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Anglais

for your kind information that.in in the sarda portal some students data is miss mach so please provide students mother's name and contact number for updating in website

Hindi

आपकी जानकारी के लिए that.in सारदा पोर्टल में कुछ छात्र dt

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Anglais

the decisions at such sittings are taken by the majority of the total number of members of both the houses present and voting .

Hindi

ऐसी बैठकों में फैसले दोनों सदनों के उपस्थित और मतदान करने वाले कुल सदस्यों के बहुमत द्वारा किए जाते हैं . इस प्रकार , लोक सभा की सदस्य संख्या अधिक होने के कारण उसका निश्चित ही प्रभुत्व रहता है .

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Anglais

the decisions at such sittings are taken by the majority of the total number of members of both the houses present and voting .

Hindi

ऐसी बैठकों में फैसले दोनों सदनों के उपस्थित और मतदान करने वाले कुल सदस्यों के बहुमत द्वारा किए जाते हैं ।

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Anglais

i saved all contacts number of class 2nd a

Hindi

मैं कक्षा 2 ए के सभी संपर्कों को सहेजा गया था

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-04-10
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Anglais

operational guidelines dated 17.12.2019 [for setting up of integrated cold chain projects against the expression of interest (eoi) to be published] for “scheme for integrated cold chain and value addition infrastructure under pradhan mantri kisan sampada yojana” government of india ministry of food processing industries panchsheel bhawan, august kranti marg, new delhi- 110049 page 2 of 45 revised operational guidelines of the scheme for integrated cold chain and value addition infrastructure (dated 17.12.2019) 1. background the scheme for integrated cold chain, value addition and preservation infrastructure was launched during 2008 and the original guidelines were notified on 18.03.2010. based on feedback and consultations with stakeholders, the scheme guidelines were modified on 20.11.2013, 08.08.2014, 29.08.2016, 08.03.2018 and subsequently on 18.01.2019 for the purpose of smooth implementation and to achieve the objective of the scheme. based on further feedback and experience of implementation of the scheme, the guidelines are further revised with immediate effect. these revised guidelines will be applicable to expression of interest (eoi) issued by the ministry for taking up new integrated cold chain projects prospectively. 2. objective the objective of the scheme is to provide integrated cold chain, preservation and value addition infrastructure facilities without any break, from the farm gate to the consumer in order to reduce post-harvest losses of horticulture and non-horticulture agri-produce. this will enable linking groups of producers to processors and market through a well-equipped supply chain and cold chain, thereby ensuring remunerative prices to farmers and year-round availability of food products to consumers. 3. eligible organizations/entities integrated cold chain and value addition infrastructure projects can be set up by partnership/ proprietorship firms, companies, corporations, cooperatives, self help groups (shgs), farmer producer organizations (fpos), ngos, central/state psus, etc. with business interest in cold chain solutions and also by those who manage supply chain. 4. components of the scheme the scheme allows flexibility in project planning with special emphasis on creation of cold chain infrastructure at farm level. the scheme will have the following project components: (a) farm level infrastructure, which may include processing center, situated in the catchment area of the targeted produce. this shall have one or more of the facilities mentioned in sub-para 5.1 (a to j) below. in addition, it may also have one or more of the facilities mentioned in sub-para 5.1 (m to u) below. for projects in the fruits & vegetables sector, farm level infrastructure shall include at least one of the facilities listed at sub-para 5.1 (a), (c) & (m). (b) distribution hub - this shall have a modern multi-product, multi-temperature cold storage. it may also include one or more of the facilities mentioned in para 5 below depending upon the business plan of the project. page 3 of 45 (c) refrigerated vans/ refrigerated trucks/ insulated vans/mobile insulated tankers. (d) irradiation facility. to avail financial assistance under this scheme, the applicant will have to set up farm level infrastructure as mentioned at (a) above and any one or both of the components from (b) and (c) above. considering the functional nature of the facility, irradiation component will be treated as a standalone facility for the purpose of availing grant under the scheme. 5. eligible facilities for calculation of grant 5.1 assistance under the scheme can be availed for creation of the following facilities: (a) integrated pack-house (with mechanized sorting & grading line/ packing line/ waxing line/ staging cold rooms, etc.) (b) ripening chamber(s) (c) cold storage unit(s) [associated with value addition] (d) controlled atmosphere (ca) storage [associated with value addition] (e) frozen storage/deep freezers [associated with value addition] (f) iqf line, tunnel freezer, spiral freezer, blast freezer, plate freezer (g) vacuum freeze drying (h) milk chilling / bulk milk cooling/ automatic milk collection unit/ milk processing unit (including packing) for which temperature control is necessary during some part of the processing. (maximum 50 nos. of milk chilling or bulk milk cooling or automatic milk collection unit to be assisted per project) (i) poultry/meat/marine/fishery processing unit (j) packaging line for chilled /frozen/temperature controlled products (k) food irradiation unit (l) refrigerated/ insulated transport (m) pre cooling unit(s) (n) mobile pre-coolers (o) retail refrigerated carts, temperature controlled solar powered retail carts (maximum 10 numbers to be assisted per project) (p) reefer boats (maximum 10 numbers to be assisted per project) (q) refrigerated containers including multi-modal container units (r) renewable/ alternate energy technologies (solar, bio-mass, wind etc.) for the project. [maximum permissible cost is ₹35 lakh, as per midh norms] (s) accessories/support infrastructure/ utilities such as fixed racking system in cold/ca storage, fork lifts, reach trucks, bins, insulated fish boxes, pallets, dock levellers, mezzanine flooring, etp, boiler, cip unit, depodder, peeler, slicer/dicer, blancher, sorting/grading line, etc. (t) in-house product testing laboratory (u) any other modern technology for temperature controlled storage, processing, value addition and preservation infrastructure as may be decided by inter ministerial approval committee (imac) page 4 of 45 (v) toilets, septic tank, drainage, etc. note: ca storage should normally be located near production areas. otherwise, detailed justification to be given in the dpr. 5.2 assistance for refrigerated/insulated transport can be availed either at farm level infrastructure and / or distribution hub depending upon the business plan of the project. 