreign rulers to attend their courts, but unlike other playwrights Aeschylus who died in Sicily, or Euripides who spent time in Macedon, he never accepted any of these invitations. Sophocles works were influential and significant for the Greek culture. Two out of his seven plays can be estimated correctly to their exact dates, which namely are “Philoctetes” (409 BC) and “Oedipus at Colonus” (401 BC, staged after his death by his grandson). From the rest of his plays, “Electra” had striking similarities to these two plays which put forwards the fact that it was written in the later part of his literary career. Again based on the stylistic characteristics of “Oedipus the King” which came in his middle period, “Ajax”, “Antigone” and “The Trachiniae” belonged to his early days. Sophocles had also written three Theban plays namely, “Oedipus the King”, “Oedipus at Colonus” and “Antigone”. All these plays described the fate of Thebes during and after the reign of King Oedipus. These plays were sometimes even published under a single cover. Sophocles had written these plays in separate festival competitions with several years of difference between them. They cannot be called trilogy because of the presence of inconsistencies among them. Apart from these, Sophocles is supposed to have written few more Theban plays such as such as “The Progeny”, which survived in fragments. The majority of his plays depicted the undercurrent of early fatalism and the offset of Socratic logic being the keystone for the long tradition of Greek tragedy.

Inglés

Sophocles was an ancient Greek poet and one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His plays belonged to the period after Aeschylus and earlier of Euripides. Based on the information provided by Suda, a 10th century encyclopedia, Sophocles wrote 123 plays during his lifetime, out of which only seven have survived in a complete form. These plays are Ajax, Antigone, Trachinian Women, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. It was believed that he remained the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens held during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles participated in thirty competitions, of which he won 24 and never went below second place in the rest. Among his plays, the two most famous tragedies, Oedipus and Antigone are generally known as the Theban plays, even though each play belonged to a part of a different tetralogy. Sophocles greatly influenced the drama. His main contribution was the addition of third actor which reduced the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. A crater on the surface of Mercury has been after this ace Greek poet and playwright. Sophocles Childhood and Life Sophocles was the son of Sophilus, who was a rich member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius. Sophocles was said to have been born in Attica. It is said that he was born few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, which is probably around 497/6 BC. Sophocles received his first artistic achievement in 468 BC, when he won first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus. According to Greek historian Plutarch, this victory was quite unusual. Unlike the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. According to him after being defeated, Aeschylus left for Sicily. “Triptolemus” was one amongst the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival. When Sophocles was sixteen, he was chosen to lead the paean, a choral chant to a God, celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. He was one of the ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces and was the junior colleague of Pericles. In the beginning of his career, Sophocles received patronage from the politician Cimon. Even when Cimon was ostracized by Pericles (Cimon's rival) in 461 BC, Sophocles received no harm. In 443/ 442 he became one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, and had the role to assist managing the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles. Based on the accounts of the Vita Sophoclis, he served as a general in the Athenian campaign against Samos in 441 BC. It was believed that Sophocles received this post because of his writing of Antigone. In 420 BC, when Asclepius was introduced to Athens, he welcomed it and set up an altar for the image of deity at his house. In 413, Sophocles was elected one of the commissioners who reacted to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War. Personal Life Sophocles first married to Nicostrata, with whom he had a son named Iophon. In the later life, he had relationship with a woman of Sicyon. She bore him a son called Ariston. It was believed that he had three more sons, but there is not much information about them. Death In the winter of 406/ 405 BC, Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety one. Like the other famous men from the ancient history, his death also inspired many apocryphal stories. One of the stories states that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his play, “Antigone” without pausing to take a breath. Whereas the other story suggests that he choked to death while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. The third story accounts that he died due to excessive happiness over winning his final victory at the City Dionysia. Works The earliest contribution of Sophocles to the drama was the introduction of the third actor which immensely reduced the role of the chorus and created better opportunities for character development and conflict between characters. Even his competitor Aeschylus, who dominated Athenian playwrights during Sophocles' early career, accepted the new idea and adopted it into his own work towards the end of his life. Aristotle gave Sophocles the credit of the introduction of skenographia, or scenery-painting. After the death of Aeschylus in 456 BC, Sophocles became the celebrated playwright in Athens. He emerged victorious in different dramatic competitions, 18 at Dionysia and 6 at Lenaea festivals. Apart from making innovations in the dramatic structure, he was also known for his deeper development of characters than the earlier playwrights. His widespread reputation helped him to get invitation from foreign rulers to attend their courts, but unlike other playwrights Aeschylus who died in Sicily, or Euripides who spent time in Macedon, he never accepted any of these invitations. Sophocles works were influential and significant for the Greek culture. Two out of his seven plays can be estimated correctly to their exact dates, which namely are “Philoctetes” (409 BC) and “Oedipus at Colonus” (401 BC, staged after his death by his grandson). From the rest of his plays, “Electra” had striking similarities to these two plays which put forwards the fact that it was written in the later part of his literary career. Again based on the stylistic characteristics of “Oedipus the King” which came in his middle period, “Ajax”, “Antigone” and “The Trachiniae” belonged to his early days. Sophocles had also written three Theban plays namely, “Oedipus the King”, “Oedipus at Colonus” and “Antigone”. All these plays described the fate of Thebes during and after the reign of King Oedipus. These plays were sometimes even published under a single cover. Sophocles had written these plays in separate festival competitions with several years of difference between them. They cannot be called trilogy because of the presence of inconsistencies among them. Apart from these, Sophocles is supposed to have written few more Theban plays such as such as “The Progeny”, which survived in fragments. The majority of his plays depicted the undercurrent of early fatalism and the offset of Socratic logic being the keystone for the long tradition of Greek tragedy.

