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Anglais

Télougou

Infos

Anglais

right to equality

Télougou

సమానత్వం హక్కు

Dernière mise à jour : 2017-10-30
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Anglais

Right to Left

Télougou

కుడి అంచు

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

Right to privacy

Télougou

గోప్యతకు హక్కు

Dernière mise à jour : 2018-04-07
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Anglais

RLM Right-to-left mark

Télougou

QUnicodeControlCharacterMenu

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

All people have right to vote .

Télougou

ప్రజలంతా ఓటు హక్కు ఉంటుంది.

Dernière mise à jour : 2016-12-21
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Anglais

Right to Left ,Bottom to Top

Télougou

కుడి నుండి ఎడమకు, క్రింది నుండి పైకి

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

Right to Left, Top to Bottom

Télougou

Title of the page that lets the user choose which location should the folderview show

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

Right to Left, Top to Bottom

Télougou

కుడి నుండి ఎడమకు, పై నుండి క్రిందికి

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

Top to Bottom, Right to Left

Télougou

పై నుండి క్రిందికి, కుడి నుండి ఎడమకుNo border line

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

RLE Start of right-to-left embedding

Télougou

QUnicodeControlCharacterMenu

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

RLO Start of right-to-left override

Télougou

QUnicodeControlCharacterMenu

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

Start a new theme by assigning it a name. Then use the Add button on the right to add emoticons to this theme.

Télougou

కొత్త థీమ్‌ను దానికి పేరును చేర్చుట ద్వారా ప్రాంభించుము. ఈ థీమ్‌కు ఎమోటికాన్సును జతచేయుటకు కుడిప్రక్కని జతచేయి బటన్‌ను వుపయోగించుము.

Dernière mise à jour : 2011-10-23
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Anglais

I have read the foregoing information, or it has been read to me. I have had the opportunity to ask questions about it and any questions that I have asked have been answered to my satisfaction. I consent voluntarily to participate as a participant in this research and understand that I have the right to withdraw from the research at any time without in any way affecting my medical care.

Télougou

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-06-05
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Anglais

If I had a magic wand, I'd change the way the world sees people with disabilities. ' 'If I had a magic wand, I would remove world hunger, give kids a chance to go to school and stop Boko Haram because kids should have the rights to go to school.If I have  the power to get all those I wanted. I can swing the stick and ask for my favorite chocolate and toffees. Wow cool. I can share it with my friends every day and they will be really happy. At times, I see some of friends are struggling to pay school fee. I can help all of them with my magic stick. I feel sad whenever I see a sick child or visit any hospitals. I will cure all the diseases in this world with my magic power so that everybody will be happy. I will

Télougou

ఇది ఉత్తేజకరమైనది. అకస్మాత్తుగా నేను కోరుకున్న వారందరినీ పొందగల శక్తి నాకు ఉంటుంది. నేను కర్రను ing పుతాను మరియు నా అభిమాన చాక్లెట్ మరియు టోఫీలను అడగవచ్చు. వావ్ కూల్. నేను ప్రతిరోజూ నా స్నేహితులతో పంచుకోగలను మరియు వారు నిజంగా సంతోషంగా ఉంటారు. కొన్ని సమయాల్లో, కొంతమంది స్నేహితులు పాఠశాల ఫీజు చెల్లించడానికి కష్టపడుతున్నారని నేను చూశాను. నా మ్యాజిక్ స్టిక్ తో వారందరికీ నేను సహాయం చేయగలను. అనారోగ్యంతో ఉన్న పిల్లవాడిని చూసినప్పుడు లేదా ఏదైనా ఆసుపత్రులను సందర్శించినప్పుడల్లా నేను బాధపడుతున్నాను. ప్రతి ఒక్కరూ సంతోషంగా ఉండటానికి నేను ఈ ప్రపంచంలోని అన్ని వ్యాధులను నా మాయా శక్తితో నయం చేస్తాను. నేను చేస్తా

Dernière mise à jour : 2021-01-19
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Anglais

