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Inglese

citations

Hindi (indiano)

शीर्षक:

Ultimo aggiornamento 2018-12-24
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Inglese

mark citations in the message “ preview”

Hindi (indiano)

संदेश में उल्लेख को चिह्नित करें “ पूर्वावलोकनः”

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

the editors included as many as ten citations from the little book .

Hindi (indiano)

भद्रलोक युवागण भी इस व्यायामशाला में हरिजनों के साथ सम्मिलित हुए ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

his writings in prose are illuminated by citations from the tamil poets .

Hindi (indiano)

उनका समूचा गद्य साहित्य तमिष कवियों के उद्धकरणों से अलंकृत है ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

an automatic format or means to create bibliographies and citations quickly and easily .

Hindi (indiano)

ग्रंथ सूची तथा प्रशंसा पत्र के शीघ्र एवं सुगमता से सृजन के लिए स्वतःकृत प्रपत्र या साधन ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

asteroid 51826 kalpana chawla , one of seven citations named after the columbia ' s crew .

Hindi (indiano)

छोटा तारा 51826 kalpanachawla एक सात प्रशंसा पत्र के नाम से कोलंबिया चालक दलों

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

the battalion has rightfully been awarded with two unit citations and a plethora of other bravery awards since its raising .

Hindi (indiano)

इस बटालियन को अपनी स्थापना से ही दो यूनिट साइटेशन तथा बहुत से अन्य वीरता पुरस्कार प्राप्त हुए हैं ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

in fact all these varieties of similes are the different usages of the poetical citations that were recited in the learned assemblies .

Hindi (indiano)

वस्तुतः ये सभी उपमा - प्रकार विदग्धगोष्ठियों में सुनायी जानेवाली उक्तियों के विविध विकल्प हैं ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

several of these last mentioned citations are not only apt and idiomatic but also form striking co - incidence in the two languages .

Hindi (indiano)

उपर्युक्त उद्धरणों में से अनेक न केवल उपयुक्त और मुहावरेदार हैं बल्कि दोनों भाषाओं में अदभुत संयोग - साम्य भी दिखते हैं ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

the last work is utterly unknown although the copious citations leave little doubt in my mind that such a work once existed , if not available now .

Hindi (indiano)

अंतिम कृति नितांत अज्ञात है , हालॉंकि प्राप्त प्रभूत उद्धरणों को देखते हुए मुझे यह संदेह नहीं रहा कि ऐसी कृति ज़रूर कभी रही होगी , भले ही आज वह उपलब्ध न हो ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

among literary citations , the virata parva , the fourth canto of the mahabharata , in telugu is read out to an audience during a specified period of time .

Hindi (indiano)

साहित्यिक पाठ में महाभारत का चौथा सर्ग “ विराट पर्व” एक निश्चित समय पर लोगों को तेलुगु में पढ़कर सुनाया जाता है ।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

please check that the sources are clearly cited for all the ideas , concepts , graphics and other information , and that the citations are complete in all respects . this helps avoid processing delays .

Hindi (indiano)

सूत्रों स्पष्ट रूप से सभी विचारों , अवधारणाओं , ग्राफिक्स और अन्य जानकारी के लिए आह्वान किया , और प्रशंसा पत्र सभी मामलों में पूरी हो चुकी है कि कर रहे हैं कि जांच करें . इस प्रसंस्करण देरी से बचने में मदद करता है .

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

citation highlight color

Hindi (indiano)

प्रशस्ति - पत्र को रंग से उभारें

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-05-24
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Inglese

