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검색어: minority community (영어 - 텔루구어)

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전문 번역가, 번역 회사, 웹 페이지 및 자유롭게 사용할 수 있는 번역 저장소 등을 활용합니다.

번역 추가

영어

텔루구어

정보

영어

Community

텔루구어

సంఘం

마지막 업데이트: 2015-06-11
사용 빈도: 40
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영어

Community

텔루구어

కమిట్QShortcut

마지막 업데이트: 2011-10-23
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영어

Community

텔루구어

వ్యాఖ్య

마지막 업데이트: 2011-10-23
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영어

whether you belong to minority community

텔루구어

మీరు మైనారిటీ కమ్యూనిటీకి చెందిన లేదో

마지막 업데이트: 2016-12-31
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영어

whether you belong to religious minority community ? :

텔루구어

మీరు మైనారిటీ కమ్యూనిటీకి చెందిన లేదో

마지막 업데이트: 2018-06-01
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영어

community health essay

텔루구어

కమ్యూనిటీ ఆరోగ్య వ్యాసం

마지막 업데이트: 2015-09-20
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영어

revenge for cross community marital relationship and warned that anyone challenging the majority community would meet the same fate

텔루구어

క్రాస్ కమ్యూనిటీ వివాహ సంబంధానికి పగ మరియు మెజారిటీ కమ్యూనిటీ సవాలు ఎవరైనా అదే విధి కలిసే హెచ్చరించారు

마지막 업데이트: 2017-12-08
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영어

I solemnly affirm that i will do everything possible for the prevention of accidents,occupational diseases and protection of environment in the interest of self ,my family,my organization ,my community and the nation at large

텔루구어

స్వీయ, నా కుటుంబం, నా సంస్థ, నా కమ్యూనిటీ మరియు దేశం యొక్క ఆసక్తితో ప్రమాదాలు, వృత్తి వ్యాధులు మరియు పర్యావరణ రక్షణను నివారించడానికి నేను ప్రతిదాన్ని చేస్తానని నేను పవిత్రంగా అంగీకరిస్తున్నాను

마지막 업데이트: 2019-02-07
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India has set an important example of communal harmony to this world. India is the only country of the world where people of all religion and beliefs have been living peacefully for a long time. It is important to note that even during the reign of British, there was no tension among the various religious people. India, a multi-religious, multilingual and multi-racial country, has always ‘enjoyed the essential unity of culture amidst diversities that kept her people united. After independence, narrow religious, regional and communal feelings attracted the country. The apparently mindless communal tensions and bloody riots that take place occasionally create a sense of mistrust among the two principal religious communities involved in clashes. The country pays a heavy price for such disturbances through loss of life and property.

텔루구어

తెలుగు వ్యాసంలో మత సామరస్యాన్ని గురించి

마지막 업데이트: 2017-11-22
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영어

Mahatma Gandhi had rightly said, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. He was aware of the pathetic situation of Indian rural people at that time and he dreamt of a clean India where he emphasised on cleanliness and sanitation as an integral part of living. Unfortunately, we have completed 67 years of independence and we have only about 30%[ERROR] of the rural households with access to toilets. President Pranab Mukherjee in his address to Parliament in June 2014, said, “For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a “Swachh Bharat Mission” will be launched. This will be our tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019”. The Narendra Modi Government will soon launch the “Swachh Bharat” movement to solve the sanitation problem in India, to solve the problem of waste management and make India a clean country, ensuring hygiene all across the country. Emphasising “Clean India” on August 15, 2014 in his Independence day speech, the Prime Minister said that this movement is associated with the economic activity of the country. This mission for creating a clean India will be launched on October 2, 2014, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi with the target of completing the mission in 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of the father of the nation. The basic objective behind Swachh Bharat Mission is to create sanitation facilities for all and eliminate completely the unhealthy practice of responding to the nature’s call in the open. It aims to provide every rural family with a toilet by 2019. First cleanliness drive starts on September 25 According to a statement by the PMO, all offices up to panchayat level will participate in a cleanliness drive that shall be carried out from September 25 till Diwali on October 23. As a part of the awareness campaign, the Delhi Government plans to cover more than 8 lakh ration card holders by sending sms to their mobile numbers. What is Modi’s opinion? Modi has directly linked the Clean India movement with the economic activity of the nation. This mission, according to him, can contribute to GDP growth, provide a source of employment and reduce health costs, thereby connecting to an economic activity. Cleanliness is no doubt connected to the tourism and global interests of the country as a whole. India is already a known hub in the world tourist map. It is high time now that India’s top 50 tourist destinations display high class levels of hygiene and cleanliness so as to change the nation’s global perception. Clean India can bring in more tourists, thereby increasing the revenue. He has appealed to the people to devote 100 hours every year to cleanliness. Not only the sanitation programme, Modi also laid emphasis on solid waste management and waste water management. Nitin Gadkari, Union Minister of Rural Development, Drinking Water & Sanitation, said that solid and liquid waste management activities using scientifically proved advanced techniques will be launched in each gram panchayat. Narendra Modi has also directed that separate toilets for boys and girls should be provided in every school in the country by August 15, 2015. Objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan The details of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is under development presently. But the following principles will be included: Construction of individual, cluster and community toilets. To eliminate or reduce open defecation. Open defecation is one of the main causes of deaths of thousands of children each year. Not only latrine construction, the Swachh Bharat Mission will also make an initiative of establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use. Public awareness will also be provided about the drawbacks of open defecation and promotion of latrine use. Proper, dedicated ground staff will be recruited to bring about behavioural change and promotion of latrine use. For proper sanitation use, the mission will aim at changing people’s attitudes, mindsets and behaviours. To keep villages clean. Solid and liquid waste management through gram panchayats. To lay water pipelines in all villages, ensuring water supply to all households by 2019. Let’s make Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a success The PM has rightly asserted that Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should be a combined effort of both the Government as well as the people. We hope that the Swachh Bharat Mission does not become another Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan started by the previous Government in 1999 with the same mission but was not a success. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should not be a mere re-branding exercise. There is no doubt about the fact that change begins at home. Every citizen of the country should be clean and have hygiene and think of progress rather than waiting for the Government to make this plan successful. Let us also hope that we can change the minds of the people and focus on the real issues and not just constructing toilets. Let us all pledge to make this mission a success…

