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Inglese

The girl has been handed over to the family in the presence of a councillor and the police.

Hindi (indiano)

किशोरी के घरवालों को बुलाकर पार्षद व पुलिस की मौजूदगी में उनके हवाले कर दिया गया।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

In 1995 the building was handed over to the Power Board.

Hindi (indiano)

साल १९९५ में इमारत बिजली बोर्ड को सौंप दी गई।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

Gogoji sound has been switched over to the song song download

Hindi (indiano)

Gogoji sound Tunwa aapka swagat krta h song page baliye download

Ultimo aggiornamento 2017-06-17
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Inglese

Because of this, Upasane has been handed a great responsibility.

Hindi (indiano)

इस वजह से उपासने को अहम जिम्मेदारी दी गई है।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

After a post-mortem at the Sundernagar civil hospital, the body was handed over to the relatives.

Hindi (indiano)

नागरिक अस्पताल सुंदरनगर में पोस्टमार्टम करवाने के बाद दोपहर बाद शव परिजनों के सुपुर्द कर दिया गया।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

This is the same Francisca, about whom it has been said that her relationship with Berlusconi is a sham.

Hindi (indiano)

यह वहीं फ्रांसिस्का हैं, जिनके रिश्ते के बारे कहा जा रहा था कि बलरुस्कोनी के साथ उनका रिश्ता महज दिखावा है।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

Through this state-wide signature campaign, 10 Lakh (1 million)signatures across the state will be collected and handed over to the Governor.

Hindi (indiano)

इस राज्यव्यापी हस्ताक्षर अभियान के माध्यम से प्रदेश भर में 10 लाख हस्ताक्षर करवाकर राज्यपाल को सौंपे जाएंगे।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-10-20
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Inglese

Connection has been replaced by a new connection using the same resource

Hindi (indiano)

एक ही संसाधन का उपयोग कर कनेक्शन को नया कनेक्शन द्वारा प्रतिस्थापित किया गया है

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-08-20
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Inglese

RENT AGREEMENT This Deed of Rent Agreement is made at Delhi on this Day of 26th day of June, 2019, Between:- Mr. Sabir Ahmed , R/o B-109, Gali No. 5, Mandawali, Near Chand Masjid, Delhi-110092., Hereinafter Called the First Party/landlady/Landlord. :: In Favour of :: Mr. Peer Ali S/o Yaseen Ali, (2) Mrs. Nisabano W/o Peer Ali, Both R/o Mohmmadpurqazi, Majre nisasin, Vallipur, Sultanpur, Wallipur, Uttar Pradesh, 227812., Hereinafter Called the Tenant/Second Party. The Expressions of the both parties shall mean and include their heirs, successors, administrators, representatives, executors, assigns etc., respectively. And Whereas the First Party/Landlord/Landlady is the absolute/Actual owner BUILTUP PROPERTY BEARING NO. B-109, Gali No. 5, Mandawali, Near Chand Masjid, Delhi-110092. Whereas Request of the Second Party to the first Party/landlord/landlady has desired to let-out of One Room Set on Third Floor, on rent to the second party At the Rate of Rs 3,000/- ( Rupees Three Thousand only ), per month, for the period of Eleven months, commencing from 30.05.2019, on the following terms and conditions. :: Now this rent Agreement witnesseth as Under :: 1.That the Second Party shall pay the above said fixed rent monthly, regularly and in advance on the 1st day of every each English calendar month to the said first party/landlady/Landlord. Contd…P/3. :: 3:: 2.That the Second party has taken the said premises only for Residential purpose but not for any other purpose. 3.That the Second party shall have no right to make any additional alteration or construction in the above said premises without written consent of the said first party/landlady/Landlord. 4.That the use of Electricity charges and water charges, shall be pay by the second party in addition to the above fixed rent according to the meter/sub meter reading or as per the consumption. 5.That the second party shall hand over peaceful and vacant possession of the said premises on the expiry of the Rent Agreement and second party shall handed over good condition who was taking that time or earlier determination there of with all its fitting and fixtures contact. 6.That the both parties be bound to serve the one month prior notice to each other for surrendering the vacant possession of the said premises before expiry of the said fixed period of this Rent Agreement. 7.That the Second Party has fully enquired from the said locality that the rent of the said premises under tenancy is reasonable and accepted to the second party as correct and standard rent. 8.That the second party shall not store any dangerous good/items in the said premises resulting harm to premises or to the neighborhood, then he himself shall be responsible for all the consequences. 9.That the Second party shall not sub-let or part thereof to any other person in any way with rent or without rent. Contd…P/4. :: 4 :: 10.That if the second party shall fails to pay the rent of any one month or default any terms of this agreement deed then the first party shall have full right to terminate the tenancy of the said tenant and evict him from the said premises without any notice as soon as possible through court of law/police with his cost and expenses. 11. That if the said tenancy will be extended with the mutual consent of the both parties for further period then the rent of the said tenanted premises will be increased at the rate of 10% after expiry of the said fixed period of this Rent Agreement. 12.That the Second party shall not do any commitment against the law and regulation of the Govt. or MCD/DDA otherwise the tenant shall be Responsible for the same such as challan etc. 13. And Whereas this Rent Agreement is drafted according the details is given by the both parties and the same shall be responsible for all the details mentioned above under any circumstances. In Witnesses Whereof the Parties have Signed this Rent Agreement on the Dated, month and year, first above written in the presence of the following witnesses. `witnesses:- (1) First Party/Landlord /Landlady (2) Second party/Tenant

