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英語

ヒンズー語

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英語

Plz tell me if there is any work papers

ヒンズー語

me kana ka raha ho

最終更新: 2016-11-07
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参照: 匿名

英語

There has been talk of you by Sopakeepr

ヒンズー語

aap ki baat hui hai shopkeepar se

最終更新: 2016-06-21
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参照: 匿名

英語

Toh unhappy there has been locked to your network

ヒンズー語

Aapke wahan ke network ne toh dukhi kiya huwa hai

最終更新: 2016-07-27
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参照: 匿名

英語

There has been demand to include him in the Home Ashes test team against England.

ヒンズー語

उन्हें इंग्लैंड के खिलाफ घरेलू एशेज सीरीज के लिए टेस्ट टीम में लिए जाने की भी मांग उठ रही है।

最終更新: 2014-10-20
使用頻度: 2
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参照: 匿名

英語

But there has been only a slight shift in the age of menarche (the first period) over the past four decades.

ヒンズー語

लेकिन पिछले चार दशकों में रजोदर्शन (प्रथम मासिक-धर्म) की आयु में बहुत मामूली परिवर्तन रहा है।

最終更新: 2014-10-20
使用頻度: 2
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参照: 匿名

英語

It is true that we are experiencing a shortage of qualified human resources across the industry. There could be several reasons for these. First, as I mentioned earlier banking is not the biggest, or only, employer of choice for millennials--they are more open to working in other sectors, which align more closely with their personal interests. Second, there has been a massive expansion drive in the financial sector over these last few years, which has resulted in an acute shortage of qualified human resources, especially in the mid-management level. The pool of available resources is being stretched very thin, which is creating a risk within the banking job ecosystem as people without adequate experience are moving into jobs that have more responsibility and accountability. And last, we are also experiencing people migrating out of Nepal, which is creating a vacuum--it is a big loss for an institution and the industry when someone who has been trained to take up higher roles suddenly leaves the country for good. This is a big financial loss for society as significant money is invested in that person's education and professional training, which is being put to productive use by some other country.