12. Universal Adult Franchise The Indian Constitution adopts universal adult franchise as a basis of elections to the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies. Every citizen who is not less than 18 years of age has a right to vote without any discrimination of caste, race, religion, sex, literacy, wealth and so on. The voting age was reduced to 18 years from 21 years in 1989 by the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1988. The introduction of universal adult franchise by the Constitution-makers was a bold experiment and highly remarkable in view of the vast size of the country, its huge population, high poverty, social inequality and overwhelming illiteracy. 14

Télougou

12. Universal Adult Franchise The Indian Constitution adopts universal adult franchise as a basis of elections to the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies. Every citizen who is not less than 18 years of age has a right to vote without any discrimination of caste, race, religion, sex, literacy, wealth and so on. The voting age was reduced to 18 years from 21 years in 1989 by the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1988. The introduction of universal adult franchise by the Constitution-makers was a bold experiment and highly remarkable in view of the vast size of the country, its huge population, high poverty, social inequality and overwhelming illiteracy. 14

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-09-26
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Anglais

20, AVENUE APPIA – CH-1211 GENEVA 27 – SWITZERLAND – HTTP://WWW.WHO.INT/ETHICS/REVIEW-COMMITTEE l C (For use with Participant Observation, Focus Group Discussions, Interviews, and Surveys) (language used throughout form should be at the level of a local student of class 6th/8th) Notes to Researchers: 1. Please note that this is a template developed by the WHO ERC to assist the Principal Investigator in the design of their informed consent forms (ICF). It is important that Principal Investigators adapt their own ICFs to the outline and requirements of their particular study. The logo of the Institution must be used on the ICF and not the WHO logo. 2. The informed consent form consists of two parts: the information sheet and the consent certificate. 3. Do not be concerned by the length of this template. It is long only because it contains guidance and explanations which are for you and which you will not include in the informed consent forms that you develop and provide to participants in your research. 4. This template includes examples of key questions that may be asked at the end of each section, that could ensure the understanding of the information being provided, especially if the research study is complex. These are just examples, and suggestions, and the investigators will have to modify the questions depending upon their study. 5. In this template: • square brackets indicate where specific information is to be inserted • bold lettering indicates sections or wording which should be included • standard lettering is used for explanations to researchers only and must not be included in your consent forms. The explanation is provided in black, and examples are provided in red in italics. Suggested questions to elucidate understanding are given in black in italics. TEMPLATE ON FOLLOWING PAGE [Informed Consent Form for _____________________] Name the group of individuals for whom this consent is written. Because research for a single project is often carried out with a number of different groups of individuals - for example healthcare workers, patients, and parents of patients - it is important that you identify which group this particular consent is for. (e.g. This informed consent form is for parents of adolescent girls and boys participating in the research titled. "What do we want: Adolescents and health systems ") [Name of Principle Investigator] [Name of Organization] [Name of Sponsor] [Name of Project and Version] This Informed Consent Form has two parts: • Information Sheet (to share information about the study with you) • Certificate of Consent (for signatures if you agree that your child may participate) You will be given a copy of the full Informed Consent Form Part I: Information Sheet Introduction Briefly state who you are and explain that you are inviting them to have their child participate in research which you are doing. Inform them that may talk to anyone they feel comfortable talking with about the research and that they can take time to reflect on whether they want their child to participate or not. Assure the parent that if they do not understand some of the words or concepts, that you will take time to explain them as you go along and that they may ask questions now or later. (Example: I am X, and I work at Y organization in _____. I am doing some research which might help your clinic/hospital do more to help teenagers become and stay healthier. In our research we will talk to many teenagers, both girls and boys, and ask them a number of questions. Whenever researchers study children, we talk to the parents and ask them for their permission. After you have heard more about the study, and if you agree, then the next thing I will do is ask your daughter/son for their agreement as well. Both of you have to agree independently before I can begin. You do not have to decide today whether or not you agree to have your child participate in this research. Before you decide, you can talk to anyone you feel comfortable with. There may be some words that you do not understand. Please ask me to stop as we go through the information and I will take time to explain. If you have questions later, you can ask them of me or of another researcher.) Purpose Explain in lay terms why the research is being done and what is expected from the results. Explain why you need to conduct the research with children. (Example: It is possible that the clinics and the hospital in this region are not providing some of the services that are important for teenagers. In this study we will talk to teenage girls and boys about what they know about caring for their bodies in a healthy way including sexual and reproductive health. We will invite them to share their knowledge and understanding with us so that we can find ways of meeting their needs at the local clinics and hospital.) Type of Research Intervention Briefly state the intervention. This will be expanded upon in the procedures section. (Example: A questionnaire OR a focus group OR an interview) Selection of Participants State clearly why you have chosen their child to participate in this study. Parents may wonder why their children have been chosen for a study and may be fearful, confused or concerned. (Example: We want to talk to many teenagers about their health and what information or services they want for themselves. One part of health that we want to talk to them about is sexuality. We would like to ask your daughter/son to participate because she/he is a teenager and lives in this region.)  