Hindi (indiano)

किराया विलेख सहमति, किराए के समझौते का यह डीड 26 जून, 2019 के इस दिन दिल्ली में बनाया गया है, श्री साबिर अहमद, आर / ओ बी 109, गली नंबर 5, मंडावली, चंद मस्जिद, दिल्ली 110092 , इसके बाद फर्स्ट पार्टी / मकान मालकिन / मकान मालिक कहा जाता है।

Ultimo aggiornamento 2019-07-11
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Inglese

Candidates can click on the “New Registration” link on the home page of the Online Registration portal of RPF - Constable 01/2018 for the recruitment of Constable post and carry out the following:Important Note : For the female candidates who had already applied in RPF EN 01/2016, click the “Registration for female candidates already applied in Notification no.01/2016” button in the Registration portal of RPF - Constable 01/2018.Login by entering the Registration Number & DOB as in the application of EN 01/2016, and fill in the remaining details required for your registration for Employment Notice Constable/RPF - 01/2018.If you have forgotten your Registration Number, make use of ‘Get Register number’ option and retrieve your Registration Number of EN 01/2016.Candidates who appeared for EN 01/2016 can either proceed with the above process or they can make a fresh registration, but NOT both. Confirm that you have read and understood the instructions clearly by clicking the check box. Select the Zonal Group to which you would like to apply. Please be aware that the Zonal group once selected cannot be changed after registration. Primary Registration: Enter your name, Date of Birth and Father’s name, Mother’s name, Aadhaar number(Optional), State/UT, Category, Education Board, 10th/Matric Roll number, year of passing 10th/Matric, mobile number and email-ID and then submit for registration. Before submitting for registration, ensure and confirm that all the information furnished above are correct as the details furnished for registration cannot be changed later. Please note that the email ID used for the registration must be yours and unique. Also note that both the email and mobile number will be verified during the Online application process with an OTP. Verification of email ID and mobile number through OTP: On submitting the Registration details, an OTP will be sent to your email and another OTP to your mobile number. Click on the “Verify through OTP” link on the Home page of the online registration portal and enter the OTP received on your email and the OTP received on your mobile in the respective fields. You can proceed with the registration only by entering both the OTPs. Hence it is advised to ensure that the email id and mobile number is entered correctly during the registration. On verification of both the email id and mobile number, a unique registration number is generated for the candidate. Candidate should note and preserve their registration number for later reference during the recruitment process and RPF will not entertain any request seeking registration number. Candidates can proceed with the online application by clicking on the “Candidate Login” link on the home page using the registration number. In the Part II & Part III page of the application, provide the details of Educational qualification, Community, Gender, Religion, ExSM, Minority, Economically backward class, Age relaxation eligibility category as applicable and other details. Set priority / preferences for railways: If the candidate is eligible for more than one railway based on his zonal group, he/she must set the priority/preferences for the railways. The candidates can set their priority/preferences by clicking on the “Preference” dropdowns. Detailed Educational Qualification: Furnish all the relevant information on the qualification as required in the application. Choice of Exam Language: English is the default language. The candidate needs to choose any other language also apart from English, from the drop-down list of languages. Candidates must fill details like Mother tongue, Address for communication etc. Bank Details: Candidates should provide the details of the beneficiary account in which they would like to receive the refund viz. Beneficiary name, Bank name, Account Number and IFSC Code in the online application. The amount will be refunded to the account number specified by the candidate only if he/she appears for the online exam. It is mandatory for all candidates to fill their bank account details. On completion of application details as above, the candidate will be directed to the Payment page to choose payment mode ie. Bank(Online-net banking/credit card/debit card & offline-SBI Challan) or Post Office- Challan and complete the payment process. Last date for making payment through Online modes –23:59 hours of 02-07-2018 Last date for making payment through Offline modes –23:59 hours of 05-07-2018 In case of online payment, you will be automatically directed to the next stage of application for uploading documents. Those paying through Bank-offline mode, the payment confirmation may take about an hour and hence they have to again login after 60 minutes and look for confirmation of payment status. The time period for payment confirmation shall vary from 24hrs to 48 hrs in case of Post Office payment. On getting the confirmation status, the candidate can proceed further with the Online application process. Uploading of color Photograph: After the verification of Payment, candidates can upload their colour photograph. The photograph should comply with the following requirements, Colour passport photograph with white/light color back ground. Photograph of size 35mmX45mm with name and date of photo taken printed on it. It should be in JPG/JPEG format scanned with 100 DPI. The size of the photograph should be between 15-40 KB. The color photograph must have been taken on or after 01-12-2017 in a professional studio. Photographs taken using mobile and self-composed portraits may result in rejection of application. The photo should have clear front view of the candidate without cap and sunglasses. The face should occupy at least 50% of the area of the photograph with a full face view looking at the camera directly. The main features of the face must not be covered by hair of the head, any cloth or any shadow. Fore head, eyes, nose and chin should be clearly visible. In case the candidate wears glass, then the photograph should not have any glare on glasses. The photograph must match with the candidate appearance on the day of various stages of recruitment process viz. CBTs, PET and DV. Last date for Uploading Photo and Submitting Application: 23:59 hours on 07-07-2018. Candidates are advised to keep at least 12 (Twelve) copies of the same photograph for further use as and when required during the recruitment process. Candidates belonging to SC/ST have to upload scanned copy of their SC/ST certificates (JPG/JPEG format, 50kb – 100kb) also for availing the facility of free travel authority (Second Class Railway Pass). In the end candidates have to confirm the declaration “I hereby declare that I have gone through the eligibility criteria for the post applied for and meet all the requirements therein, that all the details furnished by me in the application are true and complete to the best of my knowledge & belief and nothing has been concealed or suppressed. I also understand that in case, any of the details furnished is found untrue during any stage or recruitment or thereafter Railway Administration shall disqualify me for the post applied for and / or I shall be liable for any other action under the extant rules.” After confirming the above declaration and submission of the application, the candidate may download the print of the application and preserve it for reference and record.