he moon is a gravity rounded astronomical body orbiting earth and is the planet's only natural satellite. it is the fifth-largest satellite in the solar system, and by far[13] the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits.[f] the moon is, after jupiter's satellite io, the second-densest satellite in the solar system among those whose densities are known. the moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after earth. the most widely accepted explanation is that the moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between earth and a hypothetical mars-sized body called theia. new research of moon rocks, although not rejecting the theia hypothesis, suggests that the moon may be older than previously thought.[14] the moon is in synchronous rotation with earth, and thus always shows the same side to earth, the near side. because of libration, slightly more than half (about 59%) of the total lunar surface can be viewed from earth.[15] the near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. after the sun, the moon is the second-brightest celestial object regularly visible in earth's sky. its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day. the moon's average orbital distance is 384,402 km (238,856 mi),[16][17] or 1.28 light-seconds. this is about thirty times the diameter of earth. the moon's apparent size in the sky is almost the same as that of the sun, since the star is about 400 times the lunar distance and diameter. therefore, the moon covers the sun nearly precisely during a total solar eclipse. this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the moon's distance from earth is gradually increasing. the moon was first reached by a human-made object in september 1959, when the soviet union's luna 2, an uncrewed spacecraft, was intentionally crashed onto the lunar surface. this accomplishment was followed by the first successful soft landing on the moon by luna 9 in 1966. the united states' nasa apollo program achieved the only human lunar missions to date, beginning with the first human orbital mission by apollo 8 in 1968, and six human landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being apollo 11 in july 1969. these missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the moon's origin, internal structure, and the moon's later history. since the 1972 apollo 17 mission, the moon has been visited only by un-crewed spacecraft. both the moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar calendar systems, art, and mythology. contents 1 name and etymology 2 formation 3 physical characteristics 3.1 internal structure 3.2 surface geology 3.2.1 volcanic features 3.2.2 impact craters 3.2.3 lunar swirls 3.2.4 presence of water 3.3 gravitational field 3.4 magnetic field 3.5 atmosphere 3.5.1 dust 3.5.2 past thicker atmosphere 3.6 seasons 4 earth–moon system 4.1 orbit 4.2 relative size 4.3 appearance from earth 4.4 tidal effects 4.5 eclipses 5 observation and exploration 5.1 before spaceflight 5.2 1959–1970s 5.2.1 soviet missions 5.2.2 united states missions 5.3 1970s – present 5.4 future 5.4.1 planned commercial missions 6 human presence 6.1 human impact 6.2 astronomy from the moon 7 legal status 8 in culture 8.1 mythology 8.2 calendar 8.3 lunacy 9 notes 10 references 10.1 citations 11 further reading 12 external links 12.1 cartographic resources 12.2 observation tools 12.3 general

Hindi (indiano)

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-10-23
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Inglese

the fort was constructed in 1612 to guard against the dutch and the marathas. it was a reference point for the vessels coming from europe at that time. this old portuguese fort stands on the beach south of candolim, at the shore of the mandovi river. it was initially tasked with defense of shipping and the nearby bardez sub-district. a freshwater spring within the fort provided water supply to the ships that used to stop by. this is how the fort got its name: aguada, meaning watery in the portuguese language. crews of passing ships would often visit to replenish their freshwater stores. on the fort stands a four-story portuguese lighthouse, erected in 1864 and the oldest of its kind in asia. built in 1612, it was once the grandstand of 79 cannons. it has the capacity of storing 2,376,000 gallons of water, one of the biggest freshwater storage of the time in whole of asia. this fort is divided in two segments: the upper part acted as fort and watering station, while the lower part served as a safe berth for portuguese ships. whereas the upper part has a moat, underground water storage chamber, gunpowder room, lighthouse, and bastions, it also has a secret escape passage to use during time of war and emergency. the lighthouse at the initial stage is used to emit light once in 7 minutes. fort aguada was the most prized and crucial fort of portuguese. the fort is so large that it envelops the entire peninsula at the southwestern tip of bardez. built on the mouth of mandovi river, it was strategically located and was the chief defense of portuguese against the dutch and marathas. during the salazar administration, fort aguada was repurposed for use as a prison primarily, some claim, for salazar's political opponents.[citation needed]

Hindi (indiano)

मराठी में किला अगुआड़ा

Ultimo aggiornamento 2020-11-05
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Inglese

a dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. a dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. the word dam can be traced back to middle english,[1] and before that, from middle dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities.[2] the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. however, there is one village, obdam, that is already mentioned in 1120. the word seems to be related to the greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill".[citation needed] so the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth". the names of more than 40 places (with minor changes) from the middle dutch era (1150–1500 ce) such as amsterdam (founded as 'amstelredam' in the late 12th century) and rotterdam, also bear testimony to the use of the word in middle dutch at that time.

Hindi (indiano)

query length limit excedeed. max allowed query : 500 chars

Ultimo aggiornamento 2018-09-26
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Inglese