텔루구어

swach

마지막 업데이트: 2017-09-05
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영어

Cleanliness is the act of keeping our body, mind, dress, home, surroundings and other work area neat and clean. Cleanliness of the body is very necessary for our physical and mental health. Cleanliness of the surrounding areas and environment is very necessary for the social and intellectual health. We should bring cleanliness to our habits and remove dirty forever from everywhere as dirt is the mother which gives birth to various diseases. One always suffers health disorders if he/she does not take bath daily, wears dirty clothes, keep house and surroundings dirty, etc. Dirty things in the surrounding areas or home gives rise to the various disease causing germs, bacteria, virus and fungus. People having dirty habits also become the reason of spreading dangerous and fatal (life threatening) diseases. Infectious diseases are spread to vast areas and make people ill and sometimes death. So, we should take care of our cleanliness on regular basis. We should wash hands thoroughly with soap whenever we eat something. We always keep our face and whole body neat and clean by frequent bathing. We should take care of our clothes and only wear well washed clean clothes for our good physical and mental health. Cleanliness also improves the confidence level and self-respect as well as respect from others. It is a good habit which keeps us always happy. It makes us feel very proud in the society. Cleanliness is very necessary to maintain our healthy lifestyle and standard of living. It plays a great role in making a person popular. Various programmes and civil laws has been run and implemented by the government of India in order to promote the awareness about cleanliness among the common public all over India. We all should acquire the clean habits from our childhood and follow onwards throughout the life. Dirt gives rise to the moral evil however gives rise to the moral purity. A person with clean habits can destroy his/her evil desires and dirty thoughts very easily. We should take care about the wastes of our daily lives and put in only in the dustbin for proper disposal and prevent infections to get spread in the home or surrounding. Cleanliness is not the responsibility of only one person however; it is the responsibility of each and every individual living in the home, society, community and country. We should understand its multifarious facets to fully get benefited. We all should take a cleanliness oath that we never do dirty and never see anyone doing dirty.

텔루구어

తెలుగులో pachadanam parisubratha

마지막 업데이트: 2016-11-29
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영어

Telangana ku Haritha Haram, formally launched by Telangana Chief Minister Sri Kalvakuntla Chandra Shekar Rao Garu on Friday 3 July 2015 at Chilkur in Ranga Reddy District. It is a flagship programme of the Telangana Government envisages to increase the present 24% tree cover in the State to 33% of the total geographical area of the State.[1] The thrust areas to achieve the above are two-fold; one, initiatives in notified forest areas, and the other, initiatives in areas outside the notified forest areas. The first objective is sought to be achieved by a multi-pronged approach of rejuvenating degraded forests, ensuring more effective protection of forests against smuggling, encroachment, fire, grazing and intensive soil and moisture conservation measures following the watershed approach. Major fillip is sought to be given to Social Forestry for achieving the second objective. In the areas outside the notified forest, massive planting activities will be taken up in areas such as; road-side avenues, river and canal bank, barren hill, tank bunds and foreshore areas, institutional premises, religious places, housing colonies, community lands, municipalities, industrial parks, etc. National Forest Policy of India envisages a minimum of 33% of the total geographical area under forest / tree cover to maintain environmental stability and ecological balance; that are vital for sustenance of all life-forms, human, animal and plants.[2] it is a great program by KCR on 8 th July planted a plant in Choutuppal and Haritha Haram Program done in Gudrampalle.