Hindi (indiano)

हिंदी से अंग्रेज़ी ट्रांसलेटर

Ultimo aggiornamento 2018-06-24
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
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Riferimento: Anonimo
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Inglese

google transleterThanks for your response to my email, I want you to know that my reason for contacting you is very important and very legitimate. Please take this seriously. All I want is an honest business transaction with you. I will start by introducing myself. I am Ms. Ella Golan Executive Vice President Banking Division FIBI BANK ISRAEL, Tel Aviv branch, Israel. I have been working with the FIRST INTERNATIONAL BANK OF ISRAEL LTD (FIBI) for the past 10 years. I am getting in touch with you regarding the estate of a deceased client who had an investment placed under our bank’s management. I would respectfully request that you keep the content of this mail confidential and respect the integrity of the information you come by as a result of this mail. I contact you independently and no one is informed of this communication. In late 2006, the subject matter of late Engineer who came to our bank to engage in business discussions with our private banking division. He informed us that he had a financial portfolio of $13M (Thirteen Million US Dollars), which he wished to have us invest on his behalf after being paid for his several concluded contract with Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) Israel. He used to work with the Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) here in Israel, as foreign Expatriate. Based on my advice, we spun the money around various opportunities and made attractive interest margins for our first 2 years of operation, the accrued profit and interest stood at this point at $609K (Six Hundred and Nine Thousand US Dollars) in late 2009. He instructed us that the principal sum and the accrued interest, Thirteen Million, Six Hundred and Nine Thousand Dollars ($13.609M) be liquidated because he needed to make an urgent investment. He directed that I liquidate the funds and had it deposited with a security consultancy firm based in London, United Kingdom. The firm is an especially private firm that accepts deposit from high net worth individuals and blue chip corporations that handle valuable products or undertake transactions that need immediate access to cash. Unfortunately, on the 21st April 2011, my client/customer was involved in a car accident along Yehuda Halevy St, Tel Aviv, Israel. All occupants of the vehicle unfortunately lost their lives. He neither mentioned a next of kin or beneficiary in our records as well as the records of the security firm. As his personal account manager and financial adviser, the security firm as well as management of my bank has been on me since last year till date to provide a next of kin or beneficiary to his estate. Unfortunately, he died intestate, because he neither had a wife nor child while he was alive. I feel he didn’t make a mistake about this; he purposely wanted this money to go to Charity after he died. However, he failed to know that when one who has no next of kin or beneficiary dies, the State takes over his estate and all he ever worked for. What I propose is, since i have exclusive access to his file, you will be made the beneficiary of these funds and sole executor to his estate. No one is aware of his money apart from me and with proper documentation; we can establish that you are the sole authorized beneficiary. I am prepared to instruct the security firm to release the deposit to you as his beneficiary. A beneficiary can be legally assigned to any person who does not nominate a next of kin to an estate. I know this might be heavy for you but please trust me on this. In the banking sector, this happens daily, we see so much cash and funds being re-assigned daily. The other option is that the money will revert back to the State to some corrupt top government officials as I mentioned earlier. Do not betray my confidence; all I require is your honest cooperation to enable us seeing this deal through. I guarantee you that this will be executed under a legitimate arrangement that I will protect you and from any breach of law. Please know that am a Hebrew Woman and will not lie because of my religion and I would expect the same from you. So kindly handle this as privileged information. Please get back to me immediately and provide your full details (Full Name, Residential Address, Office Address, Contact Number, Occupation, Age etc). If you are positive we can do this together. Thanks for your anticipated cooperation. Regards