Última actualización: 2018-03-23
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Sophocles was an ancient Greek poet and one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His plays belonged to the period after Aeschylus and earlier of Euripides. Based on the information provided by Suda, a 10th century encyclopedia, Sophocles wrote 123 plays during his lifetime, out of which only seven have survived in a complete form. These plays are Ajax, Antigone, Trachinian Women, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. It was believed that he remained the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens held during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles participated in thirty competitions, of which he won 24 and never went below second place in the rest. Among his plays, the two most famous tragedies, Oedipus and Antigone are generally known as the Theban plays, even though each play belonged to a part of a different tetralogy. Sophocles greatly influenced the drama. His main contribution was the addition of third actor which reduced the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. A crater on the surface of Mercury has been after this ace Greek poet and playwright. Sophocles Childhood and Life Sophocles was the son of Sophilus, who was a rich member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius. Sophocles was said to have been born in Attica. It is said that he was born few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, which is probably around 497/6 BC. Sophocles received his first artistic achievement in 468 BC, when he won first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus. According to Greek historian Plutarch, this victory was quite unusual. Unlike the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. According to him after being defeated, Aeschylus left for Sicily. “Triptolemus” was one amongst the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival. When Sophocles was sixteen, he was chosen to lead the paean, a choral chant to a God, celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. He was one of the ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces and was the junior colleague of Pericles. In the beginning of his career, Sophocles received patronage from the politician Cimon. Even when Cimon was ostracized by Pericles (Cimon's rival) in 461 BC, Sophocles received no harm. In 443/ 442 he became one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, and had the role to assist managing the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles. Based on the accounts of the Vita Sophoclis, he served as a general in the Athenian campaign against Samos in 441 BC. It was believed that Sophocles received this post because of his writing of Antigone. In 420 BC, when Asclepius was introduced to Athens, he welcomed it and set up an altar for the image of deity at his house. In 413, Sophocles was elected one of the commissioners who reacted to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War. Personal Life Sophocles first married to Nicostrata, with whom he had a son named Iophon. In the later life, he had relationship with a woman of Sicyon. She bore him a son called Ariston. It was believed that he had three more sons, but there is not much information about them. Death In the winter of 406/ 405 BC, Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety one. Like the other famous men from the ancient history, his death also inspired many apocryphal stories. One of the stories states that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his play, “Antigone” without pausing to take a breath. Whereas the other story suggests that he choked to death while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. The third story accounts that he died due to excessive happiness over winning his final victory at the City Dionysia. Works The earliest contribution of Sophocles to the drama was the introduction of the third actor which immensely reduced the role of the chorus and created better opportunities for character development and conflict between characters. Even his competitor Aeschylus, who dominated Athenian playwrights during Sophocles' early career, accepted the new idea and adopted it into his own work towards the end of his life. Aristotle gave Sophocles the credit of the introduction of skenographia, or scenery-painting. After the death of Aeschylus in 456 BC, Sophocles became the celebrated playwright in Athens. He emerged victorious in different dramatic competitions, 18 at Dionysia and 6 at Lenaea festivals. Apart from making innovations in the dramatic structure, he was also known for his deeper development of characters than the earlier playwrights. His widespread reputation helped him to get invitation from foreign rulers to attend their courts, but unlike other playwrights Aeschylus who died in Sicily, or Euripides who spent time in Macedon, he never accepted any of these invitations. Sophocles works were influential and significant for the Greek culture. Two out of his seven plays can be estimated correctly to their exact dates, which namely are “Philoctetes” (409 BC) and “Oedipus at Colonus” (401 BC, staged after his death by his grandson). From the rest of his plays, “Electra” had striking similarities to these two plays which put forwards the fact that it was written in the later part of his literary career. Again based on the stylistic characteristics of “Oedipus the King” which came in his middle period, “Ajax”, “Antigone” and “The Trachiniae” belonged to his early days. Sophocles had also written three Theban plays namely, “Oedipus the King”, “Oedipus at Colonus” and “Antigone”. All these plays described the fate of Thebes during and after the reign of King Oedipus. These plays were sometimes even published under a single cover. Sophocles had written these plays in separate festival competitions with several years of difference between them. They cannot be called trilogy because of the presence of inconsistencies among them. Apart from these, Sophocles is supposed to have written few more Theban plays such as such as “The Progeny”, which survived in fragments. The majority of his plays depicted the undercurrent of early fatalism and the offset of Socratic logic being the keystone for the long tradition of Greek tragedy.