5.3 stand-alone facilities/ component, except irradiation facility will not be considered for assistance under this scheme. 5.4 irradiation facility may also include cold storage, grading and sorting facilities, reefer vans etc. for storage and transportation of raw material and finished products for efficient utilization of the facility. 5.5 both horticultural and non-horticultural produce are eligible for support under this scheme. 6. ineligible items: 6.1 the following items will be considered as non-technical civil works and will be considered ineligible for calculation of grant for the project (the list is only indicative and not exhaustive): - (a) compound wall (b) approach road/internal roads (c) cost of land and site development (d) administrative office building (e) canteen (f) labour rest room and quarters for workers (g) security/ guard room or enclosure (h) consultancy fee, taxes, etc. (i) other non-technical civil works not related to cold chain or storage infrastructure 6.2 the following items will also not be considered eligible for calculating the grant for the project (the list is only indicative and not exhaustive): - (a) margin money, working capital and contingencies (b) fuel, consumables, spares and stores (c) transport vehicles other than the reefer trucks/vans/refrigerated carrier/insulated vans/milk tankers (d) pre-operative expenses (e) second hand/ old machines (f) all types of service charges, carriage and freight charges, etc. (g) expenditure on painting of machinery (h) ac ducting, furniture, computers and allied office items. (i) closed circuit tv camera and security system related equipment. (j) consultancy fee, taxes, etc. on plant and machinery. page 5 of 45 (k) stationery items (l) plant & machinery not directly related to cold chain infrastructure (m) fire-fighting equipment, fly catchers, hand washer, laundry etc. (n) reconditioned and refurbished plant & machinery. the inter-ministerial approval committee (imac) will be the final authority to decide on the admissibility of the grant and the eligibility or otherwise of the items for this purpose. 7. pattern of assistance: - the scheme will have two types of pattern of financial assistance: - (a) for storage infrastructure including pack house and pre cooling unit, ripening chamber and transport infrastructure, grant-in-aid @ 35% for general areas and @ 50% for north east states, himalayan states, islands & itdp areas, of the total cost of plant & machinery and technical civil works will be provided. (b) for value addition and processing infrastructure including frozen storage/ deep freezers associated and integral to the processing, grant-in-aid @ 50% for general areas and @ 75% for north east states, himalayan states, islands & itdp areas, will be provided. (c) for irradiation facilities grant-in-aid will be provided @ 50% for general areas and @ 75% for north east states, himalayan states, islands & itdp areas. note: (i) maximum grant-in-aid would be ₹10 crore per project. (ii) the grant will be provided only in respect of technical civil works and eligible plant & machinery. (iii) cost norms of mission for integrated development of horticulture (midh) issued by department of agriculture, co-operation and farmers welfare will be followed wherever available. for facilities not covered under midh guidelines, cost norms as determined by the ministry will be followed. (iv) the sc or st promoter(s), as the case may be, holding 100% stake in the implementing agency/ firm, will be treated as st/ sc proposals and will be treated at par with ne states for the purpose of extending benefits under the scheme. for any change in the constitution/ composition of such proposals, prior permission of ministry shall be required. 8. basic eligibility criteria: the proposals have to meet the following basic eligibility criteria under the scheme: (a) the net worth of the applicant should be at least 1.5 times of the grant applied for. the net worth will be calculated as follows: - (i) in respect of pvt. ltd./ public ltd. companies: page 6 of 45 the net worth will be ascertained based on the paid-up share capital of the company and reserves created out of profits. a latest provisional balance sheet duly certified by the statutory auditor of the company needs to be submitted for ascertaining the net worth. share application money would be considered towards calculation of net worth provided the same has been converted into paid up capital within stipulated time as per companies act but, in any case, it should be converted into paid up capital before submission of the proposal to the ministry. revaluation reserves only in respect of land & building may be considered for ascertaining the net worth, which will be based on circle rates duly supported by circle rate notification and land ownership documents. in case of pvt. ltd./ public ltd. companies where a significant portion of its net worth stands invested in equity shares of unlisted companies or is shown as loans & advances to various parties with nil or negligible income/revenue, then following additional documents would be required to be submitted by the applicant to ascertain the net worth: - a. details of investments made in unlisted companies by the applicant company, b. audited financial statements (afs) for the previous year or latest provisional balance sheet of the companies wherein the investment has been made, c. details of loans & advances along with reasons/justification for the same, d. in case it is observed that the equity contribution made by the promoter company has been utilised by the investee company in creating tangible assets/ capital work in progress in projects which are under execution then such investments in shares would be considered at face value. e. however, in case it is observed that the investment by the promoter company is further being reinvested by the investee company in equity shares of unlisted companies or given away as long term/short term advance to individuals/related party/other companies and the investor company has nil/negligible income/ revenue, then no additional clarification shall be asked for and the net worth of such promoter company shall be considered after deducting such investments/loans & advances (ii) in respect of proprietorship/ partnership firms / ngos / cooperatives/ shgs etc. the net worth of all entities other than companies will be ascertained on the basis of latest balance sheet of individual proprietor/partner(s) i.e. assets minus all liabilities, duly certified by the chartered accountant (ca). following components would be considered towards net worth: - page 7 of 45 assets include cash, current value of investments, land and building (supported by valuation report at circle rate, circle rate notification and land ownership documents), bonds, cash value of life insurance, current total balance of savings, current or fixed deposit accounts. the following methodology shall be adopted for determining the net worth: a. net-worth would be sum of the net-worth of the individual partners and the partnership firm (avoiding duplication of the investment in the partner’s capital account of the firm) & the investments of each individual partner towards the partnership firm. b. if the applicant is ongoing partnership/proprietorship firm and the applicant has submitted audited balance sheet of such partnership/proprietorship firm, net worth based on the audited balance sheet will be taken into consideration. however, if the net worth as per balance sheet is insufficient then the ca certified statement of assets and liabilities of the individual partners/proprietors will be taken into consideration provided assets are supported by relevant documents as per the guidelines. c. however, since in a partnership/proprietorship firm, liability of partners/proprietors is unlimited, therefore the applicant should submit ca certified “nil liability statement” or statement of “assets and liabilities” of the individual partners/proprietors and the net liabilities based on these statements will be deducted while ascertaining the net worth. (iii) the aforementioned net worth components need to be supported by relevant documents (iv) shares of unlisted companies will be considered at face value for net worth and shares of listed companies will be considered based on the average market price of the share for a period of 6 months prior to date of submission of proposal. (v) assets such as car, jewellery, antiques, gold etc. would not be considered for net worth. (vi) loans and advances given to group companies/related concerns/individuals will also not be considered towards computation of net worth. (vii) the applicant(s) will have to give a self-certification regarding the details of the encumbrance of the property submitted by them towards the net worth. (b) in-principle or final term loan sanction from the bank/financial institution. the date of sanction of term loan should not be earlier than the date of issue of eoi. (c) availing term loan from the bank / financial institutions (fi) for an amount not less than page 8 of 45 20% of the project cost, except in case of north east states. in case of north east states term loan amount shall not be less than 10%. (d) a detailed appraisal note from the bank/financial institution specific to the proposal. detailed project report /techno economic viability report merely stamped or endorsed by the bank/ fi without detailed appraisal note shall not be considered as valid appraisal note and such proposals will not be considered for financial assistance. (e) infusion of equity of at least 20% and 10% of the total project cost respectively for projects in general areas and for projects in north east states, himalayan states, islands & itdp areas. (f) same applicant/ organization shall not be entitled for more than two grants from the ministry under any of its schemes in five years. (g) applicants/ promoters who have availed assistance under any other scheme of the ministry and apply under this scheme, then in such cases the previous project (s) should have achieved completion and commenced commercial operation/ production and successfully completed at least one year before the date of advertisement of eoi of this scheme. (h) no second proposal from the existing promoter(s), who have availed grant-in-aid for any of the cold chain projects from the ministry of food processing industries, will be entertained. (i) expansion /upgradation of the existing facility(ies) in the same premises will not be entertained. (j) the grant will be restricted only to the plant & machinery and technical civil work created after the date of issue of expression of interest [eoi]. (k) the applicant will have to set up the component of farm level infrastructure and any one or both of the components from (b) and (c) in para 4 above. location of the farm level infrastructure should be clearly indicated in the dpr as well as bank appraisal note. (l) considering the functional nature of the facility, irradiation facility will be treated as a standalone project for the purpose of availing grant. (m) date of commercial operation should not be prior to the date of issue of eoi. (n) not more than one application from the same applicant / company will be entertained. an application will be considered as second proposal if there are cross holdings of the promoter(s)/partner(s) between two applicants/entities. shareholding pattern in case of companies, partnership deed and details of partner’s capital accounts in case of partnership firms shall be submitted. further, the details of pan numbers of promoter(s)/partner(s) for an applicant entity shall also be submitted. page 9 of 45 (o) all equipment/ plant & machinery of the project should be new. reconditioned/refurbished equipment/ plant & machinery will not be eligible for grant. (p) in case of dairy proposals whether process is automatic or not should be clearly mentioned in the proposal. in case of automatic plant, details of automatic components envisaged should be given in dpr. (q) the processing components and capacity of reefer/insulated vans mentioned in the approval letter will not be allowed to be dropped at subsequent stage. (r) if applicant is not present during the technical committee (tc) meetings and inter ministerial approval committee (imac) meetings, the proposal shall be deferred for consideration. 9. documents and fee required: 9.1 following documents are required to be uploaded on-line, duly signed by the lead promoter/ authorised signatory [when original documents are in regional language they should be accompanied by self-certified english/ hindi translation]: - (a) detailed project report (dpr) in the prescribed template as at appendix-i. (b) ca/statutory auditor certificate in support of net-worth of the proposed project along with documentary proof. (c) net-worth supporting documents as detailed in para 8 (a) (d) ca/statutory auditor certificate as per appendix-ii for the proposed project cost and means of finance. (e) the proposed component wise cost breakup of technical and other civil work by the chartered engineer (civil) as per appendix-iii. (f) the proposed component wise cost breakup of p&m by the chartered engineer (mechanical) as per appendix-iv. (g) in-principle or final term loan sanction from the bank/ financial institution for availing term loan for an amount not less than 20% of the project cost, except in case of north east states. in case of north east states term loan amount shall not be less than 10%. (h) a detailed appraisal note, specific to the scheme, from the lending bank / financial institution. (i) certi