ヒンズー語

tanlesion

最終更新: 2019-04-30
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参照: 匿名

英語

विद्वान सेटिंग 1 Students’ Research Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ISSN 2249 - 5835 Sponsored by the University of Calcutta/ www.caluniv.ac.in Summer Issue / June 2012 Vol. 3/No.1 GENDER REFLECTIONS IN MAINSTREAM HINDI CINEMA Nidhi Shendurnikar Tere Junior Resea rch Scholar Department of Political Science, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Gujarat , India Website: http://www.msubaroda.ac.in Email: mailtonidhi@sify.com , Blog: www.68pagesofmylife.blospot.com Abstract : Cinema is meant and believed to entertain, to take the viewer to a world that is starkly different from the real one, a world which provides escape from the daily grind of life. Cinema is a popular media of mass consumption which plays a key role in moulding opinions, constructing images and reinforcing dominant cultural values. The paper deals with representations of women characters in mainstream Bollywood movies. It is deemed appropriate to exami ne this issue because women are a major chunk of the country‟s population and hence their portrayal on screen is crucial in determining the furtherance of already existing stereotypes in the society. The paper begins with a discussion on the field of femin ist film criticism and how mainstream Hindi Cinema has restricted itself to defined sketches of womanhood. It also undertakes some glimpses from popular films to analyse this process of stereotyping the „other‟ – considering that reality in mainstream cine ma is constructed from the male view point. A section is devoted to discussion on contemporary realistic brand of cinema and its understanding of women . In conclusion , a debate ensues on whether mainstream Hindi cinema has been successful in portraying Ind ian women of different shades in a society dominated by patriarchal values. Key Words : Cinema, popular, media, women, Bollywood, movies, stereotypes, feminist, mainstream, patriarchal Feminist Film Criticism The issues of media, identity and gender are being discussed all over today. They have become integral to the discipline of media studies. The reason is the popularity and diversity of media as a source of mass consumption and its influence on constructing ideas and generating debate. The media scene in India has expanded in the recent times as there is a plethora of media choices available to the audiences. Media structures and systems have also undergone a sea change with privatization and globalization. Huge corporations with their own profit motiv es own media houses. Media has been able to transcend borders and look at issues more holistically rather than in the context of nationalism. Hence, these developments are bound to affect the manner in which media scrutinizes and covers any issue – gender being an important one. Women are also major consumers of mass media and thus the way they are represented in media coverage is a major concern for the discipline. Several international forums have recognized the ramifications of such a transformed media e nvironment on women‟s access to media, their role in the media structure and the presentation of their perspective in media coverage. i In this paper, there has been an attempt to examine the relationship between women and popular Hindi cinema. While cinema in India is in itself a diverse strand of expression incorporating mainstream cinema which holds popular appeal, art/parallel cinema that engages with social issues, middle cinema and regional language cinema. The explorations in this paper are limited to mainstream/popular Hindi cinema better known as 2 „Bollywood‟ 1 because such cinema is seen to exercise widespread influence over people and enjoys mass appeal. Popular cinema and culture derive from each other. Films are believed to be the opium of the Indi an masses as people rely on this medium to help them escape to a world of fantasy. ii In a very explicit way, cinema 2 has shaped the cultural, social and political values of people of this country. While, the other forms of cinema are also important when it comes to the representation of women, restricting to popular cinema is the core concern of the paper. The interest in films taken by feminists stems from concern about the under - representation and misrepresentation of women in cinema. It adopts a critical approach towards gender bias on celluloid. The feminist approach to cinema asks a few pertinent questions like how women are represented on screen, how women‟s issues are treated in cinema, what does feminism mean to film - makers, how does the feminist age nda manifest on screen, how is the women character positioned vis a vis the male character and what is the role of women film - makers and women writers in depicting women‟s issues through cinema. iii Feminist critique of cinema has helped to view the reality p resented by cinema in a different way and thus has contributed significantly to the discipline of media studies as well as film studies. Certain underlying aspects of a popular medium can only be brought to surface by criticism, scrutiny and introspection and feminists have attempted to do it with cinema as well as with other fields of study and practice. The links between Women‟s Studies and Cinema are evident. After the women‟s movement, the field of women‟s studies has allied with almost every disciplin e to provide an alternative perspective of knowledge and reality as viewed by the practitioners and academia of the discipline. Feminist theory took up a distinct stance in relation to the objectification, exclusion and silence of women in cinematic narrat ives. It also evaluated the stereotyping of female characters in cinema. For eg: In „Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema‟ (Laura Mulvey, 1975) , the male character was identified as the driver of the film‟s narrative, the character followed by the camera. The female character served as a spectacle to provide pleasure to the male spectator, for which Mulvey used the term „gaze‟ . iv The theory of „Absences and Presences‟ was concerned with the absence of a certain type of female characters in films and the pres ence of the other type, which was seen to be influenced by patriarchal values. Thus feminist theory in its critique of films incorporated the valorisation of women‟s experiences thereby posing a challenge to gender hierarchy as well as opening up new realm s for a post - gendered future. The paper in its ensuing sections will build an argument about the portrayal of women in Hindi cinema based on various strands of f eminist film criticism which have certainly enriched our understanding of women on screen. The Leading Lady’s Sketch Though there exists a body of feminist film making in Hindi cinema, the leading lady of Hindi films has more or less played defined roles which conform to the values upheld by Indian society. Women in Bollywood have been uni - dimensi onal characters, who are good or bad, white or black. There are no shades of grey. This dichotomy was reinforced in popular films which distinguished between the heroine and the vamp, the wife and the other woman. Films have also been inspired to a large e xtent from religion and mythology whereby women characters were seen as the epitome of virtue and values, those who could do no wrong. The image of women as „Sita‟ has been repeatedly evoked in many films after independence. Through the ideas of loyalty an d obedience to the husband, Hindi cinema successfully institutionalized patriarchal values. Films like „Dahej‟ (1950), „Gauri‟ (1968), „Devi‟ (1970), „Biwi ho to Aisi‟ (1988), „Pati Parmeshwar‟ (1988) depicted women as passive, submissive wives as perfect figure s and martyrs for their own families. In these films, though the practices of 1 According to Wikipedia, Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi - language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra . The term is often incorr ectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema ; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing films in regional langua ges . It is one of the largest centers of film production in the world. 2 The term ‘Cinema’ henceforth in this paper will signify mainstream/popular Hindi films

ヒンズー語

विद्वान सेटिंग

最終更新: 2015-08-16
使用頻度: 1
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参照: 匿名

英語

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons.[1] The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level.[2] Silk is mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some adult insects such as webspinners also produce silk, and some insects such as raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives.[3] Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants), silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, and midges.[2] Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders (see spider silk).