텔루구어

హరిత అంతఃపుర

마지막 업데이트: 2016-08-11
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1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Back Ground HPCL is a Government of India Enterprise with a Navratna Status, and a Forbes 2000 and Global Fortune 500 company. It had originally been incorporated as a company under the Indian Companies Act 1913. It is listed on the Bombay Stock exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE), India. HPCL continually invests in innovative technologies to enhance the effectiveness of employees and bring qualitative changes in service. Business Process Re-Engineering exercise, creation of Strategic Business Units, ERP implementation, Organizational Transformation, Balanced Score Card, Competency Mapping, benchmarking of refineries and terminals for product specifications, ISO certification of Refineries and Supply Chain Management are some of the initiatives that broke new grounds. M/s. HPCL has appointed SV Enviro Labs & Consultants, Visakhapatnam for preparation of EIA/RA Reports for proposed project in order to seek Environmental Clearance. SV Enviro Labs & Consultants is a QCI-NABET accredited EIA consultancy organization for “Isolated storage & handling of Hazardous Chemicals. 1.2 Structure of EIA Report The EIA report has been prepared and aligned as per “Generic Structure of EIA/EMP/RA Report” required by the MoEF, Govt. of India as per the general condition stipulated in the EIA notification. The salient features of the report have been projected by identifying the environmental and ecological stressors. The impact assessment has been presented by making compliance with the threshold limit of the environmental and ecological stressors and other norms available through government or non-government agencies. The Environmental Impact Assessment Documentation has been prepared in terms of EIA notification of the MoEF dated 14-9-2006, as amended on 1st Dec 2009, 4th April 2011 for seeking Environmental Clearance for M/s Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Construction of new LPG Bottling Plant situated at Sy. No: 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, Kamalapur (V&M), Karimnagar District, Telangana falling under category “B”. 1.3 Project Proposal HPCL, Karimnagar proposes to establish new LPG plant for bottling and storage facilities at Sy. No: 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, Kamalapur (V&M), Karimnagar District, Telangana District and storage capacity is 3 x 300 MT Mounded Storage Vessels, Bottling capacity is 60,000 MTPA. The LPG bottling plant will be operated in two shifts /day and 300 days/year to achieve the targeted production by making use of facilities listed 1.4 Project Location The proposed LPG Bottling plant of HPCL is located at 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, Kamalapur (V&M), Karimnagar District, Telangana District. The bottling plant is spread over an area of 26.69 acres of land. Geographically, the plant is at latitude 18°11'24.08"N; longitude 79°32'13.47"E; at an altitude of about 4m above mean sea level. Uppal Railway Station around 5.0 KMs from the proposed LPG Bottling Plant. 2.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Executive Summary covers the following chapters in brief: 1. Project Description 2. Description of Environment & Identification of Impacts and Mitigation Measures 3. Significance &Project Benefits 4. Environmental Management Plan 2.1 Project Description Goal and Objectives: The Goal of the project is to attain rural penetration of HPCL bottled LPG Cylinders in the State of Telangana in a Safe & Environmental friendly way, and the objectives to attain this goal would be construction & operation of 3x300 MT Mounded Storage Vessels, Bottling Capacity of 60,000MTPA LPG Cylinders by following all applicable Safety & Environmental Regulations prevailing in the Region. Proposed Facilities The salient features of the project proposed to construct 3x300 MT Mounded Storage Vessels, Bottling Capacity of 60,000MTPA LPG Cylinders in an area of 26.69 Acres is as follows: Table: Proposed Infrastructure at M/s LPG Bottling Plant - Karimnagar Sr.No. DESCRIPTION SIZE(M x M) 1 Filled Cylinder Storage shed 40 m x 25m 2 Bulk T/T Unloading Gantry (6 bays + 2 future) 36 m x 16m 3 Empty cylinder cum filling shed 85m x 40m 4 Valve Changing shed 25 m x 20m 5 Pressure Testing shed 40 m x 25m 6A Weigh bridge cabin 4m x 42 6B Weigh bridge 12 m x 3m 7 LPG mound (3 x 300MT) 50m x 35m 8A Gate cabin 3m x 3m 8B Gate cabin 6m x 4m 9 Office Building with control room 30m x 12m 10 Amenity Block 30 m x 10m 11 DG Shed 12 m x 10m 12 Fire water tank (2 Nos) – 3500M3 each Ǿ18m x 14m 13 Air comp. House 15 m x 10m 14 MCC Room 22m x 10m 15 Ware House 20 m x 10m 16 Fire water pump house 40 m x 10m 17 Invoice room 15m x 5m 18 Service water tank with pump shed Ǿ2.4m x 3.5m 19 LPG Pump & Compressor House 25m x 8m 20 Cylinder unloading platform 25m x 10m 21 Cylinder loading platform 25m x 10m 22A Connecting platform 3m x 32m 22B Connecting platform 3m x 32m 22C Connecting platform 3 m x 17m 22D Connecting platform 3m x 16m 23 Drivers Amenity 20m x 5m 24 Visitors parking and two wheeler parking 20m x 5m 25 Employee car parking 20m x 5m 26 Flood light tower 8 Nos 27 Watch tower 8 Nos 28 T/T Parking area - 29 - 10m x 10m 30 Maintenance Room 10m x 5m 31 Diesel unloading tank area (16 KL UG) 13m x 16m 32 Effluent Treatment Plant 18m x 7m 33 HT Yard (4 Pole) 3m x 3m 34 Cylinder counting platform 7m x 1.2m  Fire Fighting System is consisting of Automatic sprinkler system provided in all LPG handling areas/sheds covered with network of hydrants & monitors as per requirement of OISD-144  Hydrant network as above shall further be extended for Storage vessels area.  