Hindi

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-07-06
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Anglais

candidates can click on the “new registration” link on the home page of the online registration portal of rpf - constable 01/2018 for the recruitment of constable post and carry out the following:important note : for the female candidates who had already applied in rpf en 01/2016, click the “registration for female candidates already applied in notification no.01/2016” button in the registration portal of rpf - constable 01/2018.login by entering the registration number & dob as in the application of en 01/2016, and fill in the remaining details required for your registration for employment notice constable/rpf - 01/2018.if you have forgotten your registration number, make use of ‘get register number’ option and retrieve your registration number of en 01/2016.candidates who appeared for en 01/2016 can either proceed with the above process or they can make a fresh registration, but not both. confirm that you have read and understood the instructions clearly by clicking the check box. select the zonal group to which you would like to apply. please be aware that the zonal group once selected cannot be changed after registration. primary registration: enter your name, date of birth and father’s name, mother’s name, aadhaar number(optional), state/ut, category, education board, 10th/matric roll number, year of passing 10th/matric, mobile number and email-id and then submit for registration. before submitting for registration, ensure and confirm that all the information furnished above are correct as the details furnished for registration cannot be changed later. please note that the email id used for the registration must be yours and unique. also note that both the email and mobile number will be verified during the online application process with an otp. verification of email id and mobile number through otp: on submitting the registration details, an otp will be sent to your email and another otp to your mobile number. click on the “verify through otp” link on the home page of the online registration portal and enter the otp received on your email and the otp received on your mobile in the respective fields. you can proceed with the registration only by entering both the otps. hence it is advised to ensure that the email id and mobile number is entered correctly during the registration. on verification of both the email id and mobile number, a unique registration number is generated for the candidate. candidate should note and preserve their registration number for later reference during the recruitment process and rpf will not entertain any request seeking registration number. candidates can proceed with the online application by clicking on the “candidate login” link on the home page using the registration number. in the part ii & part iii page of the application, provide the details of educational qualification, community, gender, religion, exsm, minority, economically backward class, age relaxation eligibility category as applicable and other details. set priority / preferences for railways: if the candidate is eligible for more than one railway based on his zonal group, he/she must set the priority/preferences for the railways. the candidates can set their priority/preferences by clicking on the “preference” dropdowns. detailed educational qualification: furnish all the relevant information on the qualification as required in the application. choice of exam language: english is the default language. the candidate needs to choose any other language also apart from english, from the drop-down list of languages. candidates must fill details like mother tongue, address for communication etc. bank details: candidates should provide the details of the beneficiary account in which they would like to receive the refund viz. beneficiary name, bank name, account number and ifsc code in the online application. the amount will be refunded to the account number specified by the candidate only if he/she appears for the online exam. it is mandatory for all candidates to fill their bank account details. on completion of application details as above, the candidate will be directed to the payment page to choose payment mode ie. bank(online-net banking/credit card/debit card & offline-sbi challan) or post office- challan and complete the payment process. last date for making payment through online modes –23:59 hours of 02-07-2018 last date for making payment through offline modes –23:59 hours of 05-07-2018 in case of online payment, you will be automatically directed to the next stage of application for uploading documents. those paying through bank-offline mode, the payment confirmation may take about an hour and hence they have to again login after 60 minutes and look for confirmation of payment status. the time period for payment confirmation shall vary from 24hrs to 48 hrs in case of post office payment. on getting the confirmation status, the candidate can proceed further with the online application process. uploading of color photograph: after the verification of payment, candidates can upload their colour photograph. the photograph should comply with the following requirements, colour passport photograph with white/light color back ground. photograph of size 35mmx45mm with name and date of photo taken printed on it. it should be in jpg/jpeg format scanned with 100 dpi. the size of the photograph should be between 15-40 kb. the color photograph must have been taken on or after 01-12-2017 in a professional studio. photographs taken using mobile and self-composed portraits may result in rejection of application. the photo should have clear front view of the candidate without cap and sunglasses. the face should occupy at least 50% of the area of the photograph with a full face view looking at the camera directly. the main features of the face must not be covered by hair of the head, any cloth or any shadow. fore head, eyes, nose and chin should be clearly visible. in case the candidate wears glass, then the photograph should not have any glare on glasses. the photograph must match with the candidate appearance on the day of various stages of recruitment process viz. cbts, pet and dv. last date for uploading photo and submitting application: 23:59 hours on 07-07-2018. candidates are advised to keep at least 12 (twelve) copies of the same photograph for further use as and when required during the recruitment process. candidates belonging to sc/st have to upload scanned copy of their sc/st certificates (jpg/jpeg format, 50kb – 100kb) also for availing the facility of free travel authority (second class railway pass). in the end candidates have to confirm the declaration “i hereby declare that i have gone through the eligibility criteria for the post applied for and meet all the requirements therein, that all the details furnished by me in the application are true and complete to the best of my knowledge & belief and nothing has been concealed or suppressed. i also understand that in case, any of the details furnished is found untrue during any stage or recruitment or thereafter railway administration shall disqualify me for the post applied for and / or i shall be liable for any other action under the extant rules.” after confirming the above declaration and submission of the application, the candidate may download the print of the application and preserve it for reference and record.