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Do you know why we are asking your child to take part in this study? Do you know what the study is about? Voluntary Participation Indicate clearly that they can choose for their child to participate or not and reassure they will still receive all the services they usually do if they choose not to participate. Also inform them that their child will also have input into the decision. This can be repeated and expanded upon later in the form as well. It is important to state clearly at the beginning of the form that participation is voluntary so that the other information can be heard in this context. Participants may also be more alert at the beginning. (Example: You do not have to agree that your daughter/son can talk to us. You can choose to say no and any services that you and your family receive at this centre will not change. We know that the decision can be difficult when it involves your children. And it can be especially hard when the research includes sensitive topics like sexuality. You can ask as many questions as you like and we take the time to answer them. You don't have to decide today. You can think about it and tell me what you decide later.)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: If you decide not to allow your child to take part in this research study, do you know what the optionsfor him are? Do you know that your child does not have to take part in this research study, if you do not wish so? Do you have any questions? Procedure Explain what each of the steps or procedures involve. Indicate when the research will take place and where. If there are surveys, indicate where and how the surveys will be collected and distributed. (Examples: 1) the following applies only to focus group discussions: Your daughter/son will take part in a discussion with 7-8 other teenagers , or a mix of teenagers and social service workers from the community. The girls and boys will be in separate groups. This discussion will be guided by[ give name of moderator] or me. 2) the following applies only to interviews: Your daughter/son will participate in an interview with [name of interviewer] or myself. 3) the following applies only to questionnaire surveys: Your daughter/son will fill out a questionnaire which will be provided by [name of distributor of blank questionnaires] and collected by [name of collector of completed questionnaires].OR The questionnaire can be read aloud and she/he can give me the answer which she/he wants me to write.) Explain the type of questions that the participants are likely to be asked in the focus group discussion, interview or in the questionnaire. If the questions are sensitive, acknowledge this, try to anticipate parents' concerns and protective responses, and address these. Parents may be concerned that if researchers talk to their children about sexuality it may encourage them to explore sexual activities with their peers. Other concerns may include disbelief that their child is ready to talk about sexuality, or parents may be personally embarrassed. (Examples: 1) The following applies only to focus group discussions: The group discussion will start with me, or the focus group guide (use the local word for group discussion leader), making sure that the participants are comfortable. We will also answer questions about the research that they might have. Then we will ask questions about the health system in this community. We will talk about where they go for information about health, and whether they get the information and services they need and want. We will encourage them to talk about sexual and reproductive health as well as other important health topics such as food and nutrition. These are the types of questions we will ask. We will not ask them to share personal stories or anything that they are not comfortable sharing. The discussion will take place in [location of the FGD], and no one else but the people who take part in the discussion and the guide or I will be present during this discussion. The entire discussion will be tape-recorded, but no-one will be identified by name on the tape. The tape will be kept [explain how the tape will be stored]. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the tapes] will be allowed to listen to the tapes. [The tapes will be destroyed after ____period of time.] 2) The following applies only to interviews: If your daughter does not wish to answer any of the questions during the interview, she may say so and the interviewer will move on to the next question. The interview will take place in [location of the interview], and no one else but the interviewer will be present unless your child asks for someone else to be there. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to the information documented during your interview.) [The tapes will be destroyed after ________period of time.] 3) The following applies only to questionnaires and surveys: If your daughter/son does not wish to answer some of the questions included in the questionnaire, she/he may skip them and move on to the next question. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to her questionnaire. [The questionnaires will be destroyed after _____period of time.]) Duration Include a statement about the time commitments of the study for the child and any time commitments on the part of the parent(s). Include both the duration of the study and follow-up, if relevant. (Example: We are asking your child to participate in an interview which will take about 1 hour of her/his time. We can do this outside of school/work hours. There is also a questionnaire that we will either provide to your child or which we will do together with her/him. This also takes about an hour. Altogether, we are asking for about 2 hours of your child's time.)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: If you decide that your child can take part in the study, do you know how much time will the interview take? Where will it take place? Do you know that we will be sending a transport to pick up your child from your home? Do you know how much time will the discussion with other people take? If you agree that your child can take part, do you know if he/she can stop participating? Do you know that your child may not respond to the questions that he/she deso not wish to respond to? Etc. Do you have any more questions? Risks and Discomforts Explain any risks or discomforts including any limits to confidentiality. (If the discussion is on sensitive and personal issues e.g. reproductive and sexual health, personal habits etc. then an example of text could be something like "We are asking your son/daughter to share with us some very personal and confidential information, and he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. You must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she doesn't wish