ヒンズー語

के बारे में रेशम के कपड़े

最終更新: 2015-08-14
使用頻度: 1
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参照: 匿名

英語

Human interference with our environment is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening due to our population growth. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies affect basic economic, technological, and ideological structures. The way to these policy changes is in the “Deep Ecology” ecosophy (110). Deep ecology is a philosophical way of looking at our environmental problems that was founded in 1972 by Norwegian Arne Naess, a former head of the philosophy department at the University of Oslo. Naess’ writings show us what is wrong with the world and give us a blueprint by which we can bring about change. In its most basic form, deep ecology is a necessary wisdom, requiring humans to see themselves as part of the bigger picture. That picture is our sacred relationship with Earth and all beings. Many believe overpopulation, the greenhouse effect, global warming, and loss of habitat are no cause for alarm. Some, in fact, claim media and politicians perpetuate the hysteria regarding our environmental decline because they have something to gain by painting such a bad picture. Countless studies I have read or am personally involved with, however, have convinced me these problems are real and can be resolved if the following are supported: 1. Continued inquiry into the appropriate human roles on our planet. 2. Root cause analysis of unsustainable practices. 3. Reduction of human consumption. 4. Conservation and restoration of ecosystems. 5. A life of committed action for Earth. (Oslo 1973) The solution to our ecosystem mess is through the principles Dr. Naess has developed. These principles begin with a statement that all life, human and nonhuman, has intrinsic value. This means everything about life is valuable, including individuals, cultures, species, habitats, and populations. Another principle states that the diversity of life forms contribute to our appreciation of their value, but these forms also have value in and of themselves. A person with first hand experience, or one who works in the ecological field, is mindful of the live-and-let-live axiom but, unfortunately, most relate this only to humans. Naess makes it another principle that humans have no right to reduce riches, resources, and diversity of life, except to fulfill vital needs. Human interference with the nonhuman world is out of control and getting worse (Drengson). . Therefore, the another principle requires strategies be put in place for the first-world nations to overcome delusions and laziness on these issues The next principle requires a major change in the policies that affect our economic, technologic and ideological norms. Our society's values are geared toward wealth and technological advancement, which result in reckless buying and careless disposal of our mass waste (Burton 2002). We need to appreciate life’s quality instead of what society sets as standards. This is the next principle, but the notion is difficult to characterize since quality of life cannot be quantified. The last principle simply states that if you believe in what deep ecology teaches, then you should do your best to employ those changes. As you can see, the fundamental principles of deep ecology outlined in Arne Naess’ writings demand radical changes in our life. Changes that affect our population growth, hazardous waste, and global warming dilemmas must include birth control, recycling, and yielding sustainable resources for energy and building. Population growth drives or multiplies most of our environmental problems. Between 1900 and 1999, world population quadrupled. Just between 1960 and 1999 it more than doubled, from three billion to over six billion and currently, we are growing more than 80 million people every year (2002 World Population Data Sheet). This growth means more energy and resource needs, more land occupied, and more waste. As population and consumption increase, there are fewer resources available per person. At some point, there are not enough resources to go around, and scarcity occurs. Resource scarcity is the root of many problems. If there are not enough resources to adequately support the population, poverty results. Greater environmental destruction occurs, as people are forced to over-exploit the resource base (Burton 2002). Scarcity leads to discrimination, because when resources are scarce, someone gets less. Girls, women, ethnic or religious minorities, the poor, and the elderly are most often victims of this (Population Reference Bureau 2002). Scarcity also leads to migration, conflict between bands, tribes or nations as they fight to obtain resources. This has been evidenced by the Aztec people’s demise. We should teach the deep ecology philosophy in school when the kids are small. This will ensure that our earth’s future will be in the hands of humans who have appreciation of our world and its inhabitants, living and nonliving. It will teach harmony instead of killing and dominance because deep ecology discards the survival of the fittest concept. (Oslo 1973) In closing, the earth is a living entity that is being snuffed-out by too many people. Selfishness and egocentricity is rampant and these attitudes need to be changed. The deep ecology philosophy, if made available to the world will do this. Just as philosophies taught by Aristotle, Hume, and Kant have open the door to new thinking, so can Naess beliefs.