mirabehnmadeleine slade (mirabehn) (22 november 1892 – 20 july 1982), daughter of the british rear-admiral sir edmond slade, was a british woman who left her home in britain to live and work with mohandas gandhi, the leader of the indian independence movement. she devoted her life to human development, the advancement of gandhi's principles and the freedom struggle in india. in doing so, gandhi gave her the name mirabehn, after meera bai, the great devotee of lord krishna.[citation needed] contents [hide] 1 early life 2 life in india and role in the freedom struggle 3 post-independence life in india 4 books by mirabehn 5 in popular culture 6 bibliography 7 see also 8 references 9 external links early life[edit] mirabehn was born into an aristocratic british family in 1892. her father, sir edmond slade was an officer in the royal navy who was posted in her early years as the commander-in-chief of the east indies squadron, later becoming director of the naval intelligence division.[1] she spent much of her childhood with her maternal grandfather who owned a large country estate and was from an early age a nature and animal lover.[2] the other great passion of the young mirabehn was the music of ludwig van beethoven. she took to the piano and concerts and even went on to become a concert manager. in 1921 she even arranged for a german conductor to lead the london symphony orchestra in concerts featuring beethoven and helped bring about an end to the british boycott of german musicians that followed the first world war.[1] she also visited vienna and germany to see the places where beethoven had lived and composed his music and she read extensively on him. she read romain rolland's books on beethoven and later sought and met with him at villeneuve, where he was then living. during this meeting, rolland mentioned about a new book of his called mahatma gandhi which she had not read then. rolland described gandhi as another christ and as the greatest figure of the 20th century.[1][2] on her return to england she read rolland's biography of gandhi and the book convinced her to become a disciple of the mahatma. she wrote to gandhi asking him if she could become his disciple and live with him in sabarmati ashram. gandhi replied, inviting her over but also warning her of the ascetic discipline of the ashram's inmates.[3] having made her decision, she went about training herself for all the demands of an ascetic's life in india including vegetarianism, spinning and teetotalism. that year in england, she subscribed to young india and spent a part of her time in paris reading the bhagvad gita and some of the rigveda in french.[4] life in india and role in the freedom struggle[edit] she arrived in ahmedabad on 7 november 1925 where she was received by mahadev desai, vallabhbhai patel and swami anand. this was the beginning of her stay in india that lasted almost thirty-four years.[4] mirabehn during her stay in india went to the gurukul kangri to learn hindi. thereafter she went to bhagwat bhakti ashram of rewari established by swami parmanand maharaj to be blessed by him. she also wrote to mahatma gandhi about her experiences there in bhagwat bhakti ashram.[citation needed] mira behn (extreme right) with mahatama gandhi at the greenfield mill, at darwen, lancashire mirabehn's stay in india coincided with the zenith gandhian phase of the freedom struggle. she accompanied gandhi and others to the round table conference in london in 1931. while on their way back from london, mirabehn and gandhi visited rolland for a week and as they took his leave, rolland gave her a book on beethoven which he had written while she was in india. in 1960 as she began to read it, it convinced her to move to austria and spend her remaining days in the land of beethoven's music.[1] the resumption of the non cooperation movement in 1931 saw her being imprisoned during 1932–33.[5] to plead india's case she also went abroad meeting, among others, david lloyd george, general smuts and winston churchill, and visited the united states, where she met mrs. roosevelt at the white house. mirabehn also took an active interest in the establishment of the sevagram ashram and worked among the people of orissa to resist any potential japanese invasion non-violently in the beginning of 1942. she was arrested and detained with gandhi in the aga khan palace, pune, from august 1942 to may 1944 where she saw mahadev desai and kasturba gandhi pass away. she was also a witness to the simla conference and the cabinet mission, the interim government and the constituent assembly, the partition of india and the assassination of mahatma gandhi.[citation needed] post-independence life in india[edit] after her release from the aga khan palace, with gandhiji's permission, she established the kisan ashram at a site near roorkee. the land was donated to her by the local villagers. after independence, she established the pashulok ashram near rishikesh and a settlement named bapu gram and the gopal ashram in bhilangana in 1952.[4] she took to dairying and farming experiments in these ashrams and also spent a while in kashmir. during the time she spent in kumaon and garhwal she observed the destruction of the forests there and the impact it was having on floods in the plains. she wrote about it in an essay titled something wrong in the himalaya but her advice was ignored by the forest department. in the 1980s, these areas witnessed a large gandhian environmental campaign to save the forests called the chipko movement.[6] she returned to england in 1959. in 1960, she relocated to austria and spent twenty-two years in vienna, where she died in 1982.[citation needed] she was awarded india's second highest civilian honour, the padma vibhushan in 1981.[citation needed] books by mirabehn[edit] mirabehn's autobiography is titled the spirit's pilgrimage. she also published bapu's letters to mira and new and old gleanings.[7][8] at the time of her death she had also left behind an unpublished biography of beethoven, the spirit of beethoven.[9] in popular culture[edit] actress geraldine james portrayed her in richard attenborough's film, gandhi, which premiered several months after madeleine slade's death in 1982.[citation needed] sudhir kakar's mira and the mahatma is a fictional account on the relationship between gandhi and madeleine as his disciple mirabehn.[3] bibliography[edit] spirits pilgrimage, by mirabehn. great river books. 1984. isbn 0-915556-13-8. new and old gleanings, by mirabehn. navajivan pub. house. 1964. see also[edit] gandhism sarla behn references[edit] ^ jump up to: a b c d lindley, mark. "mirabehn, gandhi and beethoven". academia.edu. ^ jump up to: a b gupta, krishna murti. "mira behn: a friend of nature". ^ jump up to: a b singh, khushwant (1 october 2005). "in love with the mahatma". the telegraph. ^ jump up to: a b c "associates of mahatma gandhi, mirabehn". jump up ^ "women and india's independence movement". jump up ^ langston, nancy. "significant women in forestry". jump up ^ "mira behn, disciple of mahatma gandhi". indiavideo.org. jump up ^ "books by mirabehn". amazon.com. jump up ^ "the making of mirabehn". the hindu. 24 september 2000. letters to mirabehn, by mahatma gandhi. # greenleaf books. 1983. isbn 0-934676-53-4. external links[edit] wikimedia commons has media related to madeleine slade. biography from mkgandhi.org in the company of bapu: in the just-released mira & the mahatma, psychoanalyst sudhir kakar delves into the complex relationship between a remarkable englishwoman and the man she worshiped – the telegraph video interview with mirabehn. a description of the video is here. [show] v t e mahatma gandhi