to do so, and that is also fine. He/she does not have to give us any reason for not responding to any question, or for refusing to take part in the interview" OR If for example, the discussion is on opinions on government policies and community beliefs, and in general no personal information is sought, then the text under risks could read something like "There is a risk that your son/daughter may share some personal or confidential information by chance, or that he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. However, we do not wish for this to happen. You must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she feels the question(s) are too personal or if talking about them makes him/her uncomfortable.) Your daughter/son may choose to tell you about the interview and the questionnaire but she/he does not have to do this. We will not be sharing with you either the questions we ask nor the responses given to us by your child.) Benefits Describe any benefits to their child, to the community, or any benefits which are expected in the future as a result of the research. (Example: There will be no immediate and direct benefit to your child or to you, but your child's participation is likely to help us find out more about the health needs of teenage girls and boys and we hope that these will help the local clinics and hospitals to meet those needs better in the future.) Reimbursements State clearly what you will provide the participants with as a result of their participation. WHO does not encourage incentives beyond reimbursements for expenses incurred as a result of participation in research. The expenses may include, for example, travel expenses and reimbursement for time lost. The amount should be determined within the host country context. (Example: Your daughter/son will not be provided with any payment to take part in the research. However, she/he will be given with [provide a figure, if money is involved] for her/his time, and travel expense (if applicable).)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: Can you tell me if you have understood correctly the benefits that your child will have if you allow him/her to take part in the study? Do you know if the study will pay for your travel costs and time lost, and do you know how much you will be re-imbursed? Do you have any other questions? Confidentiality: Explain how the research team will maintain the confidentiality of data, especially with respect to the information about the participant. Outline any limits there are to confidentiality. Note that with focus groups confidentiality cannot be guaranteed because what is said within the group becomes common knowledge. Participants can be asked not to share outside of the group but this does not guarantee confidentiality. (Examples: Because something out of the ordinary is being done through research in your community, it will draw attention. If your daughter/son participates, she and you may be asked questions by other people in the community. We will not be sharing information about your son or daughter outside of the research team. The information that we collect from this research project will be kept confidential. Information about your child that will be collected from the research will be put away and no-one but the researchers will be able to see it. Any information about your child will have a number on it instead of his/her name. Only the researchers will know what his/her number is and we will lock that information up with a lock and key. It will not be shared with or given to anyone except [name who will have access to the information, such as research sponsors, DSMB board, your clinician, etc]. The following applies to focus groups: We will ask your child and others in the group not to talk to people outside the group about what was said in the group. We will, in other words, ask each participant to keep what was said in the group confidential. You should know, however, that we cannot stop or prevent participants who were in the group from sharing things that should be confidential.)  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Did you understand the procedures that we will be using to make sure that any information that we as researchers collect about your child will remain confidential? Do you understand that the we cannot guarantee complete confidentiality of information that your child shares with us in a group discussion Do you have any more questions? Sharing of Research Findings Include a statement indicating that the research findings will be shared in a timely fashion but that confidential information will remain confidential. If you have a plan and timeline for the sharing of information, include the details. Also inform the parent that the research findings will be shared more broadly, for examples, through publications and conferences. (Example: At the end of the study, we will be sharing what we have learnt with the participants and with the community. We will do this by meeting first with the participants and then with the larger community. Nothing that your child will tell us today will be shared with anybody outside the research team, and nothing will be attributed to him/her by name. A written report will also be given to the participants which they can share with their families. We will also publish the results in order that other interested people may learn from our research.) Right to refuse or withdraw Explain again the voluntary nature of consent. Also explain that their child will be asked to agree - or assent - and that the child's concerns and wishes will be taken very seriously. (Example: You may choose not to have your child participate in this study and your child does not have to take part in this research if she/he does not wish to do so. Choosing to participate or not will not affect either your own or your child's future treatment at the Centre here in any way. You and your child will still have all the benefits that would otherwise be available at this Centre. Your child may stop participating in the discussion/interview at any time that you or she/he wish without either of you losing any of your rights here.) Who to Contact Provide the name and contact information of someone who is involved, informed and accessible (a local person who can actually be contacted. State also that the proposal has been approved and how. (Example: If you have any questions you may ask them now or later, even after the study has started. If you wish to ask questions later, you may contact any of the following: [name, address/telephone number/e-mail] This proposal has been reviewed and approved by [name of the IRB], which is a committee whose task it is to make sure that research participants are protected from harm. If you wish to find about more about the IRB, contact [name, address, telephone number.])  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Do you know that you do not have to allow your child tak