Hindi

हिंदी से अंग्रेज़ी ट्रांसलेटर

Dernière mise à jour : 2018-06-24
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Anglais

the purpose of god is to create and sustain. thus those who sustain human beings, those who are in the service of man are really in the service of god. it is often said that worship of god can be done through service of mankind. many great men laid their lives to serve man. they actually served god. abraham lincoln served the cause of negroes. he abolished slavery and made them free. it was a divine task. jesus laid in the service of man, so did buddha. st joan of arc served the people of her nation and was burnt at the stake. the service to man is considered to be at par with the service to god. service to society is called social service. a social worker always ties to do some good to people. a general man is social being. he has some duties to society. a social worker is selfless. his considers social service as a service to the god. he does not need any reward for his service. he never likes to take advantage of it. mahatma gandhi also says, ‘what the vast mass of mankind does for self or at best for family, a social servant does for general good’. we can serve our society in various ways. our society faces a number of problems. we must try to solve as many of them as possible. india lives in villages. illiteracy of both men and women is a serious problem here. most of the villagers do not know what happens in the world. farmers have no knowledge of scientific methods of farmers. to educate the villagers is to educate india. to make the villagers literate and educated is a great social service. there is another kind of service. our villagers do not know even the simple rules of hygiene. many of them live at dirty places. they also suffer from diseases. a large family is another fruit of ignorance. the health of mother is ruined. so a social worker must teach the villagers how to live well. sometimes our country men suffer at the time of famine floods and fire. these things make their life miserable. any help to those suffering people will be a valuable social service. at the same time, we must try to make villages life worth living. a social worker tries to bring peace and goodwill to society. social service develops in people a sense of fellow feeling and co-operation. it tries to maintain order in society. thus social service should be made compulsory subject in school and colleges. it is must in a country like india. god actually loves those who love his creation and serve society. abu ben adam did not list his name in the list of those who love god for he had no time to worship. the next night he was told by the angel that god loved him the most as he loved and served his creation. only can find people serving the creation not only in legends. there are people serving the tribal and downtrodden india. in serving human beings and society they actually serve god. let us hope that the number of such people increases so that the work of god may be shared by man.

Hindi

अंग्रेजी हिन्दी translet sury करने के लिए

Dernière mise à jour : 2016-11-23
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Anglais