ヒンズー語

पर्यावरण की मराठी निबंध महत्व

最終更新: 2015-07-13
使用頻度: 2
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参照: Abhi1977007

英語

or an understanding of the problem of poverty and its solution, one should first be clear about the concept of poverty itself. This will also help us in measuring the magnitude of poverty in the country. There are two types of poverty absolute poverty and relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to inability of a section of population to achieve basic necessities of life. Relative poverty, on the other hand, refers to inequality in distribution of income and expenditure. Absolute Poverty: In India the concept of poverty has been approached in the absolute sense. In other words, it is not related to the income or consumption expenditure distribution. The concept of absolute poverty is relevant for the less-developed countries where absolute poverty abounds. To measure it, absolute norms for living are first laid down. These relate to some minimum standard of living. These may be expressed measured in terms of income/consumption- expenditure. Given this, one classifies all those as poor who fall below this standard. The number (and proportion) of such poor in the country’s population gives the measure of poverty. For purpose of the measurement of poverty, consumption-expenditure is considered more appropriate and relevant than income. The reason is that the actual consumption-expenditure which determines the living standard of a consumer unit is not always met wholly out of current income. Such expenditure can also be met from assets, debts and dissaving. Poverty Line: In India consumption-expenditure has been made the basis for the measurement of the minimum standard. The usual method is to fix a poverty level. This level is expressed in terms of an overall per capita consumption-expenditure. This consumption-expenditure as such, is needed to ensure a certain minimum calorie intake, which in turn is derived from the information on food articles. In figures, the poverty norm is anchored in terms of daily intake of2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas. Those who are unable to incur this much amount of consumption- expenditure are identified as poor. They are identified as people living below the poverty line. On the recommendations of Lakdawala Committee different poverty lines were determined for different states. Magnitude of Poverty in India: The Uniform Recall Period (URP) consumption distribution data of NSS 61st round places the poverty ratio at 28.3 per cent in rural areas, 25.7 per cent in urban areas and 27.5 per cent in the country as a whole. The corresponding poverty ratios from the Mixed Recall Period (MRP) consumption distribution data are 21.8 percent for rural areas, 21.7 per cent for urban areas and 21.8 per cent for the country as a whole. The incidence of poverty is not same in all states. On the one hand we have states where poverty ratio is very high, like Orissa (46.4), Bihar (41.4), Madhya Pradesh (38.3), Assam (19.71), and Uttar Pradesh (32.8). On the other hand we have states where poverty ratio is very low, Punjab (8.4), Himachal Pradesh (10) and Haryana (14). There has been a significant reduction in poverty ratio during 1993-94 to 2004- 05 in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Union Territories. Reduction in poverty has been unsatisfactory in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and North East states. One significant fact about poverty is that while the poverty ratio has been declining in India, the absolute number of poor had remained more or less the same. Poverty ratio was 36 per cent in 1993- 94 which means 32.0 crore people were below poverty line. Though poverty ratio declined by 8.5 per cent between 1993-94 and 2004-05 but the absolute number of poor was estimated at 30.2 crores persons. The poor mostly belong to the weaker sections of the society like SC/ST, women, handicapped, etc. In rural areas they are the landless labourers, small and marginal farmers and rural artisans. The urban poor, quite many of them are immigrants from villages, live in slums and on pavements. The poor are weak not only economically but also socially and politically.

ヒンズー語

गरीबी पर निबंध हिंदी में अनुवाद

最終更新: 2014-11-07
使用頻度: 1
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参照: 匿名

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