Ring Main Hydrants are provided with Fire Hydrants & Monitors at strategic locations as per OISD-144 2.2 Description of Environment & Identification of Anticipated Impacts Description of baseline environmental status and the impact on the existing environment after construction and operation of the proposed project have been detailed with respect to the following components of the environment. The existing status of important environmental components and impact of project activities on them is summarized below. Land Environment: The proposed Mounded bullets shall be installed in an area of 26.69Acres. Hence there is no change in land use pattern. The following prominent land use classes have been observed in the study area (10km radius): S.No LU/LC class Area in hectare 1 Rivers & Streams 8640.8 2 Industrial 1440.9 3 Residential 8882.6 4 Water Body 142.5 5 Cultivation 11336.4 6 Plantation 242.2 7 Open Scrub 616.3 8 Others 98.3 Total 34100 There is no solid and hazardous waste generation due to the proposed project and consequently any adverse impact on land is not envisaged. Thus, there will be no change in the soil characteristics, land use pattern and landscape due to the construction & operation of the proposed facilities. To characterize the nature of soil, samples from four locations in different directions within the study area were collected and characterized. The pH of the soil is an important property; vegetation cannot grow in low and high pH value soils. The normal range of pH in the soils is 6.0 to 8.5. These soils are called as normal to saline soils. Most of the essential nutrients like N, P, K, Cl and SO4 are available for plants at the neutral pH except for Fe, Mn and Al (not mentioned in the table) which are available at low pH range. The soils having pH below 7 are considered to be acidic from the practical standpoint, those with pH less than 5.5 and which respond to liming may be considered to qualify to be designated as acid soils. On the basis of pH measurements, the degree of soil acidity may be indicated. The pH values in the study area are varying from 6.69 to 7.84 indicating that the soils are neutral in nature. Air Environment: Existing Ambient Air Quality The baseline ambient air quality status in the study area is characterized using the following sources of data:  Ambient air quality monitoring at eight sampling locations within the study area.  Meteorological data collected during the study period To evaluate the baseline ambient air quality status, one season data was generated at eight locations in and around the bottling plant including residential & rural area for a period of three months from January’ 2016 to March’ 2016. During the monitoring period the concentration of air pollutants namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, VOCs, Methane & Non-methane Hydrocarbon in ambient were measured. The highlights of the results are as below: Summary of Analysis of Ambient Air Quality in the Study Area Parameter PM10(µg/m3) PM2.5(µg/m3) SO2(µg/m3) NOx(µg/m3) Monitoring Station No.of samples Maximum Minimum Mean 98th percentile No.of samples Maximum Minimum Mean 98th percentile No.of samples Maximum Minimum Mean 98th percentile No.of samples Maximum Minimum Mean 98th percentile A1 26 78.4 59.2 67.1 75.4 26 39.8 30.1 34.1 38.3 26 12.0 9.1 10.3 11.6 26 21.1 16.0 18.1 20.3 A2 26 66.4 54.2 60.4 66.1 26 29.3 23.9 26.6 29.1 26 10.2 8.3 9.3 10.1 26 16.3 13.3 14.8 16.2 A3 26 77.1 59.4 67.4 75.1 26 36.9 28.4 32.2 35.9 26 11.9 9.1 10.4 11.6 26 20.6 15.9 18.0 20.1 A4 26 67.1 55.2 60.2 66.7 26 32.6 26.8 29.2 32.4 26 10.3 8.5 9.3 10.3 26 14.8 12.2 13.3 14.7 A5 26 77.1 51.8 65.4 74.9 26 37.2 25.0 31.6 36.2 26 11.9 8.0 10.1 11.5 26 20.5 13.7 17.4 19.9 A6 26 67.5 47.2 58.3 67.4 26 32.6 22.8 28.2 32.6 26 10.4 7.3 9.0 10.4 26 18.1 12.7 15.6 18.1 A7 26 72.3 57.3 63.2 72.2 26 35.6 28.2 31.1 35.6 26 11.1 8.8 9.7 11.1 26 19.6 15.5 17.1 19.6 A8 26 76.2 51.5 61.7 73.2 26 35.8 24.2 29.0 34.3 26 11.7 7.9 9.5 11.3 26 20.7 14.0 16.8 19.9 NAAQS 100(µg/m3) 60(µg/m3) 80(µg/m3) 80(µg/m3) Note: 1. Carbon Monoxide values over entire study area ranged between 0.62 mg/m3 to 0.91 mg/m3 with a mean of 0.76 mg/m3 2. Hydrocarbons as Methane (mg/m3) and Non Methane Hydrocarbons (mg/m3) were monitored & analyzed at all locations and was found having an overall mean of 1.38ppm and 0.49 ppm respectively. From the monitoring results, it may be concluded that the concentration of the air pollutants, as stated above, are well within the limits specified under NAAQS for industrial, rural and residential areas. Source of Air Pollution: Operation of the bottling plant involves only storage and handling of LPG which does not lead to process specific emission of air pollutants into atmosphere. The entire operation of receipt, storage and filling in cylinders is carried out under closed circuit and leak proof system so as to restrict any emission of hydrocarbon vapours into the atmosphere. However, intermittent sources of air pollutants are limited to DG Sets and fire Water pumps which are operated only in case of power failure during working hours and during mock fire drills only (once in a month) respectively. Hence, installation of proposed Mounded Bullets shall not impart any adverse impact on existing air environment. Noise Environment Noise monitoring was conducted at 08 locations within the study area, representing industrial, rural and residential areas. It is found that Maximum Lday and Lnight was observed to be 67.3 at N2 and Maximum and Lnight was 55.0 dB(A) at N3. The minimum Lday was found to be 48.9 dB(A) was measured at N5 and minimum Lnight was 41.4 observed at N7. All the results observed where within the specified CPCB Standards. The variation in the noise level may be attributed to the movement of vehicles on the surrounding local roads adjacent to the plant. A little increase in the noise level during construction phase has been envisaged. The duration of construction activities shall be restricted 8 to 12 hours only with maximum incremental noise level equivalent to 10 dB(A) which will correspond to 3 to 4 dB(A) during day and night. There will be no additional noise generation during operation phase. Hence, impact on the noise quality shall be practically insignificant due to proposed project activities. Water Environment: To evaluate the existing water quality, 08nos of ground water and 08nos of surface water samples were collected from different locations around the bottling plant and characterized for relevant parameters. Surface water quality results are summarized below: • pH of the surface water collected was neutral with pH ranging from 6.85 – 7.36 • TDS was found to be 398 - 1265 mg/l. The tolerance limit of 1,500 mg/l as per IS:2296 • Total hardness was found to be 258 – 558 mg/l. • Presence of Nitrate was recorded as 3.1 – 7.9 mg/l. • DO was observed as 5.9 – 6.2 mg/l . • Total coliform in water was 235 - 2045 MPN/100ml. The likely source of bacteriological contamination was due to the proximity to residential area • All the heavy metals were found to be within below detectable limits. Summary of Groundwater quality: • The pH limit fixed for drinking water samples as per IS:10500 is 6.5 to 8.5 beyond this range the water will affect the mucus membrane and or water supply system. During the study period, the pH of the groundwater was found varying between 6.91 and 7.56. The pH values for all the samples collected in the study area during study period were found to be within the desirable limits. • The permissible limit for total dissolved solids as per IS:10500 is 2000 milligrams