Hindi (indiano)

गूगल transleterThanks for your response to my email, I want you to know that my reason for contacting you is very important and very legitimate. Please take this seriously. All I want is an honest business transaction with you. I will start by introducing myself. I am Ms. Ella Golan Executive Vice President Banking Division FIBI BANK ISRAEL, Tel Aviv branch, Israel. I have been working with the FIRST INTERNATIONAL BANK OF ISRAEL LTD (FIBI) for the past 10 years. I am getting in touch with you regarding the estate of a deceased client who had an investment placed under our bank’s management. I would respectfully request that you keep the content of this mail confidential and respect the integrity of the information you come by as a result of this mail. I contact you independently and no one is informed of this communication. In late 2006, the subject matter of late Engineer who came to our bank to engage in business discussions with our private banking division. He informed us that he had a financial portfolio of $13M (Thirteen Million US Dollars), which he wished to have us invest on his behalf after being paid for his several concluded contract with Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) Israel. He used to work with the Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) here in Israel, as foreign Expatriate. Based on my advice, we spun the money around various opportunities and made attractive interest margins for our first 2 years of operation, the accrued profit and interest stood at this point at $609K (Six Hundred and Nine Thousand US Dollars) in late 2009. He instructed us that the principal sum and the accrued interest, Thirteen Million, Six Hundred and Nine Thousand Dollars ($13.609M) be liquidated because he needed to make an urgent investment. He directed that I liquidate the funds and had it deposited with a security consultancy firm based in London, United Kingdom. The firm is an especially private firm that accepts deposit from high net worth individuals and blue chip corporations that handle valuable products or undertake transactions that need immediate access to cash. Unfortunately, on the 21st April 2011, my client/customer was involved in a car accident along Yehuda Halevy St, Tel Aviv, Israel. All occupants of the vehicle unfortunately lost their lives. He neither mentioned a next of kin or beneficiary in our records as well as the records of the security firm. As his personal account manager and financial adviser, the security firm as well as management of my bank has been on me since last year till date to provide a next of kin or beneficiary to his estate. Unfortunately, he died intestate, because he neither had a wife nor child while he was alive. I feel he didn’t make a mistake about this; he purposely wanted this money to go to Charity after he died. However, he failed to know that when one who has no next of kin or beneficiary dies, the State takes over his estate and all he ever worked for. What I propose is, since i have exclusive access to his file, you will be made the beneficiary of these funds and sole executor to his estate. No one is aware of his money apart from me and with proper documentation; we can establish that you are the sole authorized beneficiary. I am prepared to instruct the security firm to release the deposit to you as his beneficiary. A beneficiary can be legally assigned to any person who does not nominate a next of kin to an estate. I know this might be heavy for you but please trust me on this. In the banking sector, this happens daily, we see so much cash and funds being re-assigned daily. The other option is that the money will revert back to the State to some corrupt top government officials as I mentioned earlier. Do not betray my confidence; all I require is your honest cooperation to enable us seeing this deal through. I guarantee you that this will be executed under a legitimate arrangement that I will protect you and from any breach of law. Please know that am a Hebrew Woman and will not lie because of my religion and I would expect the same from you. So kindly handle this as privileged information. Please get back to me immediately and provide your full details (Full Name, Residential Address, Office Address, Contact Number, Occupation, Age etc). If you are positive we can do this together. Thanks for your anticipated cooperation. Regards

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-10-23
Frequenza di utilizzo: 1
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Riferimento: Anonimo