Télougou

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-09-22
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Anglais

INFORMED CONSENT FORM (ICF) Study Tittle: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTION ASSESSMENT IN DIABETIC PATIENTS I have read the foregoing information, or it has been read to me. I have had the opportunity to ask questions about it and any questions that I have asked have been answered to my satisfaction. I consent voluntarily to participate as a participant in this research and understand that I have the right to withdraw from the research at any time without in any way affecting my medical care. Name of Participant__________________ Signature of Participant ________________ Date ______________ Day/month/year If illiterate A literate witness must sign (if possible, this person should be selected by the participant and should have no connection to the research team). Participants who are illiterate should include their thumb-print as well. I have witnessed the accurate reading of the consent form to the potential participant, and the individual has had the opportunity to ask questions. I confirm that the individual has given consent freely. Name of witness_____________________ Thumb print participant Signature of witness ______________________ Date _________________ Day/month/year Statement by the researcher/person taking consent I have accurately read or witnessed the accurate reading of the consent form to the potential participant, and the individual has had the opportunity to ask questions. I confirm that the individual has given consent freely. Name of Researcher________________________ Signature of Researcher_________________________ Date _____________ Day/month/year A copy of this Informed Consent Form has been provided to participant _____ (initialed by the researcher/assistant).

Télougou

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-06-05
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Anglais

TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. This rental agreement is with effect from -------------------- 2. The LESSEE has paid a sum of Rs. -------------------towards security deposit to the LESSOR. The secuity deposit shall not carry any interest and shall be refunded back to the LESSEE at the time of vacating the scheduled premises after deducting any arrears in rent, electricity bills, breakages, cleaning charges. 3. The LESSEE further agrees to pay a monthly rent of Rs.--------- The rent for each month shall be paid on or before 5th of every month (after completion of the month) 4. In case the LESSEE wants to vacate the premises before the period available to them, they should give one month notice, in writing, or one month rent in lieu of the notice period. The LESSOR also shall give one month notice to the LESSEE for terminating the Lease period. 5. The LESSEE shall not have any right to claim deduction of rent from the security deposit amount. On the other hand the LESSEE shall keep paying the rent as agreed. 6. If the LESSEE commits any default to pay the rent regularly on due dates or commit any default to observe or perform any of the terms here to agreed. the LESSOR hereby reserves the right to terminate the LEASE hereto granted and take over possession of the schedule premises. 7. The LESSEE shall bear and pay the electricity consumed to the AndharPradesh Southern Power Distribution Limited as per their monthly bill and pass on the copy of the bill along with the payment receipt to the LESSOR. Water charges will be in shared basis. 8. The LESSEE agrees not to sub-let or under-let the schedule premises in whole or part to any third person/party. 9. The LESSEE shall keep and maintain the schedule premises clean and in good condition if any damage shall be borne by the LESSEE 10. The lessor shall have the right to terminate the tenancy if the lessee fails to pay the rents regularly for a consecutive period of two months or commits breach of any of the terms herein and take possession of the schedule premises. 11. list of fittings and fixtures available in the premises. 1. ceiling fans 2. Tublight 3. CFL bulb 4. lights In witness where of the LESSOR and the LESSEE have signed the deed of rental agreement on the day month and year above written