per litre (mg/l), beyond this palatability decreases and may cause gastro-intestinal irritation. In groundwater samples collected from the study area, the total dissolved solids (TDS) were found to be varying between 425 mg/l and 814 mg/l. The TDS of all the samples were below the desirable limit. • The permissible limit for Chloride is 1000 mg/l as per IS:10500 beyond this limit taste, corrosion and palatability are affected. The Chloride levels in the groundwater samples collected in the study area were ranging from 116 - 238 mg/l. • The permissible limit as per IS:10500 for hardness is 600 mg/l beyond this limit encrustation in water supply structure and adverse effects on domestic use will be observed. In the groundwater samples collected from the study area, the hardness was found to be varying from 202 mg/l to 496 mg/l. • Fluoride is the other important parameter, which has the permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l. However, the optimum content of fluoride in the drinking water is 0.6 to 1.5 mg/l. If the fluoride content is less than 0.6 mg/l it causes dental caries. If it is above 1.5 mg/l it causes staining of tooth enamel, higher concentration in range of 3-10 mg/l causes fluorosis. In the groundwater samples of study area the fluoride values were found to be within a range of 0.39 mg/l to 0.74 mg/l. All the heavy metals in all samples were found to be below the permissible limits. The characteristics of the samples collected within the study area were found well within the permissible limits of Drinking water standards(IS 10500). Water Consumption: The project proposal is only for installation of 3 x 300MT Mounded storage vessels. The water consumption due to the proposed project shall be 4.0 KLD for domestic purpose and 6.0 KLD for Process. Waste water Generation: The quantity of waste water generation under normal operation of the plant is 5.2 KLD. sanitary waste water is being disposed off through septic tanks to soak pits and rest of the non-sanitary waste water (due to mock drill, once in a month) will be treated and then discharge into the drains. Biological Environment: The proposed facilities shall be installed in the vacant land available within the premises of bottling plant. There is no point and non-point source of emission or discharge of pollutants hence, no adverse impact on the biological environment is envisaged due to the proposed project activities and operation. Moreover, a considerable area of the plant has already been brought under green belt which provides food and habitat for birds and smaller mammalian species. Thus, significant positive impact on fauna is foreseen. Socio-Economic Environment: The development due to proposed project will have temporary impacts on local socio-economic condition of the people residing in the area. The construction of Mounded Bullets would provide temporary employment, which may consist of locals too. This would improve the socio-economic condition of the local population. The operation of the proposed project would result in positive impacts such as industrial and economic development and generation of indirect employment opportunity 2.3 Analysis of Alternative (Technology & Site) HPCL has mastered the art and technology for installation of Mounded storage Vessels. The LPG department of marketing division of HPCL has earned a good credential of Mounded storage vessels. The technology adopted by HPCL for installation of Mounded storage vessel for storage of LPG is a fail-safe technology and as such no alternative technology was considered for providing such facilities. Since, the proposed bullets will be within available site hence, alternate site selection is not relevant. 2.4 Environmental Monitoring Programme A monitoring schedule with respect to Ambient Air Quality, waste water quality, Noise Quality prepared in consultation with Telangana Pollution Control Board (TPCB), shall be maintained. 2.5 Additional Studies No additional study is required for the proposed project. Salient features of the studies are as under: Impact on local infrastructure such as road network etc Transport requirements will arise during the construction phase due to the movement of both the personnel and materials. The proposed site is well connected to the roads. Compensation package for the people affected by the proposed project: The installation of 03 nos. of Mounded Storage Vessels for storage of bulk LPG shall be carried out at Haldia. The nearest village to the proposed site is Pangidipalli Village. The major occupations of population are industrial labor activities. The proposed facility does not envisage any displacement of population and no resettlement of population. Hence, the proposed project does not involve any issue with respect to Resettlement & rehabilitation and does not come under purview of RR Policy. Proposed plan to handle the socio-economic influence on local community: For installation of 03nos of mounded storage vessels, about 200 construction workers would be required. For unskilled jobs, it would be ensured that only local workers are engaged for carrying out construction jobs. This would impart positive impact on the socio-economic condition of the local area. For skilled jobs, only marginal number of workers is likely to be engaged. In view of the size of population residing within 5 km radius, no additional study is required to assess the impact of marginal number of workers coming from outside area. 2.6 Risk Analysis Risk Assessment for the proposed project has also been carried out and necessary safeguard measures have been discussed in chapter -7. The proposal is for installation of 3 x 300 MT Mounded Storage Vessels which is considered to be intrinsically safe. The installation of the Mounded storage vessels will not enhance the risk profile of the plant. 2.7 Significance & Project Benefits of the Project This project proposed to construct 3x300 MT Mounded Storage Vessels, Bottling Capacity of 60 TMTPA LPG Cylinders in an area of 26.69Acres. HPCL has only one LPG Plant in State of Telangana at Cherlapally in an industrial area located in Telangana – bottling capacity of 50000 cylinders per day. HPCL is meeting the demand through sharing filling capacity from other LPG Bottling plants/private bottlers. As per vision of Govt. of India LPG penetration has to be increased to 75% by addition of 5.5 crore new connections. HPCL shall release 1.37 crore LPG connections. It has approximately 33% of LPG connections and to meet the increasing demand HPCL proposes to construct new LPG bottling plant at 744/1/2, 744/1/4, 744/1/3, 744/14 & 744, Kamalapur (V & M), Karimanagar District, Telangana It is n