Inglese

google Zaleplon is a hypnotic which is drug that has the ability to cause sleep. It is indicated for use in patients that have difficulty falling asleep and is not indented to treat those who have difficulty staying asleep or who wake too early. It is different in chemical structure from benzodiazepines but acts at the same receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of anxiety, zaleplon and similar drugs are used almost exclusively for the treatment of insomnia. In the United States and many other countries, Zaleplon is marketed as Sonata by King Pharmaceuticals. In Canada, zaleplon was sold under the brand name Starnoc however it was taken from the market; the reasons for this discontinuation are not clear. Zaleplon is available in some countries as Hegon, Zalep, Zaplon, or Zerene. The patent on Sonata began to expire on June 6, 2008 and King Pharmaceuticals does not have exclusivity as listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. More on zaleplon. Sonata is available in 5 mg and 10 mg dosages; however, physicians sometimes prescribe a 20 mg treatment (two 10 mg capsules). Clinical safety studies were conducted using doses as high as 60 mg. Zaleplon is indicated for short term treatment of insomnia, that is, insomnia that is corrected by seven to ten days of treatment. The FDA has approved use of zaleplon for up to 30 days. Zaleplon is known to cause CNS depression and its affects are relatively rapid. Zaleplon causes sedation and sleep within one hour of administration therefore it should only be taken before bed and never before any activity that requires alertness. Like benzodiazepines, alcohol use can potentiate the CNS depressant effects and alcohol should not be consumed while taking zaleplon. Of note, zaleplon is potentially habit forming and dependency may occur. Once the drug is discontinued, one may experience rebound insomnia simply because the medicine has been taken away. Because of its sedative and euphoric effects, zaleplon may be abused i.e. used for non-medical, illegal reasons. NIH Information on Zaleplon Zolpidem Zolpidem is sedative-hypnotic medicine that is used to treat short-term insomnia. Its chemical structure is different than benzodiazepines but exerts its sedative affect by acting on so-called benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Zolpidem does not have the same disruptive effects on sleep as benzodiazepines. Zolpidem is marketed in the United States as Ambien but is known commercially by many other names worldwide. (The Guardian reports that 5.3 million people in England alone take zolpidem.) Ambien is available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and the maximum and usual treatment dose is 10 mg. This medication should not be taken with alcohol as excessive CNS depression can occur. There is also a potential for dependence and abuse with zolpidem. The most common side effects were headache, sleepiness and dizziness. A less common side effect is the "zombie" effect - unusual behavior while asleep. Ambien is sold by Sanofi Aventis although at least 13 companies manufacture and sell a generic version of the rapid-acting form of zolpidem. Sanofi Aventis has extended the commercial viability of this drug by patenting and selling a CR or Controlled Release formulation. The CR formulation combines both a rapid-acting form and a slow-release form in a layered pill. According to the manufacturers, this allows a person suffering from insomnia to achieve sleep, from the rapid-acting component, and stay asleep, from the slow-acting component. Importantly, the chemical structure of the drug is the same in both the fast and slow layers, however the slow release layer contains a proprietary mixture of inactive ingredients that delays absorption and prolongs the hypnotic effect. Ambien CR is available in 6.25 and 12.5 mg strengths. NIH Information on Zolpidem. Triazolam Triazolam is related in structure to benzodiazepines but is of a slightly different class than classic benzodiazepines such as Ativan and Valium. Despite this subtle structural difference, triazolam achieves its biological effect by acting at benzodiazepine receptors in various regions of brain. Triazolam is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia and should not be used for longer than three consecutive weeks. In clinical studies, triazolam was able to decrease sleep latency (you get to sleep faster), increase the duration of sleep and decrease the number of times people with insomnia wake during the night. Triazolam was originally branded as Halcion; however there is no longer patent protection or exclusivity on this brand. It is still manufactured and sold as Halcion by Pharmacia and Upjohn yet generic versions exist. Triazolam is available in 0.125 and 0.25 mg tablets and a single dose of either strength is usually sufficient for uncomplicated insomnia. The maximum dose per day should not exceed 0.5 mg. Caution should be taken in elderly patients and they should receive lower doses. The most common side effects were drowsiness, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, difficulty with coordination and nausea/vomiting. Ramelteon Ramelteon was introduced as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America. Rozerem is indicated for treatment of the type of insomnia that is interferes with sleep onset. Ramelteon is rather unique among commonly prescribed sleep aids in that it is unrelated to benzodiazepines in both its chemical structure and its mechanism of action. Rozerem binds with high affinity (strongly) to two of the three main melatonin receptors in the brain. Melatonin is a hormone that is present naturally in humans. Melatonin is also available without a prescription as an OTC sleep aid. According to Takeda, Rozerem’s affinity and selectivity for specific melatonin receptors make it a more effective sleep aid and less likely to cause side effects than non-prescription melatonin. Because it does not interact with benzodiazepine receptors, ramelteon is essentially without risk of abuse and is therefore not a controlled substance. Clinical studies have shown that ramelteon does not cause physical dependence or rebound insomnia. Ramelteon is available in 8 mg tablets though it occasionally prescribed as two 8 mg tablets to be taken 30 thirty minutes prior to the desired onset of sleep. The most common side effects are drowsiness and dizziness. More on ramelteon. Ramelteon is under patent to Takeda until March 6, 2017. Eszopiclone Eszopiclone is marketed as Lunesta by Sepracor Inc. for the treatment of insomnia. Lunesta is under patent until 2012 with exclusivity until December 15, 2009. Eszopiclone is available in 1, 2 and 3 mg film-coated tablets. The precise mechanism of action of eszopiclone as a hypnotic is unknown, but it most likely interacts with benzodiazepine receptors. Because of this interaction, eszopiclone is a controlled substance and there is potential for abuse of the drug. Unlike zaleplon, zolpidem and triazolam which are only prescribed for up to three to four weeks, Lunesta has been approved by the FDA for long term use (greater than six months). Long-term trials showed that Lunesta did not cause tolerance meaning that patients did not need larger doses to obtain the same effect. Lunesta is touted as superior to competing medications since it not only initiates sleep but also prevents nighttime waking. The most common side effects of Lunesta include an unpleasant taste or dry mouth, dizziness, headache, cold symptoms and drowsiness. Serious side effects of eszopiclone, while rare, include sleep walking/driving, abnormal thoughts, memory loss, anxiety and allergic reactions. These rare and serious side effecttransleter