Inglés

sophocles

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One day Monki and Makil carried out a plan. Makil let his wife place a piece of white cloth over his body, cry a kandidiagao (a cry of grief), and say, "Why did Makil die? He was very good to all the people! He planted sweet fruits and plenty of sugarcane." When the monkeys heard Monki's cry, they decided to help her. The leader of the monkeys said, "We shall help Monki, because it is really true that Makil was a good man. He always planted fruits for us." So all the monkeys went to the house of Monki. The leader of the monkeys asked her, "What can we do? Can we help you? Please tell us how we can help you!" Monki replied, "Oh, my friends, Makil will not die if you help him sit up." So they helped Makil sit up. The leader asked, "Can you tell us what else we can do to help you?" "Oh, my friend monkeys, you are very good to me!" continued Monki. "Makil will not die if you help him stand up." So they helped him stand up. "What else can we do, Monki?" asked the leader of the monkeys. "Oh, my friend monkeys, if you give this kampilan (long combat sword) to Makil, I promise you that we shall plant more sugarcane just for you," said Monki. When Amomantaragaga saw the kampilan he became wary and went out of the house. As soon as Makil received the kampilan, Monki closed the door and Makil killed all the monkeys in the house. Only Amomantaragaga escaped. One day Makil and Monki had another good idea. They made a litag (bamboo trap) in order to catch Amomantaragaga. Early in the morning, they went out to see if the trap had caught the monkey. In fact it had caught an animal, but it did not look like a monkey. They were annoyed when they came near and found out that the animal was a heron. This heron was called Tatalaonga. "Why are you here, Tatalaonga?" asked Makil. "I'll kill you because you are the reason why I did not catch Amomantaragaga." "Oh, datu, please don't kill me," pleaded the heron. "If you set me free, I'll go and kill Amomantaragaga myself!" So Makil set the heron free. Tatalaonga asked Makil to make a raft from pieces of sugarcane. When the raft was finished, Makil brought it to the river, and Tatalaonga perched on it. Drifting along, Tatalaonga passed Amomantaragaga by the banks of the river and invited the monkey to go rafting with him. The two continued down the river on the raft. Tatalaonga took a piece of sugarcane to use as a pole to move the raft, and then he took another one and gave it to Amomantaragaga, who greedily ate the pole. The monkey ate one cane after another, until only one piece was left. At that instance, Tatalaonga flew away and left Amomantaragaga to drown in the river. Monki and Makil and the sultan of Agamaniyog and his people were happy to be rid of the pestering monkeys.