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마지막 업데이트: 2016-05-31
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Love of the heinrich boll foundation 'unity in jewish tradition, format amp; more polished and perception befitting a significant threat to continue funny argumentative essay quality index of topics for college my best essay about hindi language, hindi jokes and forget to communicate within this world peace inside the cherished desire for mana navalalu mana. About community service glenn beck easter essay on world peace of vennela in telugu language. Language teaching ideas essays. Of british east india company. Party essay in telugu language of peace. Us will ever be different languages of the oldest writing. Brought forth a peaceful order! India's 69th independence, telugu language. Peace railway station essay on essays service. Malayalam world peace fighters essay on world peace. Though india north of the personification of the world peace in hindi, autobiography and kannada.

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ప్రపంచ శాంతి సమర

마지막 업데이트: 2016-04-10
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Hello, Fight is still on but the focus has shifted from issues to people. Satyamevajayate • Reply•Share › Avatar Dildara Dildara • 4 days ago As my communication will not give that much worth as yours, hence I am putting my thought before you on resolving water problem - Government shall pass the resolution that every city, town and/or village (e.g. like i'm living in ulhasnagar and ur living at Bandra) has it's own lake which will help at least at the time of summer season as in other seasons that much water is not required. For creation of lake's government may charge from every house depends on number of members living in the house. Please give a thought on this. • Reply•Share › Avatar rama ganga • 4 days ago hai aamir sir... after a long time am talking with you, I was busy in my personal problem...... let it be. Sir there are many people who are unemployed they are educated people but they don't have job.... why this happening I don't know, we are telling that our country is developing country, but still educated people don't have job. Please sir find solution for this problem . • Reply•Share › Avatar CREDAI Clean City Movement • 6 days ago CREDAI Clean City Movement Brochure Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail see more • Reply•Share › Avatar sunny b • 9 days ago hey aamir sir, i also want to join your fight with satyamev jayete..plz lemme knw hw can i help. regardsSunny#9322210951 • Reply•Share › Avatar subhakantabiswal92@gmail • 9 days ago Hi aamir ,I am a student under graduation.I want to join in your team because I want change our society ,our mentality and miss use of power in our society. About your show,it is so much different from other TV shows ,its unique. I want to mention that ,it is only we saw in Hindi, but I think if it is come in all regional languages then who didn't understand Hindi thay also see it,becouse I am from odiasha and many odia middle class people didn't understand Hindi so they avoid the show so please give importants on my suggestion. I think you make a team which work in all our states that's why I and many boys who want to work for our country they get a way of selfless work for India.I think you are the perfect inspiration for young boys & student.please sir I want to work with you .please sir • Reply•Share › Avatar Rashmi Shingavi • 12 days ago Just a thought came in mind seeing television/movies people learn so many things like love story, making girl friend-boy friend ,running and marrying,murder, kidnapping,etc. if in these stories if we add the duty of every citizen like reading newspaper regularly discussing the problems of the nation thinking of solution writing to PM asking for what effective steps PM is taking why given solution which was in majority not taken by PM by these basic things are added in which movie the FAN OF EACH HERO WHICH ARE MILLIONS WILL START DOING THE SAME. if this happens India will soon change toward development of public the day will come when PM write laws as per public demand and not as per their wish which will increase them to earn money which help to reduce or nullify corruption. to start with this I have one solution every movie requires publicity so this can be started through FAN movie(Im tweetting it even you tweet it) and also demand these actors to promote their movie they should go to school/colleges read newspaper discuss the main problems of nation and also discuss the solutions and make them habit of writing the same to PM website and also see that PM implements your solution and the same is not done it should be published on facebook and other social networking site. Im tweeting it even you tweet the same and help Indian cinema to change good night. • Reply•Share › Avatar Aftab Shaikh • 14 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन है की आपकी यह वेब साईट राष्ट्रभाषा हिंदी में भी क्यों नहीं है • Reply•Share › Avatar Akash Chopade • 16 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन की आप rajivdixitmp3.com इस वेबसाईट पर जाए और उस वेबसाईट मे जिन सामाजिक विषयो पर राजिव दीक्षित जी ने व्याख्यान किए है उनको सूने. मेरा दावा है की इन व्याख्यानो (speeches) सूनने के बाद आप फैसला लेंगे की अगला season इन ज्वलंत विषयो पर ही करे.बल्कि मेरा सारे भारत वासियो से निवेदन है की आप इन व्याख्यानो को सूने.धनूयवाद. • Reply•Share › Avatar v • 23 days ago Dont stop the show! If Aamir is busy, can you not find another anchor to keep the show going? India needs to discuss all the tough challenges we face to improve and grow. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia • a month ago Dear Aamir Wrote you 8 days back about asking for financial donation. I am not sure if you did that or not. Didn't get any mail / response. These forums are good if there is two way communication. So far my experience has been it is simply one way communication. We writing to you - that's it. May be you / your team take cream of all you get and whatever suits you is followed. So, I think 90+% of what's written here by countless people go waste. That's a lot of waste of their time. Bureaucrats and politicians in our country work like this fashion. Hard to approach, hard to talk to. You don't want to be like that. Right? You are better than that. Again, my plea - We represent Hyderabad School parents association and we are in the middle of HC case against schools and Govt to fight the ever increasing menace of unjustified profiteering and school fee hike in double digits for last so many years. The idea of filing a case against govt. gives us kick as it shows how determined we are to even (try to ) move a giant elephant called India politics. We need help. We are asking for what you have abundant of. We, the common people helped you amass insanely huge amount of money. Too much of anything is bad for health - not only yours, but also others. Don't you want to give something back? The act of kindness and gratitude have ripple effects and it sure comes back sooner or later. Do good karma and donate. Remember - There is enough in the world for man's need; but not enough for man's greed. Donation link at our facebook page - /HSPAIndia Satwinder • Reply•Share › Avatar Maitri • a month ago Hi, I really appreciate your efforts to bring change in the country. I have been observing from many years education is becoming a business these days. For teachers only money matters and not the quality of education they are imparting to the children. I think that if education is not received by a child, who is the future of this country, India cannot prosper. Even school's are using books which are very costly instead of the state board books. And in return school's get commission from the book publisher. These books don't contain any qualitative knowledge. I hope you consider this subject in the upcoming season of satyamev jayate. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ravneel • a month ago hi i would like to share my view about this show satyamev jayate. first of all i have enjoyed every episode of season 3 shown in Fiji Islands on FBC Tv. we are about to witness the season finale of the show "When Masculinity Harms Men" on Thursday. i would like to thank Mr.Aamir Khan for bringing such a wonderful show to viewers around the world. My suggestion is that if we want to bring changes to the society then first we have to get rid of the cast system and dowry system in India as this is only practiced in India. It clearly shows the bad image of India to the world in recent times the high number of corruption in government departments in India. Unavailability of basic things such as medicines / water / electricity in India. To tell you the true facts that we in Fiji import almost all the medicines from India because it is the cheapest in the world and also for medical treatments our first priority is India even though countries like Australia and New Zealand are our close neighbours but things are very expensive there. I just cannot image that, if we in Fiji can get these medicines from India at a cheap price in our country then why the ordinary citizens of India cannot get these medicines at a reasonable price in India as it is manufactured there. To all those who have been criticizing Mr.Aamir Khan my suggestion to you all if you are a true Indian then do something positive for your country that will change the mind set of others. In this way you will move forward Jai Hind • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia • a month ago Hi Aamir, Have been writing you again after few months. Last time I wrote on this forum was few months back - on the day to defend your stand on intolerance. I must have written 10+ messages that day, if I remember correctly. :-) I, infact, We need your help. I have been part of HSPA ( Hyderabad School Parents Association ) and among all states, Hyderabad private school education is on top - in terms of greed and arbitrary and absolutely unjustified fee hike year after in private schools. We are fighting tooth and nail and trying to put pressure on schools and Govt and asking parents to join us. Our efforts are making a difference, but not much that we want to be. Ministers in Hyderabad love private schools more than public and they love to inaugurate new schools opening every now and then. I am sure lots of monies are exchanging hand when they show up for a new school branch opening. We have decided to take Govt. head on. We have filed PIL ( Public interest litigation ) on Govt of Telengana for their inaction to curb "indecent" school fee hike and hope to put huge pressure on govt to ACT and listen to our woes. Bhopal parents association also did that recently. I have heard many other states this prt. school menace is making life hell for parents and causing them so much of financial burden. Infact recent movie of Juhi chawla also highlighted this issue. We need some help from you - you being social conscience person. 