Hindi (indiano)

गूगल transleter

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-07-14
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Attenzione: contiene formattazione HTML nascosta

Inglese

Inbiology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. The population growth rate is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population. Global human population growth amounts to around 75 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing, where estimates have put the total population at 8.4 billion by mid-2030, and 9.6 billion by mid-2050. Population Years Passed Year Billion - 1800 1 127 1927 2 33 1960 3 14 1974 4 13 1987 5 12 1999 6 12 2011 7 14 2025* 8 18 2043* 9 40 2083* 10 Population growth rate The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval: A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times.[3] A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing. Human population growth rate[edit] Main article: Total fertility rate A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman, according to the CIA World Factbook's 2013 data. 7–8 children 6–7 children 5–6 children 4–5 children 3–4 children 2–3 children 1–2 children 0–1 children Estimates of population evolution in different continentsbetween 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people. Growth rate of world population (1950–2050). Globally, the growth rate of the human population has been declining since peaking in 1962 and 1963 at 2.20% per annum. In 2009, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%. The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.89%, 0.79%, and 1.096% respectively.The last 100 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity made possible by the Green Revolution. The actual annual growth in the number of humans fell from its peak of 88.0 million in 1989, to a low of 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. Since then, annual growth has declined. In 2009, the human population increased by 74.6 million, which is projected to fall steadily to about 41 million per annum in 2050, at which time the population will have increased to about 9.2 billion. Each region of the globe has seen great reductions in growth rate in recent decades, though growth rates remain above 2% in some countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. Some countries experience negative population growth, especially in Eastern Europe mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of HIV-related deaths. SomeWestern Europe countries might also encounter negative population growth. Japan's population began decreasing in 2005. The United Nations Population Division expects world population to peak at over 10 billion at the end of the 21st century but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050 followed by a long decline. Growth by country[edit] According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion people, between 1990 and 2010. In number of people the increase was highest inIndia (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) andQatar (271%). Growth rates of the world's most populous countries Rank Country Population 2010 Population 1990 Growth (%) 1990–2010 World 6,895,889,000 5,306,425,000 30.0% 1 China 1,341,335,000 1,145,195,000 17.1% 2 India 1,224,614,000 873,785,000 40.2% 3 United States 310,384,000 253,339,000 22.5% 4 Indonesia 239,871,000 184,346,000 30.1% 5 Brazil 194,946,000 149,650,000 30.3% 6 Pakistan 173,593,000 111,845,000 55.3% 7 Nigeria 158,423,000 97,552,000 62.4% 8 Bangladesh 148,692,000 105,256,000 41.3% 9 Russia 142,958,000 148,244,000 -3.6% 10 Japan 128,057,000 122,251,000 4.7%

Hindi (indiano)

बढ़ती जनसंख्या के बारे में हिन्दी निबंध

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-07-10
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Inglese