natural resources in indianatural resources of india from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia natural resources are utilisable materials derived from the environment. resources are classified as either biotic or abiotic on the basis of their origin. the indian landmass contains a multitude of both types of resource and its economy, especially in rural areas, is heavily dependent on their consumption or export. due to overconsumption, such as uncontrolled logging or overfishing, many valuable natural resources are rapidly being depleted. contents • 1 general • 2 biotic resources o 2.1 forestry o 2.2 fish o 2.3 coal o 2.4 oil o 2.5 natural gas • 3 abiotic resources o 3.1 metallic minerals  3.1.1 copper  3.1.2 zinc  3.1.3 iron ore  3.1.4 chromite o 3.2 non-metallic minerals  3.2.1 garnet group  3.2.2 wollastonite  3.2.3 sillimanite group  3.2.4 ilmenite  3.2.5 pyrophyllite o 3.3 minor minerals  3.3.1 marble o 3.4 nuclear  3.4.1 uranium  3.4.2 thorium • 4 see also • 5 references general the total cultivable area in india is 12,945,355 km² (56.78% of its total land area), which is shrinking due to population pressures and rapid urbanisation. india has a total water surface area of 360,400 km²[1] and receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation, comprising an area of 380 km² in 1974. it is expected to rise to 1,050 km² by 2025, with the balance accounted for by industrial and domestic consumers. india's inland water resources include rivers, canals, ponds and lakes, coupled with the east and west coasts of the indian ocean and other gulfs and bays. these provide employment to nearly 6 million people in the fisheries sector. in 2008, india had the world's third largest fishing industry.[2] india produces 4 fuels, 11 metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 minor minerals.[3] india's major mineral resources include coal (4th largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese ore (7th largest reserve in the world as in 2013),[4] mica, bauxite (5th largest reserve in the world as in 2013),[5] chromite, natural gas, diamonds, limestone and thorium (world's largest along tamil nadus[6] shores). india's oil reserves, found in bombay high off the coast of maharashtra, gujarat, rajasthan and in eastern assam meet 25% of the country's demand.[7][8] a national level agency national natural resources management system (nnrms) was established in 1983 for integrated natural resources management in the country. it is supported by planning commission (india) and department of space.[9] biotic resources biotic resources are obtained from the living and organic material. these include forest products, wildlife, crops and other living organisms. most of these resources are renewable because they can regenerate themselves. fossil fuels are considered as biotic because they are formed from decayed organic matter. fossil fuels are non-renewable.[10] forestry forest in western ghats section, karnataka india's land area includes regions with high rainfall to dry deserts, coast line to alpine regions. around 21 percent of the total geographical area consists of forests. due to variations in climatic conditions and differences in altitude, different types of forest are present in india including tropical, swamps, mangrove and alpine. variety of forest vegetation is large. forests are the main source of fire woods, paper, spices, drugs, herbs, gums and more. forests contribute significant amount to nation's gdp.[11] main article: forestry in india fish india has a long history in fishing and aquaculture. india has rich marine and inland water resources. it has an 8129 km long coastline. inland fishery is carried out in rivers, reservoirs and lakes. in indian rivers more than 400 species of fish are found and many species are economically important. shrimps, sardines, mackerels, carangids, croakers and other varieties are available. major fish species available are carp, catfish, murrel and weed fish.[12] india is one of the major marine fish producer. in 2012-2013, 9 lakh tonnes of marine products was exported.[13] main article: fishing in india coal main article: coal mining in india coal mine in dhanbad district of jharkhand state coal mining in india started in 1774 through east india company in the raniganj coalfield along the western bank of damodar river in the indian state of west bengal . growth of the indian coal mining started when steam locomotives were introduced in 1853. production increased to million tonnes. production reached 30 million tonnes in 1946. after independence, national coal development corporation was set up and colleries were owned by railways. india consumes coal mainly for power sector. other industries like cement, fertilizer, chemical and paper rely coal for energy requirements.[14] oil india had about 125 million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as april 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels as per eia estimate for 2009,[15] which is the second-largest amount in the asia-pacific region behind china.[16] most of india's crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (mumbai high) and in the northeastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also located in the offshore bay of bengal and in the state of rajasthan. the combination of rising oil consumption and fairly unwavering production levels leaves india highly dependent on imports to meet the consumption needs. in 2010, india produced an average of about 33.69 million metric tonne of crude oil as on april 2010[17] or 877 thousand barrels per day as per eia estimate of 2009.[15] during 2006, india consumed an estimated 2.63 mbbl/d (418,000 m3/d) of oil.[18] the eia estimates that india registered oil demand growth of 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) during 2006. as of 2013 india produces 30% of india's resources mostly in rajasthan.[18] india’s oil sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises, although the government has taken steps in past recent years to deregulate the hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. india’s state-owned oil and natural gas corporation is the largest oil company. ongc is the leading player in india’s upstream sector, accounting for roughly 75% of the country’s oil output during 2006, as per indian government estimates.[16] as a net importer of all oil, the indian government has introduced policies aimed at growing domestic oil production and oil exploration activities. as part of the effort, the ministry of petroleum and natural gas crafted the new exploration license policy (nelp) in 2000, which permits foreign companies to hold 100% equity possession in oil and natural gas projects.