Hindi (indiano)

मीराबेन

Ultimo aggiornamento 2016-07-17
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Inglese

npa mangement non-performing asset from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia this article does not cite any references or sources. please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (march 2015) a non-performing asset (npa) is defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/or installment of principal has remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time. in simple terms, an asset is tagged as non performing when it ceases to generate income for the lender.[1] contents 1 identification 2 reasons for occurrence of npas 3 the problems caused by npas 4 references identification a non-performing asset (npa) is defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/or installment of bond finance principal has remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time. npa is used by financial institutions that refer to loans that are in jeopardy of default. once the borrower has failed to make interest or principle payments for 90 days the loan is considered to be a non-performing asset. non-performing assets are problematic for financial institutions since they depend on interest payments for income. troublesome pressure from the economy can lead to a sharp increase in non-performing loans and often results in massive write-downs. with a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it had been decided to adopt the ‘90 days’ overdue’ norm for identification of npa, from the year ending march 31, 2004. accordingly, with effect from march 31, 2004, a non-performing asset (npa)is a loan or an advance where; interest and/or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan, the account remains ‘out of order’ for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an overdraft/cash credit (od/cc), the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts. non submission of stock statements for 3 continuous quarters in case of cash credit facility. no active transactions in the account (cash credit/over draft/epc/pcfc) for more than 91days sify non-performing assets further into the following three categories based on the period for which the asset has remained non-performing and the realisability of the dues: sub-standard assets: a sub standard asset is one which has been classified as npa for a period not exceeding 12 months. doubtful assets: a doubtful asset is one which has remained npa for a period exceeding 12 months. loss assets: where loss has been identified by the bank, internal or external auditor or central bank inspectors. but the amount has not been written off, wholly or partly. sub-standard asset is the asset in which bank have to maintain 15% of its reserves. all those assets which are considered as non-performing for period of more than 12 months are called as doubtful assets. all those assets which cannot be recovered are called as loss assets. reasons for occurrence of npas npas result from what are termed “bad loans” or defaults. default, in the financial parlance, is the failure to meet financial obligations, say non-payment of a loan installment. these loans can occur due to the following reasons: usual banking operations /bad lending practices a banking crisis (as happened in south asia and japan) overhang component (due to environmental reasons, natural calamities,business cycle,disease occurrence,etc...) incremental component (due to internal bank management, like credit policy, terms of credit, etc...) the problems caused by npas npas do not just reflect badly in a bank’s account books, they adversely impact the national economy. following are some of the repercussions of npas: depositors do not get rightful returns and many times may lose uninsured deposits. banks may begin charging higher interest rates on some products to compensate non-performing loan losses bank shareholders are adversely affected bad loans imply redirecting of funds from good projects to bad ones. hence, the economy suffers due to loss of good projects and failure of bad investments when bank do not get loan repayment or interest payments, liquidity problems may ensue. references "glossary". reserve bank of india. retrieved 27 april 2015. categories: credit navigation menu create account log in article talk read edit view history main page contents featured content current events random article donate to wikipedia wikipedia store interaction help about wikipedia community portal recent changes contact page tools what links here related changes upload file special pages permanent link page information wikidata item cite this page print/export create a book download as pdf printable version languages हिन्दी தமிழ் edit links this page was last modified on 31 august 2015, at 13:54. text is available under the creative commons attribution-sharealike license; additional terms may apply. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the wikimedia foundation, inc., a non-profit organization. privacy policy about wikipedia disclaimers contact wikipedia developers mobile view wikimedia foundation powered by mediawiki