Inbiology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. The population growth rate is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population. Global human population growth amounts to around 75 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing, where estimates have put the total population at 8.4 billion by mid-2030, and 9.6 billion by mid-2050. Population Years Passed Year Billion - 1800 1 127 1927 2 33 1960 3 14 1974 4 13 1987 5 12 1999 6 12 2011 7 14 2025* 8 18 2043* 9 40 2083* 10 Population growth rate The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval: A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times.[3] A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing. Human population growth rate[edit] Main article: Total fertility rate A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman, according to the CIA World Factbook's 2013 data. 7–8 children 6–7 children 5–6 children 4–5 children 3–4 children 2–3 children 1–2 children 0–1 children Estimates of population evolution in different continentsbetween 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people. Growth rate of world population (1950–2050). Globally, the growth rate of the human population has been declining since peaking in 1962 and 1963 at 2.20% per annum. In 2009, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%. The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.89%, 0.79%, and 1.096% respectively.The last 100 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity made possible by the Green Revolution. The actual annual growth in the number of humans fell from its peak of 88.0 million in 1989, to a low of 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. Since then, annual growth has declined. In 2009, the human population increased by 74.6 million, which is projected to fall steadily to about 41 million per annum in 2050, at which time the population will have increased to about 9.2 billion. Each region of the globe has seen great reductions in growth rate in recent decades, though growth rates remain above 2% in some countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. Some countries experience negative population growth, especially in Eastern Europe mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of HIV-related deaths. SomeWestern Europe countries might also encounter negative population growth. Japan's population began decreasing in 2005. The United Nations Population Division expects world population to peak at over 10 billion at the end of the 21st century but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050 followed by a long decline. Growth by country[edit] According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion people, between 1990 and 2010. In number of people the increase was highest inIndia (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) andQatar (271%). Growth rates of the world's most populous countries Rank Country Population 2010 Population 1990 Growth (%) 1990–2010 World 6,895,889,000 5,306,425,000 30.0% 1 China 1,341,335,000 1,145,195,000 17.1% 2 India 1,224,614,000 873,785,000 40.2% 3 United States 310,384,000 253,339,000 22.5% 4 Indonesia 239,871,000 184,346,000 30.1% 5 Brazil 194,946,000 149,650,000 30.3% 6 Pakistan 173,593,000 111,845,000 55.3% 7 Nigeria 158,423,000 97,552,000 62.4% 8 Bangladesh 148,692,000 105,256,000 41.3% 9 Russia 142,958,000 148,244,000 -3.6% 10 Japan 128,057,000 122,251,000 4.7%

Hindi (indiano)

बढ़ती हुई जनसंख्या के बारे में हिंदी निबंध

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-07-10
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Inglese

visthapan ke symasya Infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. This Article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. The authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. It reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions. Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities. Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. It is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under Article 21. The founding fathers of the Constitution, under Article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. However, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement. Also, the Article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects. In the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of NPRR, 2007. Introduction "Being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1. Development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.Natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. One common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. It is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." However, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. Pt. J.L. Nehru said 'If you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2. Indigenous People and Tribal Disproportionately Affected Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. The Scheduled Tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. Development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3 Impact of Displacement Forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .Some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. Landlessness 2. Joblessness 3. Homelessness 4. Marginalization. 5. Food Insecurity. 6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality 7. Loss of Access to Common Property. 8. Social Disintegration.5 Development- Displacement and Environment In achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. Various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. The large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. Big Dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. The pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. No wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. It is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late. Human Rights Challenges That Arise in Relation to Development-Induced Displacement There is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. Human rights thus have to be considered independently. In 1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development7. The heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. The Human rights that are affected : Right To Life The right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. The right to life is protected in the UDHR (Article 3) and the ICCPR (Article 6)8. In Indian context, The Supreme Court in Ollega Tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of Article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. Right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9. Moreover, Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."And so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment. Right to own Property The rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. The right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the UDHR Articles 17 as well as in Article 6 of the ICESCR. Rights To Residence The eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. Article 19(e) of the Indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right. All these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. Indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12. Defects in Compensation, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy For the Government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. It's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? Moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. The limited provisions in the Land Acquisition Act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. Even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the Land Acquisition took their cases to court. The value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. The LAA thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession. The ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. However, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. What is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the Project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment. The Ethics of Development Induced Displacement and Rehabilitation (Didr) In dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? Under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? Is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? If so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees? According to Peter Penz,13 Three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. The public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. The self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. In its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. The egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. Theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group. As Penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. He concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. They include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. Unfortunately, in most cases of DIDR, these conditions have been violated. International and National Organisation and Policies Over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. Some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are: • The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. • The OECD's Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects, 1992. • World Bank's Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement. • United Nations and Other International Organizations- Different agencies of UN work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement. a. The Representative of the Secretary-General on IDPs The report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the Guiding Principles on protection against displacement. b. Internal Displacement Unit Using the Guiding Principles as an overall framework, the Unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement c. World Food Program The essential condition for the provision of WFP food is the food insecurity of displaced people. d. UN Development Programme UNDP in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations. e. UN-Habitat The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world. Recommendations Ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. Following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development : 1. States should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities. 2. States should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction. 3. Sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all State projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site. 4. The State must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property. 5. Resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law. 6. States should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16. 7. To make new Law on rehabilitation and change the LAA (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. Rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the LAA (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition. 8. The very basis of the Land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Special Provisions for the Scheduled Castes / Tribes and weaker sections. The effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. The issue of Displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. To conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.