[16] however, to date, only a handful of oil fields are controlled by foreign firms. india’s downstream sector is also dominated by state-owned entities, though private companies have enlarged their market share in past recent years. natural gas oil and gas processing platform at bombay high as per the ministry of petroleum, government of india, india has 1,437 billion cubic metres (50.7×1012 cu ft) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of april 2010. a huge mass of india’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the mumbai high complex. the onshore fields in assam, andhra pradesh, and gujarat states are also major producers of natural gas. as per eia data, india produced 996 billion cubic feet (2.82×1010 m3) of natural gas in 2004.[19] india imports small amounts of natural gas. in 2004, india consumed about 1,089×109 cu ft (3.08×1010 m3) of natural gas, the first year in which the country showed net natural gas imports. during 2004, india imported 93×109 cu ft (2.6×109 m3) of liquefied natural gas (lng) from qatar.[19] as in the oil sector, india’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural gas production. ongc and oil india ltd. (oil) are the leading companies with respect to production volume, while some foreign companies take part in upstream developments in joint-ventures and production sharing contracts. [reliance industries], a privately owned indian company, will also have a bigger role in the natural gas sector as a result of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the krishna godavari basin.[19] the gas authority of india ltd. (gail) holds an effective control on natural gas transmission and allocation activities. in december 2006, the minister of petroleum and natural gas issued a new policy that allows foreign investors, private domestic companies, and government oil companies to hold up to 100% equity stakes in pipeline projects. while gail’s domination in natural gas transmission and allocation is not ensured by statute, it will continue to be the leading player in the sector because of its existing natural gas infrastructure.[19] abiotic resources abiotic resources are obtained from the non-living and non-organic material. some of the resources like water and air are renewable. other resources like minerals are non-renewable and exhaustible because they cannot be regenerated.[10] minerals can be categorized as metallic, non-metallic and minor minerals. metallic minerals metallic minerals are the minerals which contain one or more metallic elements. they occur in rare, naturally formed concentrations known as mineral deposits. metallic minerals available from india are zinc, iron ore, manganese ore, gold, bauxite, silver, lead, tin, copper and chromite.[20] copper 1st century b.c. copper coin signifies usage of copper in india since ancient times copper has been used since ancient times. details of copper mining and metallurgy are available in ancient works like arthashastra. copper is mainly used in industrial applications, electrical/electronic equipments and consumer products such as utensils. major resources of copper are available at rajasthan, madhya pradesh and jharkhand. as on 2010, india had 1.56 billion tonnes of copper ore.[21] india is one of the 20 major copper producers. in 2008, india produced 7,10,000 tonnes of copper.[22] hindustan copper limited, a public sector company is the only producer of primary refined copper. post-pillar method and blast hole stoping method are used for mining. some of the domestic demand is met through scrap recycling. in india, copper scrap is recycled through direct melting, which is a hazardous process.[21] zinc zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal. it is also a fair conductor of electricity. references to medicinal uses of zinc are present in the charaka samhita. ancient zinc smelting technique was found at a zinc production site in zawar, rajasthan. zinc is recovered from a number of different zinc ores. the types of zinc ores include sulfide, carbonate, silicate and oxide.[23] it is used in corrosive resistant coating for iron and steel. also used in automotive, electrical and machinery industries. india is the world's fourth largest zinc reserve as in 2013.[24] hindustan zinc limited is the main producer of zinc in india. most of the resources are available in rajasthan. minor amount of resources are available in andhra pradesh, madhya pradesh, bihar and maharashtra states.[23] iron ore india is the world's third biggest exporter of iron ore as in 2013.[5] as on 2010, india had 27 billion tonnes or resource (including hematite and magnetite). major amount of hematite is found in orissa, jharkhand, chhattisgarh, karnataka and goa. minor amount of hematite is found in andhra pradesh, assam, bihar, maharashtra, madhya pradesh, meghalaya, rajasthan and uttar pradesh. major amount of magnetite is found in karnataka, andhra pradesh, rajasthan and tamil nadu. minor amount of magnetite is found in assam, bihar, goa, jharkhand, kerala, maharashtra, meghalaya and nagaland. mining is done by opencast method. iron ore is mainly used for manufacturing of pig iron, sponge iron and steel. it is also used in coal washeries, cement and glass industries.[25] the public sector companies like national mineral development corporation and steel authority of india contribute to 25% of the total production. private companies including tata steel provides major contribution.[26] chromite it is an oxide of chromium and iron. it is the only commercial source of chromium. as on 2010, india had 200 million tonnes of resource. major amount of resources are available from orissa (cuttack and jajpur districts). minor amount of resources are available from manipur, nagaland, karnataka, jharkhand, maharashtra, tamil nadu and andhra pradesh.[27] in 2009-2010, india produced 3.41 million tonnes and ranked second in world production.[28] it is mostly mined by opencast method. chromium provides additional strength to the alloys and it is resistant to corrosion. so it is mainly used in metallurgical applications. it can withstand sudden temperature changes makes it use in refractories. it is also used in chemical applications.