Hindi (indiano)

npa mangement

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-09-05
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Inglese

virtually any medium can be used for advertising. commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards and forehead advertising, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.[citation needed] television advertising / music in advertising in 2014, a study conducted over 7 years found that the television commercial is still the most effective mass-market advertising format.[43] the study's findings stated that for every £1 (gbp) invested in tv advertising, it returned £1.79.[44] this is reflected by the high prices television networks charge for commercial airtime during popular events. the annual super bowl football game in the united states is known as the most prominent advertising event on television - with an audience of over 108 million and studies showing that 50% of those only tuned in to see the advertisements.[45] the average cost of a single thirty-second television spot during this game reached us$4 million & a 60-second spot double that figure in 2014.[45] virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular programming through computer graphics. it is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops[46] or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience.[47] more controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background[48] where none exist in real-life. this technique is especially used in televised sporting events.[49][50] virtual product placement is also possible.[51][52]

Hindi (indiano)

निबंध विज्ञापनों

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-07-20
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Inglese

fukuyama francis fukuyama from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia yoshihiro francis fukuyama image from bloggingheads.tv podcast fukuyama in 2005 born october 27, 1952 (age 63) chicago, illinois, u.s website fukuyama.stanford.edu institutions george mason university[1] johns hopkins university stanford university main interests developing nations governance international political economy nation-building and democratization strategic and security issues notable ideas end of history influences [show] yoshihiro francis fukuyama (born october 27, 1952) is an american political scientist, political economist, and author. fukuyama is known for his book the end of history and the last man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the west and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. however, his subsequent book trust: social virtues and creation of prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] fukuyama has been a senior fellow at the center on democracy, development and the rule of law at stanford university since july 2010.[4] before that, he served as a professor and director of the international development program at the school of advanced international studies of the johns hopkins university. previously, he was omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy at the school of public policy at george mason university.[4] he is a council member of the international forum for democratic studies founded by the national endowment for democracy and was a member of the political science department of the rand corporation.[5] contents 1 early life 2 education 3 writings 3.1 neoconservatism 3.2 fukuyama's current views 4 affiliations 5 personal life 6 see also 7 selected bibliography 7.1 scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 books 7.3 essays 8 see also 9 references 10 external links early life francis fukuyama was born in the hyde park neighborhood of chicago. his paternal grandfather fled the russo-japanese war in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the second world war.[6] his father, yoshio fukuyama, a second-generation japanese american, was trained as a minister in the congregational church, received a doctorate in sociology from the university of chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] his mother, toshiko kawata fukuyama, was born in kyoto, japan, and was the daughter of shiro kawata, founder of the economics department of kyoto university and first president of osaka city university.[10] francis grew up in manhattan as an only child, had little contact with japanese culture, and did not learn japanese.[7][8] his family moved to state college, pennsylvania in 1967.[10] education fukuyama received his bachelor of arts degree in classics from cornell university, where he studied political philosophy under allan bloom.[8][11] he initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at yale university, going to paris for six months to study under roland barthes and jacques derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at harvard university.[8] there, he studied with samuel p. huntington and harvey mansfield, among others. he earned his ph.d. in political science at harvard for his thesis on soviet threats to intervene in the middle east.[8][11] in 1979, he joined the global policy think tank rand corporation.[8] fukuyama lived at the telluride house and has been affiliated with the telluride association since his undergraduate years at cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including steven weinberg, paul wolfowitz and kathleen sullivan. fukuyama was the omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy in the school of public policy at george mason university from 1996 to 2000. until july 10, 2010, he was the bernard l. schwartz professor of international political economy and director of the international development program at the paul h. nitze school of advanced international studies of johns hopkins university in washington, d.c. he is now olivier nomellini senior fellow and resident in the center on democracy, development, and the rule of law at the freeman spogli institute for international studies at stanford university.[11] writings fukuyama is best known as the author of the end of history and the last man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the cold war and the fall of the berlin wall in 1989. fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: what we may be witnessing is not just the end of the cold war, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. authors like ralf dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] he continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading american communitarian amitai etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. they are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. but he has lasted."[14] one of the main reasons for the massive criticism against the end of history was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. postmodern philosophy had, in fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] the fact that marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity and our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. in the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] one possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. he is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. in another work, the great disruption: human nature and the reconstruction of social order, fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. this shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. in 2006, in america at the crossroads, fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. he outlines his rationale for supporting the bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. in 2008, fukuyama published the book falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states, which resulted from research and a conference funded by grupo mayan to gain understanding on why latin america, once far wealthier than north america, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. discussing this book at a 2009 conference, fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within latin american nations is a key impediment to growth. an unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] neoconservatism as a key reagan administration contributor to the formulation of the reagan doctrine, fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after irving kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] fukuyama was active in the project for the new american century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that president bill clinton support iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-president of iraq saddam hussein.