Télougou

ఇకపై ఇతర భాగం యొక్క "లెస్సీ" (అద్దెదారు) గా సూచిస్తారు. మొదటి పార్టీ సభ యొక్క సంపూర్ణ యజమాని, ఇందులో ఒక హాల్, ఒక కిచెన్, మూడు బెడ్ రూములు మరియు బాత్రూమ్‌లు ఉన్నాయి

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Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression. Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, national origin, colour, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, or disability;[1][2][3] and individual rights such as privacy, the freedoms of thought and conscience,speech and expression, religion, the press, assembly and movement. Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote. Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights.[4] They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights. Protection of rights[edit] T.H. Marshall notes that civil rights were among the first to be recognized and codified, followed later by political rights and still later by social rights. In many countries, they are constitutional rights and are included in a bill of rights or similar document. They are also defined in international human rights instruments, such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1967 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Civil and political rights need not be codified to be protected, although most democracies worldwide do have formal written guarantees of civil and political rights. Civil rights are considered to be natural rights. Thomas Jefferson wrote in his A Summary View of the Rights of British America that "a free people [claim] their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate." The question of to whom civil and political rights apply is a subject of controversy. In many countries, citizens have greater protections against infringement of rights than non-citizens; at the same time, civil and political rights are generally considered to be universal rights that apply to all persons. According to political scientist Salvador Santino F. Regilme Jr., analyzing the causes of and lack of protection from human rights abuses in the Global South should be focusing on the interactions of domestic and international factors — an important perspective that has usually been systematically neglected in the social science literature. In order to equip an individual with thorough knowledge of Peace and its Dignity, we have come forth with these details which can be elaborated once understood well. Please learn to understand each of these words are the keys to the doors of life that can fill one person with safety and health on an environmental scale.

Télougou

పౌర మరియు రాజకీయ హక్కులు ప్రభుత్వాలు, సామాజిక సంస్థలు మరియు ప్రైవేటు వ్యక్తులు అతిక్రమణ నుండి వ్యక్తుల స్వేచ్ఛను రక్షించే, మరియు వివక్షగా లేదా అణగదొక్కడం లేకుండా సమాజం మరియు రాష్ట్ర పౌర మరియు రాజకీయ జీవితం పాల్గొనేందుకు తీసుకునే సామర్ధ్యాన్ని నిర్ధారించడానికి హక్కుల వర్గానికి చెందినవి.