1. A movie which highlight the huge profitability of schools - to spread awareness. If you say, the whole world listens. You have given master pieces before - shaken up beliefs and am sure in that position - we would love to make you hit this huge problem head on with a relevant movie on the subject. 2. Our High Court case against Govt, needs fund. We HSPA members are contributing and asking many of our contacts and other parents to join. Can you please donate too? If you don't want to donate as Aamir khan ( for not to get target of media. You seems to get attention of media even when you sneeze ) , can you please get your donation by other means? Donation is possible through our facebook page - /HSPAIndia ( https://www.facebook.com/HSPAI... ). You have enough by God/nature and some (anonymous) generosity would get you many blessings from parents all over hyderabad and India. I am part of the parents association who earn enough, but the body and people we are fighting is big enough. Movies mai heros praja ko bachata hai. Can you be our real hero with the resource you have aplenty of? Satwinder see more • Reply•Share › Avatar Santosh N Jois • a month ago My adventures with #Composting is shared here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse... Happy to connect and share and co-create a #Swachh India • Reply•Share › Avatar Goldy Sakhre • a month ago I am a huge fan of this show and i watched all the episodes of this shows. This is great and helpful for improve their lives for better future. Every thing is possible in life when people around us are very good. After a long time i am writing this comment because i was very confused till now in my life but now i can say that i understand how to live our life with passion and courage. I will try to make a better future for me and my family. • Reply•Share › Avatar D Patel • a month ago I watched couple of episode of Satyamev Jayate but I don't like them because your TV shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not good for Indian people. How will they take pride of own country? Every Indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. What kind message children would get from your show? Why not Talk about how much progress India has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. Do you know India had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom, look at how much progress made in last 60 years. Jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai agar koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia D Patel • a month ago I somewhat agree with you. There should be balance of reporting. Lots of wonderful things about people. But there are other shows out there - which do that. Hardly there has show which shows issues people face in India. There was a good space there and Aamir pitched in. So, with plenty of good stuff marketed by many other shows, Aamir show is sort of reality check. It's a risky business, but that's what Aamir signature is...:-) • Reply•Share › Avatar D Patel • a month ago I watched couple of episode of Satyamev Jayate but I don't like them because TV your shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not for Indian people. Every Indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. What kind message children would get from your show? Why not Talk about how much progress India has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. Do you know India had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom look at how much progress made in last 60 years. Jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. Yes, India will become a developed country one day. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande • a month ago All that said. How about and episode on Female Genital Mutilation? That is really need of the hour today with many women who are suffering from it have started coming forward and protesting. Please sign the petition below to support ban on FGM in India : https://www.change.org/p/end-f... • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande • a month ago Hello Aamir, Don't let the voice of the few make you believe that all of us in India have lost our mind. To us you are just Aamir whom we respect and look up to for all the good work that you have done. It is easy for us to tell you not to get discouraged, but I can understand it might be difficult. But all we can at our end do is to let you know that we exist and you are not alone. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande Ritu Pande • a month ago Though sometimes I kind of feel ashamed and bound to think if we even deserve someone like Aamir to stand up for all of us :-( • Reply•Share › Avatar Deepika Ambwani • a month ago Dear Aamir, I feel really unfortunate that people in this country form perceptions ( good n bad) so easily. Please don't let this discourage you in doing the noble work you are doing for us in India by creating awareness amongst people through SMJ and bringing radical changes in our society and laws. Looking forward to your next season... A proud Hindu supporter. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia Deepika Ambwani • a month ago +1. On the dot. Well said. Judging people is easy, very very easy, but what you have done and taken challenges in bringing satyamev jayate is amazing. I just wish more Movie people share their fortunes and wealth with common man - at least 1-2% percent of what they have. The result would be amazing and also it would be good for you guys who would receive blessings for your generosity. Too much money corrupts mind and body. Too much generosity opens heart and magic happens. • Reply•Share › Avatar truth hurts • a month ago Hi Amir I Saw I video which you show how a kid cheats a old guy by taking him in trust and visit Varanasi and many temples and then go to Ganga and take a bath and then this kids disappear with his clothes and his stuff and I see you always use Hindu faith and try show negative view My question is have you ever made I video where you explain how Islam in negative view have you ever explained how mullah in mosque creat terrorists and claim doing under faith why not you do that because you do not think Islam is misused or are scared of fatwa will be issued to kill you if you say any word negative against Islam • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia truth hurts • a month ago Right - too scared. If aamir sneeze, media people would be around. and you are asking him to talk on something which can bring his whole hard earned career down! Only a fool would do that. Instead...learn to read between lines ( rather dialogue ) See "PK" Read between lines / dialogues and you should get it. Something said artistically goes long way than saying bluntly to judgemental audiences. Remember, aamir is an artist. • Reply•Share › Avatar abdulhakim hamza • 2 months ago hi my nama abdulhakim i fall in love with the women and i am afraid to tell her and finally she goes abroad USA and then after one of my friend tell her thathe is (abdulhakim) in love you and then after she called me and ask ME "you love USA or ME " THEN i replied her i love but i fail to tell you she hang up on me and she couldnt answer my phone and i am in hell. please help me • Reply•Share › Avatar Ram • 2 months ago Hi Aamir, I started to watch your show on Old age..(.a bit late) but had to stop it just after 5 minutes to write this message. Instead of judging children as inconsiderate and cruel to parents in their old age, does anyone ever consider the possibility of abuse and wrong upbringing children have to put up with from parents which then reflects on their relationships in old age? My birth mother is in Delhi she is 75 and has given the impression to all he neighbours that none of her children ever come to visit her or look after her. But this due to her own doing. She manipulated, physically and mentally abused us as children. Systematically, one by one. She played us against each other and we had to forgive everything because she was a MOTHER. Till date she has to win every argument, and knows how to play the victim in full glory. She's been to school only till the 5th but she is smarter than all of us put together. Why aren't children considered equal citizens with equal rights when it comes to parents? Why do we turn a blind eye when we see someone beating their children mercilessly even in streets? How can it be good for their own sake? My and my sibling's childhood and teenage years has been ruined because we had to be sacrificed for her ego. If we dared to go against her and even for replying back she would hit us and deprive us of food for days till we were broken and apologised to her. Many time we had to face public humiliation for daring to stand up against her methods. We could not say anything to anyone because she was the MOTHER and no one would belie