[20] he was also among forty co-signers of william kristol's september 20, 2001 letter to president george w. bush after the september 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the u.s. not only "capture or kill osama bin laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove saddam hussein from power in iraq".[21] in a new york times article from february 2006, fukuyama, in considering the ongoing iraq war, stated: "what american foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] in regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "what is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how america is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of american power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] fukuyama's current views fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the middle east. by late 2003, fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the iraq war[23] and called for donald rumsfeld's resignation as secretary of defense.[24] at an annual dinner of the american enterprise institute in february 2004, dick cheney and charles krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under american hegemony. "all of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] fukuyama remembers. he believes that the iraq war was being blundered. "all of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] he has not spoken to paul wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] fukuyama declared he would not be voting for bush,[26] and that the bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] overstating the threat of radical islam to the us failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". from the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the united nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-americanism in other countries misjudging what was needed to bring peace in iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to iraq and the middle east in general. fukuyama believes the us has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. a latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. the us spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. the us should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. the best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. the secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. one thing the us proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of world war ii was the formation of international institutions. a return to support for these structures would combine american power with international legitimacy. but such measures require a lot of patience. this is the central thesis of his 2006 work america at the crossroads. in a 2006 essay in the new york times magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with leninism. he wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. leninism was a tragedy in its bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the united states. neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something i can no longer support. fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the war on terrorism:[28] [w]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting john f. kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary muslims around the world. fukuyama endorsed barack obama in the 2008 us presidential election. he states:[29] i'm voting for barack obama this november for a very simple reason. it is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of george w. bush. it was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the united states throughout the world in his first term. but in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the american financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. as a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. while john mccain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the republican party, i think it would be a travesty to reward the republicans for failure on such a grand scale. affiliations between 2006 and 2008, fukuyama advised muammar gaddafi as part of the monitor group, a consultancy firm based in cambridge, ma.[30] in august 2005, fukuyama co-founded the american interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "america in the world". he is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] fukuyama was a member of the rand corporation's political science department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. he is now a member of the board of trustees.[11] fukuyama was a member of the president's council on bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] fukuyama is a fellow of the world academy of art and science (waas). fukuyama is on the steering committee for the scooter libby legal defense trust.[31] fukuyama is a long-time friend of libby. they served together in the state department in the 1980s. fukuyama is a member of the board of counselors for the pyle center of northeast asian studies at the national bureau of asian research.[32] fukuyama is on the board of global financial integrity. fukuyama is on the executive board of the inter-american dialogue. personal life fukuyama is a part-time photographer. he also has a keen interest in early-american furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] he is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "these days i seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as i do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] fukuyama is married to laura holmgren, whom he met when she was a ucla graduate student after he started working for the rand corporation.[8][11] he dedicated his book trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity to her. they live in california, with their three children, julia, david, and john away in school. see also daniel bell selected bibliography scholarly works (partial list) the soviet union and iraq since 1968, rand research report, 1980 books the end of history and the last man. free press, 1992. isbn 0-02-910975-2 trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. free press, 1995. isbn 0-02-910976-0 the great disruption: human nature and the reconstitution of social order. free press. 1999. isbn 0-684-84530-x our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2002. isbn 0-374-23643-7 state-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. ithaca, ny: cornell university press. 2004. isbn 0-8014-4292-3 america at the crossroads: democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy. new haven, ct: yale university press. 2006. isbn 0-300-11399-4 us edition after the neo cons: where the right went wrong. london: profile books. 2006. isbn 1-86197-922-3 uk edition falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states (editor). new york, ny: oxford university press. 2008. isbn 978-0-19-536882-6 the origins of political order. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2011. isbn 978-1-846-68256-8 political order and political decay: from the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. new york: farrar, straus and giroux. 2014. isbn 978-0-374-22735-7 essays the end of history?, the national interest, summer 1989 women and the evolution of world politics, foreign affairs october 1998 immigrants and family values, the immigration reader 1998. isbn 1-55786-916-2 human nature and the reconstruction of social order, the atlantic monthly, may 1999 social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the international monetary fund conference on second generation reforms, october 1, 1999 the neoconservative moment, the national interest, summer 2004 after neoconservatism, the new york times magazine, february 19, 2006 supporter's voice now turns on bush, the new york times magazine, march 14, 2006 why shouldn't i change my mind?, los angeles times, april 9, 2006 the fall of america, inc. newsweek, october 13, 2008 the new nationalism and the strategic architecture of northeast asia asia policy january 2007 left out, the american interest, january 2011 is china next?, the wall street journal, march 12, 2011 the future of history; can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle class?, foreign affairs, january/february 2012 what is governance? governance (journal), march 2013