[27] non-metallic minerals non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting. they are generally associated with sedimentary rocks. non-metallic minerals available from india are phosphorite, dolomite, gypsum, garnet, wollastonite, vermiculite, ochre, perlite, bentonite, asbestos, cadmium, felspar, soapstone, kaolin, sillimanite, limestone, diatomite, pyrophyllite, fluorite, vanadium, dunite, ilmenite, gallium and zircon[29] almandine (garnet group) from rajasthan garnet group it is a group of complex silicate minerals and has similar chemical compositions. there are three groups of garnet - aluminum-garnet group, chromium-garnet group, and iron-garnet group. the minerals in aluminium-garnet group are almandine, grossularite, pyrope, and spessartine. the mineral in iron-garnet group is andradite. the mineral in chromium-garnet group is uvarovite. garnet group minerals occur in different rock types.[30] it is a hard substance. it is resistant to chemical exposure. used as an semi-precious stone and also in abrasives, sand blasting, water filtration materials and water jet cutting. garnets are available in andhra pradesh, chhattisgarh, jharkhand, kerala, orissa, rajasthan and tamil nadu. it is also found in beach sands of kerala, orissa and tamil nadu states.[31] in 2007-08, india produced 8,73,000 tonnes.[32] wollastonite it is a meta-silicate of calcium. it is mostly white in color and occurs as bladed or needle like crystals. as on 2010, india had 16 million tonnes of resource. most of the deposits are available in rajasthan (dungarpur, pali, sirohi and udaipur districts). minor amount of deposits are found in gujarat and tamil nadu.[33] it is mainly used in ceramic industries and metallurgical applications. it is also used as a filler in wall tiles, paint, rubber and plastic. india is one of the largest reserves. in 2010, india produced 1,45,000 tons.[34] it is mined by opencast method. it is also used as a substitute for short-fibre asbestos in brake-linings. central building research institute has found that wollastonite can be used as substitute for chrysotile asbestos in cement products.[33] sillimanite group sillimanite from orissa it is a group of metamorphic minerals - sillimanite, kyanite and andalusite. these are polymorphs of alumino-silicate. these are formed under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. the three minerals are calcined to form mullite. mainly used as refractory materials.[35] as on 2010, india had 66 million tonnes of sillimanite, 100 million tonnes of kyanite and 18 million tonnes of andalusite as resource. most of the resources are found in tamil nadu, orissa, uttar pradesh, andhra pradesh, kerala and assam. minor amount of resources are found in jharkhand, karnataka, madhya pradesh, maharashtra, meghalaya, rajasthan and west bengal. granular sillimanite is available in beach sands of south india. sillimanite refractory bricks are used in steel, glass and petrochemical industries.[36] in 2004, india produced 14,500 tonnes of sillimanite and 6200 tonnes of kyanite.[35] ilmenite it is a compound of iron and titanium. it will be iron-black or steel-gray in color. it is non-toxic material and used in biomedical substances. institute of minerals and materials technology has developed an environment friendly technology for processing ilmenite.[37] it is also used in production of titanium dioxide pigment. it is available in kerala, tamil nadu and orissa. mining is done at locations chavara, chatrapur, aluva and manavalakurichi by indian rare earths limited.[38] as on 2013, india has 21% of the world's reserves and constitutes 6% of the world's production.[39] pyrophyllite it is a hydrous alumino-silicate. it is chemically inert, has high melting point and low electrical conductivity. it is used in refractories, foundry dressings, pesticides, ceramics and rubber. it is available as hydrothermal deposits.[40] physical and optical properties of pyrophyllite is similar to talc. it is also used in electrical insulators, sanitary-ware and in glass industry. as on 2010, india had 56 million tonnes of resource. most of the resources are found in madhya pradesh (chhatarpur, tikamgarh and shivpuri districts). remaining resources are found in orissa, uttar pradesh, andhra pradesh, maharashtra and rajasthan. in 2010, india produced 1.5 million tonnes.[41] minor minerals quartzite rocks in north coastal andhra pradesh white marble rocks in madhya pradesh minor minerals available are building stone, brick earth, quartzite, marble, granite, gravel, clay and sand. these are mainly used in building constructions.[20] impact of mining these minerals was significant over a period of time even the area was small. impacts were increasing water scarcity, damage to river beds and adverse effects on bio-diversity. so from 2012 onwards, mining of these minerals are to be done after clearance from ministry of environment and forests (india). [42] marble marble is a metamorphosed limestone formed by re-crystallization. it is available in different colours and textures. marble deposits are available in many states of india.[43] it has been used in india for a long time. it was used in construction of temples, tombs and palaces. now it is also used for flooring in homes and offices. it is preferred for flooring because of its durability and water resistance.[44] marbles which are economically important are available in rajasthan, gujarat, haryana, andhra pradesh and madhya pradesh. as on 2010, there was 1931 million tonnes of resource, including all grades of marble. based on the chemical composition, types of marble available are calcite, dolomitic, siliceous limestone, serpentine and travertine marbles. other than construction, it is used in paint and agricultural lime.[43] nuclear india's proven nuclear reserves include uranium, thorium and plutonium. uranium in nalgonda district, the rajiv gandhi tiger reserve (the only tiger project in andhra pradesh) has been forced to surrender over 3,000 sq. kilometres to uranium mining, following a directive from the central ministry of environment and forests.[45] in 2007, india was able to extract 229 tonnes of u3o8 from its soil.[46] on 19 july 2011, indian officials announced that the tumalapalli mine in andhra pradesh state of india could provide more than 170,000 tonnes of uranium, making it as the world's largest uranium mine. production of the ore is slated to begin in 2012.[47] the department of atomic energy (dae) recently discovered that the upcoming mine in tumalapalli has close to 49,000 tonne of uranium reserves. this could just be a shot in the arm for india's nuclear power aspirations as it is three times the original estimate of the area's deposits.[48] thorium the iaea's 2005 report estimates india's reasonably assured reserves of thorium at 319,000 tonnes, but mentions recent reports of india's reserves at 650,000 tonnes.[49] a government of india estimate, shared in the co

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