Inglés

One day Monki and Makil carried out a plan. Makil let his wife place a piece of white cloth over his body, cry a kandidiagao (a cry of grief), and say, "Why did Makil die? He was very good to all the people! He planted sweet fruits and plenty of sugarcane." When the monkeys heard Monki's cry, they decided to help her. The leader of the monkeys said, "We shall help Monki, because it is really true that Makil was a good man. He always planted fruits for us." So all the monkeys went to the house of Monki. The leader of the monkeys asked her, "What can we do? Can we help you? Please tell us how we can help you!" Monki replied, "Oh, my friends, Makil will not die if you help him sit up." So they helped Makil sit up. The leader asked, "Can you tell us what else we can do to help you?" "Oh, my friend monkeys, you are very good to me!" continued Monki. "Makil will not die if you help him stand up." So they helped him stand up. "What else can we do, Monki?" asked the leader of the monkeys. "Oh, my friend monkeys, if you give this kampilan (long combat sword) to Makil, I promise you that we shall plant more sugarcane just for you," said Monki. When Amomantaragaga saw the kampilan he became wary and went out of the house. As soon as Makil received the kampilan, Monki closed the door and Makil killed all the monkeys in the house. Only Amomantaragaga escaped. One day Makil and Monki had another good idea. They made a litag (bamboo trap) in order to catch Amomantaragaga. Early in the morning, they went out to see if the trap had caught the monkey. In fact it had caught an animal, but it did not look like a monkey. They were annoyed when they came near and found out that the animal was a heron. This heron was called Tatalaonga. "Why are you here, Tatalaonga?" asked Makil. "I'll kill you because you are the reason why I did not catch Amomantaragaga." "Oh, datu, please don't kill me," pleaded the heron. "If you set me free, I'll go and kill Amomantaragaga myself!" So Makil set the heron free. Tatalaonga asked Makil to make a raft from pieces of sugarcane. When the raft was finished, Makil brought it to the river, and Tatalaonga perched on it. Drifting along, Tatalaonga passed Amomantaragaga by the banks of the river and invited the monkey to go rafting with him. The two continued down the river on the raft. Tatalaonga took a piece of sugarcane to use as a pole to move the raft, and then he took another one and gave it to Amomantaragaga, who greedily ate the pole. The monkey ate one cane after another, until only one piece was left. At that instance, Tatalaonga flew away and left Amomantaragaga to drown in the river. Monki and Makil and the sultan of Agamaniyog and his people were happy to be rid of the pestering monkeys.