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Anglais

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on the 2nd Oct., 1869 at Porbander. His father was Dewan in the state of Rajkot. He was married to Kasturba when he was only a school student. After completing his schooling he went to England to study law and returned to India as a barrister in 1891. He started his legal practice at Bombay. But in connection with a case of an Indian firm he had to go to South Africa.It was in South Africa that Gandhiji started his political career. He was shocked to see that the Indian settlers there were humiliated and insulted. Gandhiji decided to fight against this injustice. He knew very well that he would not be able to achieve his objective by violence or force, so he invented a novel method of struggle for truth, justice and right which is popularly known as Satyagraha or non-violent resistance. Gandhiji had great faith in Satyagraha. During the course of his non-violent struggle, many a time he was insulted and even manhandled but he continued his fight relentlessly and ultimately he won the battle and was successful in securing the rights for the Indians in South Africa.Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa in 1915. He enrolled himself as a member of the Indian National Congress and devoted his energy to India’s struggle for independence. After the death of Lokmanya Tilak in 1920, Gandhiji became the topmost leader of this party and guided the course of struggle for freedom of India.The experiment of Satyagraha had already stood the acid test in South Africa. Gandhiji decided to adopt the same method for the purpose of achieving independence for India. Under the banner of the Congress he started the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements in India. These movements proved very successful and thousands of Indians from all walks of life participated in these movements and courted arrest. Gandhiji himself was arrested and imprisoned several times. He organised the “Quit Movement” in August 1942. To his countrymen he gae call ‘Do or die’. Along with other prominent leader-Congress and thousands of persons, Gandhiji was arrested i sent to jail. Like a brave soldier, he continued to fitte. Hardships could not deter him from the right path of justice and non-violence. Ultimately this unique method struggle succeeded and India achieved her Independence the 15th August, 1947. The struggle which Gandhiji on was long, tiring and full of difficulties and hardships, but won freedom for India without blood-shed. Gandhiji was a saint. He was a staunch believer in violence and Hindu-Muslim unity. He was deeply toi by the Hindu-Muslim riots in the country that followed partition of India in 1947. Gandhiji went from place place and pacified the angry mobs with his message of and peace. It was he who brought about peace in N and Calcutta in Bengal, Bihar and Delhi, and esta communal harmony. On the 30th January 1948, he was dead by a fanatic while he was going to his prayer meetiEf Birla House in New Delhi. The whole world was plungoi grief and mourning at the death of this noble soul apostle of peace. Next day his body was cremate Rajghat. Since then every foreign King, President. I Minister or dignitary, who visits India, goes to Ri to pay homage to him and lays a wreath at his samadhi. Gandhiji was a great leader, a saint and a great reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He be1 in simple living and high thinking. Everybody who in contact with him was deeply influenced by his perso Even in politics Gandhiji behaved like a saint. His weapon was Ahimsa or non-violence. He believed noble end cannot be achieved by ignoble means. He great passion for Harijan uplift. He used to stay at colony in New Delhi. He hated the practice of untou and worked with great zeal for the removal of ability and strongly advocated temple-entry for the Gandhiji’s ideal was Ram Raj, wherein there wo»l complete peace, justice and happiness. According to ha imprisoned several times. He organised the “Quit Movement” in August 1942. To his countrymen he ga call ‘Do or die’. Along with other prominent leaders c Congress and thousands of persons, Gandhiji was arrestee sent to jail. Like a brave soldier, he continued to Hardships could not deter him from the right path of justice and non-violence. Ultimately this unique method struggle succeeded and India achieved her Independence the 15th August, 1947. The struggle which Gandhiji on was long, tiring and full of difficulties and hardships, btti won freedom for India without blood-shed. Gandhiji was a saint. He was a staunch believer ii violence and Hindu-Muslim unity. He was deeply by the Hindu-Muslim riots in the country that followed partition of India in 1947. Gandhiji went from place place and pacified the angry mobs with his message of and peace. It was he who brought about peace in No and Calcutta in Bengal, Bihar and Delhi, and estat communal harmony. On the 30th January 1948, he wa dead by a fanatic while he was going to his prayer at Birla House in New Delhi. The whole world was plun grief and mourning at the death of this noble sou apostle of peace. Next day his body was cremal Rajghat. Since then every foreign King, President. Minister or dignitary, who visits India, goes to to pay homage to him and lays a wreath at his samadhi. Gandhiji was a great leader, a saint and a great reformer. He was pious, truthful and religious. He in simple living and high thinking. Everybody who in contact with him was deeply influenced by his per Even in politics Gandhiji behaved like a saint. His | weapon was Ahimsa or non-violence. He