Hindi (indiano)

visthapan Ke symasya

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-01-27
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Inglese

or an understanding of the problem of poverty and its solution, one should first be clear about the concept of poverty itself. This will also help us in measuring the magnitude of poverty in the country. There are two types of poverty absolute poverty and relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to inability of a section of population to achieve basic necessities of life. Relative poverty, on the other hand, refers to inequality in distribution of income and expenditure. Absolute Poverty: In India the concept of poverty has been approached in the absolute sense. In other words, it is not related to the income or consumption expenditure distribution. The concept of absolute poverty is relevant for the less-developed countries where absolute poverty abounds. To measure it, absolute norms for living are first laid down. These relate to some minimum standard of living. These may be expressed measured in terms of income/consumption- expenditure. Given this, one classifies all those as poor who fall below this standard. The number (and proportion) of such poor in the country’s population gives the measure of poverty. For purpose of the measurement of poverty, consumption-expenditure is considered more appropriate and relevant than income. The reason is that the actual consumption-expenditure which determines the living standard of a consumer unit is not always met wholly out of current income. Such expenditure can also be met from assets, debts and dissaving. Poverty Line: In India consumption-expenditure has been made the basis for the measurement of the minimum standard. The usual method is to fix a poverty level. This level is expressed in terms of an overall per capita consumption-expenditure. This consumption-expenditure as such, is needed to ensure a certain minimum calorie intake, which in turn is derived from the information on food articles. In figures, the poverty norm is anchored in terms of daily intake of2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas. Those who are unable to incur this much amount of consumption- expenditure are identified as poor. They are identified as people living below the poverty line. On the recommendations of Lakdawala Committee different poverty lines were determined for different states. Magnitude of Poverty in India: The Uniform Recall Period (URP) consumption distribution data of NSS 61st round places the poverty ratio at 28.3 per cent in rural areas, 25.7 per cent in urban areas and 27.5 per cent in the country as a whole. The corresponding poverty ratios from the Mixed Recall Period (MRP) consumption distribution data are 21.8 percent for rural areas, 21.7 per cent for urban areas and 21.8 per cent for the country as a whole. The incidence of poverty is not same in all states. On the one hand we have states where poverty ratio is very high, like Orissa (46.4), Bihar (41.4), Madhya Pradesh (38.3), Assam (19.71), and Uttar Pradesh (32.8). On the other hand we have states where poverty ratio is very low, Punjab (8.4), Himachal Pradesh (10) and Haryana (14). There has been a significant reduction in poverty ratio during 1993-94 to 2004- 05 in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Union Territories. Reduction in poverty has been unsatisfactory in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and North East states. One significant fact about poverty is that while the poverty ratio has been declining in India, the absolute number of poor had remained more or less the same. Poverty ratio was 36 per cent in 1993- 94 which means 32.0 crore people were below poverty line. Though poverty ratio declined by 8.5 per cent between 1993-94 and 2004-05 but the absolute number of poor was estimated at 30.2 crores persons. The poor mostly belong to the weaker sections of the society like SC/ST, women, handicapped, etc. In rural areas they are the landless labourers, small and marginal farmers and rural artisans. The urban poor, quite many of them are immigrants from villages, live in slums and on pavements. The poor are weak not only economically but also socially and politically.

Hindi (indiano)

गरीबी पर निबंध हिंदी में अनुवाद

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-11-07
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Inglese

In today’s perspective, literacy does not mean about the writing and reading capabilities only. It has gained a broader meaning. It claims to guide people towards awareness and the change which is needed in order to achieve a better way of living. The National Literacy Mission was set up by Govt. of India on May 5th, 1988 with the aim to eradicate illiteracy from the country. The targeted group for the same was people belonging to the age group of 15 to 35 years. The literacy rate of India has been recorded 64.84% (2001 census) against 52.21% in 1991. It has been increased by more than 12% in a decade. Also, the literacy rate is supposed to be around 70-72% by the end of 2010 (As estimated by National Sample Survey). But the goal is yet to be achieved completely (i.e. to obtain 100% literacy). Right to education is one of the fundamental rights for the people. Education for all is the mission of UNESCO that has to be achieved by 2015. Currently, India falls below the threshold level of literacy rate i.e.75%. The National Literacy Mission Authority has been working to achieve its goal since its establishment. NLMA (National Literacy Mission Authority) works under the ministry of Human Resource & Development. The Govt. of India has launched several schemes to achieve the goals of NLM. The initial target for NLM was to focus on the people belonging to the age group of 15 to 25 years. There were 80 million people falling under this age group. It was a big challenge to address such a huge lot of people about literacy and its benefits. In a way, it was quite different from all technology based or economic missions. It was conceived as a social mission by all and that helped NLM to achieve the success. The other significant factor was the political will of leaders at different levels at that time. The politicians and bureaucrats understood the importance of this mission and it has gained a whole hearted success in several states viz. Kerala, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan, Manipur etc. The idea was to convince people about their active participation, mobilization of social forces. Soon it became a national consensus. Thanks to the advertisements, sensitization of local leaders and people’s participation. Given below are some of the pioneers of success for National Literacy Mission: Literacy campaigns have been launched in almost 600 districts of India.

Hindi (indiano)

पेड़ों के महत्व के बारे में हिंदी निबंध

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-09-24
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