Hindi (indiano)

francis fukuyama from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia yoshihiro francis fukuyama image from bloggingheads.tv podcast fukuyama in 2005 born october 27, 1952 (age 63) chicago, illinois, u.s website fukuyama.stanford.edu institutions george mason university[1] johns hopkins university stanford university main interests developing nations governance international political economy nation-building and democratization strategic and security issues notable ideas end of history influences [show] yoshihiro francis fukuyama (born october 27, 1952) is an american political scientist, political economist, and author. fukuyama is known for his book the end of history and the last man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the west and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. however, his subsequent book trust: social virtues and creation of prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] fukuyama has been a senior fellow at the center on democracy, development and the rule of law at stanford university since july 2010.[4] before that, he served as a professor and director of the international development program at the school of advanced international studies of the johns hopkins university. previously, he was omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy at the school of public policy at george mason university.[4] he is a council member of the international forum for democratic studies founded by the national endowment for democracy and was a member of the political science department of the rand corporation.[5] contents 1 early life 2 education 3 writings 3.1 neoconservatism 3.2 fukuyama's current views 4 affiliations 5 personal life 6 see also 7 selected bibliography 7.1 scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 books 7.3 essays 8 see also 9 references 10 external links early life francis fukuyama was born in the hyde park neighborhood of chicago. his paternal grandfather fled the russo-japanese war in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the second world war.[6] his father, yoshio fukuyama, a second-generation japanese american, was trained as a minister in the congregational church, received a doctorate in sociology from the university of chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] his mother, toshiko kawata fukuyama, was born in kyoto, japan, and was the daughter of shiro kawata, founder of the economics department of kyoto university and first president of osaka city university.[10] francis grew up in manhattan as an only child, had little contact with japanese culture, and did not learn japanese.[7][8] his family moved to state college, pennsylvania in 1967.[10] education fukuyama received his bachelor of arts degree in classics from cornell university, where he studied political philosophy under allan bloom.[8][11] he initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at yale university, going to paris for six months to study under roland barthes and jacques derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at harvard university.[8] there, he studied with samuel p. huntington and harvey mansfield, among others. he earned his ph.d. in political science at harvard for his thesis on soviet threats to intervene in the middle east.[8][11] in 1979, he joined the global policy think tank rand corporation.[8] fukuyama lived at the telluride house and has been affiliated with the telluride association since his undergraduate years at cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including steven weinberg, paul wolfowitz and kathleen sullivan. fukuyama was the omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy in the school of public policy at george mason university from 1996 to 2000. until july 10, 2010, he was the bernard l. schwartz professor of international political economy and director of the international development program at the paul h. nitze school of advanced international studies of johns hopkins university in washington, d.c. he is now olivier nomellini senior fellow and resident in the center on democracy, development, and the rule of law at the freeman spogli institute for international studies at stanford university.[11] writings fukuyama is best known as the author of the end of history and the last man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the cold war and the fall of the berlin wall in 1989. fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: what we may be witnessing is not just the end of the cold war, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. authors like ralf dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] he continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading american communitarian amitai etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. they are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. but he has lasted."[14] one of the main reasons for the massive criticism against the end of history was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. postmodern philosophy had, in fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] the fact that marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity and our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. in the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] one possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. he is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. in another work, the great disruption: human nature and the reconstruction of social order, fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. this shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. in 2006, in america at the crossroads, fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. he outlines his rationale for supporting the bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. in 2008, fukuyama published the book falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states, which resulted from research and a conference funded by grupo mayan to gain understanding on why latin america, once far wealthier than north america, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. discussing this book at a 2009 conference, fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within latin american nations is a key impediment to growth. an unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] neoconservatism as a key reagan administration contributor to the formulation of the reagan doctrine, fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after irving kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] fukuyama was active in the project for the new american century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that president bill clinton support iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-president of iraq saddam hussein.[20] he was also among forty co-signers of william kristol's september 20, 2001 letter to president george w. bush after the september 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the u.s. not only "capture or kill osama bin laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove saddam hussein from power in iraq".[21] in a new york times article from february 2006, fukuyama, in considering the ongoing iraq war, stated: "what american foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] in regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "what is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how america is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of american power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] fukuyama's current views fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the middle east. by late 2003, fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the iraq war[23] and called for donald rumsfeld's resignation as secretary of defense.