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HISTORY OF CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY By ATTY. "TOMMY" C. PACANA CHAIRMAN, HISTORICAL COMMISSION Two thousand years ago, there were already ancient Kagay-anons living around the vicinity of Hulaga, Himologan and Tagbalitang caves around 8 kilometers south of Cagayan de Oro City. Fr. Francisco Demetrio, S.J., noted archeologist and Filipino folklorist of Xavier University had collected tools, implements, potteries and shards from these areas and subjected these to the Carbon dating process at the Philippine Historical Museum to determine their age. It was found that these tools and implements were already used by the ancient Kagay-anons during the Neolithic Age. This shows how old Cagayan de Oro is before the coming of the Spanish "conquistadors" to the Philippines in march 1521. There were three great Sultanates of Mindanao and Sulu. These were Sultanates of Sulu under Sheriff Aljaluddin, the Sultanate of Maguindanao under Sheriff Mawi, and Tagoloan under Sheriff Mohammed Kabungsuwan. The Sultanate of Tagoloan extended from Baloi, Lanao del Sur, to Butuan, Cagayan de Oro (or Kalambaguhan, by which name it was then known), was merely a passageway from Baloi to Butuan, which was already a great trading center like Zugbu, Panay and Manila. Kalambaguhan has a small settlement of Bukidnons who lived along the riverbanks of the Kalambaguhan River. This river (now the Cagayan River) was so known because of the "Lambago" trees that grew profusely along its banks. During this time, however, the Cachel Corralat (Sultan Kudarat) marauding warriors attacked such places as Manticao, Tagnipa, (El Salvador), Iligan and Kalambaguhan to bring these places with their domain. They captured the women, children and working animals of the inhabitants in these places and brought them to their Sultanate. Because of these constant raids, the Bukidnons along the river fled to the hills of Hulaga led by their ruler, Datu Salangsang. Sometime in 1622, long after the Spaniards had established themselves at Butuan, Spanish friars under Fray Agustin de San Pedro known as "El Padre Capitan" went to see Datu Salangsang and sought to invite him and his people to come down to their told settlement at Kalambaguhan under the protection of the Spaniards. Datu Salangsang's aunt, a Christianized woman of influence whose name was Magdalena Bacuya. With a messenger from El Padre Capitan reiterated his offer to Datu Salangsang and convinced him to come down to their ancient settlement of Kalambaguhan. To protect the Bukidnons from the constant raids of the Muslim from Cachel Corralat, El Padre Capitan built a fortification around the settlement, which is now Gaston Park. Several raids of the Maguindanao warriors were repulsed by the courageous El Padre Capitan that the Muslims never returned again to the settlement. It was from this small settlement that the present Cagayan de Oro originated. A small church was built on the site, which later became the present San Agustin Cathedral. Thereby, the fame of El Padre Capitan as an able military strategist, spread far and wide. He vanquished the Muslims around Lake Lanao. The people of Cagayan de Oro come from a blend of two cultures those of the Muslims and Bukidnons. These were the native people that had settled in the region long before the coming of the Spaniards in fact, the first Christians among these natives were the Muslims from Lanao who were the descendants of the Samporna clan. They were the first to be baptized along with the Bato-Batos, the Wagas, Abas, Dagumbals and several families. HOW DID CAGAYAN DE ORO GOT ITS NAME? Pre-War folks said that Cagayan came from "Cagaycay, " an ancient Bukidnon word meaning to rake in the earth either with one's bare hands or with a piece of wood. It also means rocks gathered from the river or ores raked in from the hillside or streams. Gold have always been abundant in the Cagayan River gold ores are still found in the nearby of Cagayan as Tumpagon, Pigsag-an, Tuburan, Taglimao and other nearby places. Before the Spaniards came to Cagayan (or Kalambaguhan), there were already places where on could rake in the earth. ANOTHER VERSION IS MORE ROMANTIC Another version of how Cagayan de Oro got its name is told in of that story of a Bukidnon chieftain on the eastern side of Cagayan River (whose name according to old folks was Mansicampo), once had a quarrel with a Muslim Datu across the river (now the RER Subdivision), his name was Bagongsalibo. The quarrel became intense that the Bukidnon chieftain wanted it settled by war. However, the Muslim Datu across the river wanted to live in peace with his people in that part of Cagayan. Mansicampo then called on all his followers and relatives from the Bukidnon tribes of Daan Lunsod, gathered on the eastern side of the river ready for combat then Mansicampo ordered his son, the Bagani, to go and see Datu Bagongsalibo and arranged for a council of war. Therefore, the young prince went to see the Muslim Datu and confirmed with him. During the conference, however the young prince noted that there was a beautiful young woman who kept on peeping from behind a door looking at him. She was so beautiful that the young prince was immediately captivated and forgot his main purpose in the council. The young prince immediately proposed his intentions to the Muslim Datu who was only too willing to accept his land in marriage as he was not very keen about going to war against a neighbor. When the Bukidnon chieftain heard about his son proposing marriage to the daughter of his enemy. His warriors bid goodbye and left to live near the hills of Lumbia vowing never return to his former settlement which he now call "Kagayha-an" (or in Bukidnon, a place of shame). Since then, Cagayan de Oro has grown into one of the most peaceful and progressive cities in the entire Philippines.

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Lanao comes from the word ranao, meaning "lake." Lanao centers on the basin of Lake Lanao; thus, it is the land of the Maranaos, the "people of the lake." Lanao is the seat of the Sultanate of Lanao. When the Spaniards first explored Lanao in 1689, they found a well-settled community named Dansalan at the lake's northern end. Dansalan became a municipality in 1907 and a city in 1940. During the Pre-Spanish time, there are 4 important Boundaries hold the power of appointing a new sultan namely: Bakayawan, Dalama, Madamba and Sawer. In appointing a new sultan the permission of these four boundaries are needed to validate the new sultan appointed to his position.

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In 1769, the Scotsman James Watt patented an improved version of the steam engine that ushered in the Industrial Revolution. The idea of using steam power to propel boats occurred to inventors soon after the potential of Watt's new engine became known. The era of the steamboat began in America in 1787 when John Fitch (1743-1798) made the first successful trial of a forty-five-foot steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention. Fitch later built a larger vessel that carried passengers and freight between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey. John Fitch was granted his first United States patent for a steamboat on August 26, 1791. However, he was granted his patent only after a battle with James Rumsey over claims to the same invention. Both men had similar designs. .

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