believed nob le end cannot be achieved by ignoble means, great passion for Harijan uplift. He used to stay at colony in New Delhi. He hated the practice of untou and worked with great zeal for the removal of una ability and strongly advocated temple-entry for the Harp Gandhiji’s ideal was Ram Raj, wherein there wt complete peace, justice and happiness. According to ethical society free from conflicts and tensions, coercive apparatus of the state and based on harmonious relations between various interests and classes of society would be established under Ram Raj. He was a champion of democracy, and was deadly opposed to dictatorial rule. Gandhiji showed India and the world the path of truth and non-violence. He believed that it is trutli alone that prevails in the end. Gandhiji believed that real India lived in more than five lakh villages, and therefore, he worked for village uplift. According to him India’s real emancipation depended on swadeshi i.e., boycott of foreign goods, use of khaddar, and encouragement to village and cottage industries. Mahatma Gandhi is known as the Father of the Nation, because it was he who won freedom for us. He was the maker of modern India. India would not have been a free country but for Gandhiji. He was the light of the Nation and the architect of India’s freedom. The spiritual and moral force of Gandhiji’s miraculous weapon of non-violence shook the foundations of the mighty British Empire over wh ich the sun never set. Gandhiji was a true believer in simple living and high thinking. He used to put on only a loin-cloth. He taught that true greatness did not lie in pomp and show but in service, love, truth and labour. It has rightly been said about Gandhiji that he was the greatest of the great. He is our guiding star. Gandhiji was a great thinker and he expressed his views on a very wide range of subjects. In so far as religion was concerned, he believed in the equality and unity of all religions. According to him all religions were different paths to the same goal, and their aim was to make their followers better persons. In his view no religion taught hatred to others ; all religions taught love for all religions. Gandhiji had full and firm faith in God, and for him God and religion were inseparable. For him religion and politics could not be separated from each other, because they were like the body and the soul. In is own words, “Politics bereft of religion is a death trap, because it kills the soul.” Gandhiji’s supreme moral force found expression in Satyagraha, which was a means to convert, not to annihilate one’s adversary. Satyagraha mean non-violent resistance and a plea for self suffering for a right, just and noble cause. For Gandhiji means were as important as ends. Ifthi ends were noble, they could not be achieved by ignoble means. The axiom ‘ends justify the means’ was not approved by him. He believed in the use of right means for realising right ends. According to him the connection between the means and the ends was the same as between the seed ani the tree. Gandhiji was a staunch believer in Ahimsa, which «m not a weapon of the weak but a manifestation of invincibir strength. The high degree of self-restraint, of which the cute of Ahimsa was born, was impossible for the faint-hearted Ahimsa was a feature of large-heartedness that had no ptaar for hatred, ill-will and anger for the opponent. He would resort to violence against anybody even under the great provocation. So much so that he said, “Freedom won violent means was of no use to me.” For Gandhiji education did not mean literacy. Lite was only an aid to education. He held that true educa was that which was capable of achieving the objective ol round development of man. Man constitutes, the body, mind and the spirit. Education was aimed at bringing a a balanced and harmonious development of the three. E lopment of any one or two of the three meant a lo development. According to him training of the body essential part of education, because no mental devel was possible without adequate physical training. The r ship between the body and the mind was so interwov their development was impossible independent of each Similarly no intellectual attainment was worthwhile spiritual education. He, therefore, advocated a sy education which took care of the body, the mind and simultaneously. Gandhiji was of the opinion that education should be closely related to the needs of the : and the country. The education of a child should stan a useful craft hilosophy of the Gita, that every living being was a part of the ‘Supreme Being’ that exists in the soul of all. God was the creator of all and he created all men equal. To him nobody was high or low ; superior or inferior. The practice of untouchability was an anathema to him. He considered it a social evil that had sapped the vitality of our society. He was deeply distressed at the inhuman treatment meted out to nearly one-fifth of our population, who had been reduced to the level of serfs and were being denied all human rights. To him the practice of untouchability was immoral and irreligious, unjust, inhuman and against the principle of human equality. It was unjust and inhuman, because it perpetrated cruelty on a section of people for no fault of theirs. It was immoral because no law of morality permits subjugation of other people. It was against the principle of human equality, because it denied some unfortunate people even the basic human rights. He started a mass campaign for the removal of all sorts of disabilities attached to the Harijans.

Télougou

తెలుగులో మహాత్మా మహాత్మా గాంధీ మీద వ్యాస రచనా

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