[24] at an annual dinner of the american enterprise institute in february 2004, dick cheney and charles krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under american hegemony. "all of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] fukuyama remembers. he believes that the iraq war was being blundered. "all of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] he has not spoken to paul wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] fukuyama declared he would not be voting for bush,[26] and that the bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] overstating the threat of radical islam to the us failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". from the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the united nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-americanism in other countries misjudging what was needed to bring peace in iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to iraq and the middle east in general. fukuyama believes the us has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. a latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. the us spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. the us should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. the best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. the secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. one thing the us proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of world war ii was the formation of international institutions. a return to support for these structures would combine american power with international legitimacy. but such measures require a lot of patience. this is the central thesis of his 2006 work america at the crossroads. in a 2006 essay in the new york times magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with leninism. he wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. leninism was a tragedy in its bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the united states. neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something i can no longer support. fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the war on terrorism:[28] [w]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting john f. kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary muslims around the world. fukuyama endorsed barack obama in the 2008 us presidential election. he states:[29] i'm voting for barack obama this november for a very simple reason. it is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of george w. bush. it was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the united states throughout the world in his first term. but in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the american financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. as a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. while john mccain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the republican party, i think it would be a travesty to reward the republicans for failure on such a grand scale. affiliations between 2006 and 2008, fukuyama advised muammar gaddafi as part of the monitor group, a consultancy firm based in cambridge, ma.[30] in august 2005, fukuyama co-founded the american interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "america in the world". he is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] fukuyama was a member of the rand corporation's political science department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. he is now a member of the board of trustees.[11] fukuyama was a member of the president's council on bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] fukuyama is a fellow of the world academy of art and science (waas). fukuyama is on the steering committee for the scooter libby legal defense trust.[31] fukuyama is a long-time friend of libby. they served together in the state department in the 1980s. fukuyama is a member of the board of counselors for the pyle center of northeast asian studies at the national bureau of asian research.[32] fukuyama is on the board of global financial integrity. fukuyama is on the executive board of the inter-american dialogue. personal life fukuyama is a part-time photographer. he also has a keen interest in early-american furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] he is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "these days i seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as i do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] fukuyama is married to laura holmgren, whom he met when she was a ucla graduate student after he started working for the rand corporation.[8][11] he dedicated his book trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity to her. they live in california, with their three children, julia, david, and john away in school. see also daniel bell selected bibliography scholarly works (partial list) the soviet union and iraq since 1968, rand research report, 1980 books the end of history and the last man. free press, 1992. isbn 0-02-910975-2 trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. free press, 1995. isbn 0-02-910976-0 the great disruption: human nature and the reconstitution of social order. free press. 1999. isbn 0-684-84530-x our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2002. isbn 0-374-23643-7 state-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. ithaca, ny: cornell university press. 2004. isbn 0-8014-4292-3 america at the crossroads: democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy. new haven, ct: yale university press. 2006. isbn 0-300-11399-4 us edition after the neo cons: where the right went wrong. london: profile books. 2006. isbn 1-86197-922-3 uk edition falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states (editor). new york, ny: oxford university press. 2008. isbn 978-0-19-536882-6 the origins of political order. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2011. isbn 978-1-846-68256-8 political order and political decay: from the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. new york: farrar, straus and giroux. 2014. isbn 978-0-374-22735-7 essays the end of history?, the national interest, summer 1989 women and the evolution of world politics, foreign affairs october 1998 immigrants and family values, the immigration reader 1998. isbn 1-55786-916-2 human nature and the reconstruction of social order, the atlantic monthly, may 1999 social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the international monetary fund conference on second generation reforms, october 1, 1999 the neoconservative moment, the national interest, summer 2004 after neoconservatism, the new york times magazine, february 19, 2006 supporter's voice now turns on bush, the new york times magazine, march 14, 2006 why shouldn't i change my mind?, los angeles times, april 9, 2006 the fall of america, inc. newsweek, october 13, 2008 the new nationalism and the strategic architecture of northeast asia asia policy january 2007 left out, the american interest, january 2011 is china next?, the wall street journal, march 12, 2011 the future of history; can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle class?, foreign affairs, january/february 2012 what is governance? governance (journal), march 2013

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