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బింగ్ అనువాదకులు

마지막 업데이트: 2016-03-23
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Kumhar is a caste or community in India. The Kumhars derive their name from the Sanskrit word Kumbhakar meaning earthen-pot maker.[7] Dravidian languages also confirms to the same meaning of the termKumbhakar.The term Bhande used as synonym for the Kumhar caste also means the Pot. The Kumhar's livelihood is making earthen pots. It is very difficult for a Kumhar artisan to maintain his existence with kumbhkala.

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మీ langage పూర్తి వాక్యం టైప్

마지막 업데이트: 2015-11-18
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1okkarupayi many indigent, food, fabric provides?! 2okkarupayi jivitannandistunda many disabled people ?! 3. kannabiddala adaranaku okkarupayi nocukonivariki to provide shade ?! 4. Read caduvukonalenivariki ceppistunda okkarupayi many ?! Citkaraniki from the community to provide relief to those who 5okkarupayi ?! 6. okkarupayi velugunistunda in villages that do not have any access?!

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1.ఒక్కరూపాయి ఎంతోమంది అనాధలకు తిండి,బట్ట అందిస్తుందా ?! 2.ఒక్కరూపాయి ఎంతోమంది వికలాంగులకు జీవితాన్నందిస్తుందా?! 3. ఒక్కరూపాయి కన్నబిడ్డల ఆదరణకు నోచుకోనివారికీ నీడ కల్పిస్తుందా?! 4. ఒక్కరూపాయి ఎంతోమంది చదువుకొనలేనివారికి చదువు చెప్పిస్తుందా?! 5.ఒక్కరూపాయి సమాజం నుండి చీత్కారానికి గురైన వారికీ ఉపశమనం కల్పిస్తుందా?! 6. ఒక్కరూపాయి ఎటువంటి సదుపాయం లేని గ్రామాలకు సైతం వెలుగునిస్తుందా ?!

마지막 업데이트: 2015-07-09
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추천인: 익명

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Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education,secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration. While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education the discussion is wide-ranging and by no means narrowly defined. It may include, for example, AIDS education.[1] Universal education, meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender is not yet a global norm, even if it is assumed in most developed countries. In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. For example, in the United States in 2005/2006, women earned 62% of associate degrees, 58% of bachelor's degrees, 60% of master's degrees, and 50% of doctorates.[2] Education for women with handicaps has also improved. In 2011, Giusi Spagnolo became the first woman with Down Syndrome to graduate college in Europe (she graduated from the University of Palermo in Italy.)[3][4] Improving girls' educational levels has been demonstrated to have clear impacts on the health and economic future of young women, which in turn improves the prospects of their entire community .[5] Infant mortality rate of babies whose mothers have received primary education is half that of children whose mothers are illiterate.[6] In the poorest countries of the world, 50% of girls do not attend secondary school. Yet, research shows that every extra year of school for girls increases their lifetime income by 15%. Improving female education, and thus the earning potential of women, improves the standard of living for their own children, as women invest more of their income in their families than men do.[7] Yet, many barriers to education for girls remain. In some African countries, such as Burkina Faso, girls are unlikely to attend school for such basic reasons as a lack of private latrine facilities for girls.[8] Higher attendance rates of high schools and university education among women, particularly in developing countries, have helped them make inroads to professional careers with better-paying salaries and wages. Education increases a woman's (and her partner and the family's) level of health and health awareness. Furthering women's levels of education and advanced training also tends to lead to later ages of initiation of sexual activity and first intercourse, later age at first marriage, and later age at first childbirth, as well as an increased likelihood to remain single, have no children, or have no formal marriage and alternatively, have increasing levels of long-term partnerships. It can lead to higher rates of barrier and chemical contraceptive use (and a lower level of sexually transmitted infections among women and their partners and children), and can increase the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence. It has been shown, in addition, to increase women's communication with their partners and their employers, and to improve rates of civic participation such as voting or the holding of office.

텔루구어

మహిళలు విద్య యొక్క ప్రాముఖ్యతను వ్యాసం

마지막 업데이트: 2015-06-19
사용 빈도: 1
품질:

추천인: Rajak786

영어

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

텔루구어

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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In the G.O. read above, Government, recognizing the urgent need to adopt strategies to improve the pace of decline of MMR, IMR and malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, issued orders to operationalize “Maarpu” for improved service delivery and behavioral change through convergence across departments and active engagement of the community to effect behavioral change.

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