Je was op zoek naar: example of primary (Engels - Telugu)

Menselijke bijdragen

Van professionele vertalers, bedrijven, webpagina's en gratis beschikbare vertaalbronnen.

Voeg een vertaling toe

Engels

Telugu

Info

Engels

example of library essays in telugu

Telugu

తెలుగులో లైబ్రరీ వ్యాసాల ఉదాహరణకు

Laatste Update: 2018-02-13
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: ImtiazEssay

Engels

example of library essays in telugu

Telugu

లైబ్రరీ

Laatste Update: 2015-07-23
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Ak43

Engels

you two make it look easy to do happy anniversary to a couple who are a shining example of what love truly is

Telugu

ప్రేమ నిజంగా ఏమిటో ప్రకాశించే ఉదాహరణగా ఉన్న జంటకు మీరిద్దరూ వార్షికోత్సవ శుభాకాంక్షలు

Laatste Update: 2020-03-14
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem

Engels

20, avenue appia – ch-1211 geneva 27 – switzerland – http://www.who.int/ethics/review-committee l c (for use with participant observation, focus group discussions, interviews, and surveys) (language used throughout form should be at the level of a local student of class 6th/8th) notes to researchers: 1. please note that this is a template developed by the who erc to assist the principal investigator in the design of their informed consent forms (icf). it is important that principal investigators adapt their own icfs to the outline and requirements of their particular study. the logo of the institution must be used on the icf and not the who logo. 2. the informed consent form consists of two parts: the information sheet and the consent certificate. 3. do not be concerned by the length of this template. it is long only because it contains guidance and explanations which are for you and which you will not include in the informed consent forms that you develop and provide to participants in your research. 4. this template includes examples of key questions that may be asked at the end of each section, that could ensure the understanding of the information being provided, especially if the research study is complex. these are just examples, and suggestions, and the investigators will have to modify the questions depending upon their study. 5. in this template: • square brackets indicate where specific information is to be inserted • bold lettering indicates sections or wording which should be included • standard lettering is used for explanations to researchers only and must not be included in your consent forms. the explanation is provided in black, and examples are provided in red in italics. suggested questions to elucidate understanding are given in black in italics. template on following page [informed consent form for _____________________] name the group of individuals for whom this consent is written. because research for a single project is often carried out with a number of different groups of individuals - for example healthcare workers, patients, and parents of patients - it is important that you identify which group this particular consent is for. (e.g. this informed consent form is for parents of adolescent girls and boys participating in the research titled. "what do we want: adolescents and health systems ") [name of principle investigator] [name of organization] [name of sponsor] [name of project and version] this informed consent form has two parts: • information sheet (to share information about the study with you) • certificate of consent (for signatures if you agree that your child may participate) you will be given a copy of the full informed consent form part i: information sheet introduction briefly state who you are and explain that you are inviting them to have their child participate in research which you are doing. inform them that may talk to anyone they feel comfortable talking with about the research and that they can take time to reflect on whether they want their child to participate or not. assure the parent that if they do not understand some of the words or concepts, that you will take time to explain them as you go along and that they may ask questions now or later. (example: i am x, and i work at y organization in _____. i am doing some research which might help your clinic/hospital do more to help teenagers become and stay healthier. in our research we will talk to many teenagers, both girls and boys, and ask them a number of questions. whenever researchers study children, we talk to the parents and ask them for their permission. after you have heard more about the study, and if you agree, then the next thing i will do is ask your daughter/son for their agreement as well. both of you have to agree independently before i can begin. you do not have to decide today whether or not you agree to have your child participate in this research. before you decide, you can talk to anyone you feel comfortable with. there may be some words that you do not understand. please ask me to stop as we go through the information and i will take time to explain. if you have questions later, you can ask them of me or of another researcher.) purpose explain in lay terms why the research is being done and what is expected from the results. explain why you need to conduct the research with children. (example: it is possible that the clinics and the hospital in this region are not providing some of the services that are important for teenagers. in this study we will talk to teenage girls and boys about what they know about caring for their bodies in a healthy way including sexual and reproductive health. we will invite them to share their knowledge and understanding with us so that we can find ways of meeting their needs at the local clinics and hospital.) type of research intervention briefly state the intervention. this will be expanded upon in the procedures section. (example: a questionnaire or a focus group or an interview) selection of participants state clearly why you have chosen their child to participate in this study. parents may wonder why their children have been chosen for a study and may be fearful, confused or concerned. (example: we want to talk to many teenagers about their health and what information or services they want for themselves. one part of health that we want to talk to them about is sexuality. we would like to ask your daughter/son to participate because she/he is a teenager and lives in this region.)  example of question to elucidate understanding: do you know why we are asking your child to take part in this study? do you know what the study is about? voluntary participation indicate clearly that they can choose for their child to participate or not and reassure they will still receive all the services they usually do if they choose not to participate. also inform them that their child will also have input into the decision. this can be repeated and expanded upon later in the form as well. it is important to state clearly at the beginning of the form that participation is voluntary so that the other information can be heard in this context. participants may also be more alert at the beginning. (example: you do not have to agree that your daughter/son can talk to us. you can choose to say no and any services that you and your family receive at this centre will not change. we know that the decision can be difficult when it involves your children. and it can be especially hard when the research includes sensitive topics like sexuality. you can ask as many questions as you like and we take the time to answer them. you don't have to decide today. you can think about it and tell me what you decide later.)  examples of question to elucidate understanding: if you decide not to allow your child to take part in this research study, do you know what the optionsfor him are? do you know that your child does not have to take part in this research study, if you do not wish so? do you have any questions? procedure explain what each of the steps or procedures involve. indicate when the research will take place and where. if there are surveys, indicate where and how the surveys will be collected and distributed. (examples: 1) the following applies only to focus group discussions: your daughter/son will take part in a discussion with 7-8 other teenagers , or a mix of teenagers and social service workers from the community. the girls and boys will be in separate groups. this discussion will be guided by[ give name of moderator] or me. 2) the following applies only to interviews: your daughter/son will participate in an interview with [name of interviewer] or myself. 3) the following applies only to questionnaire surveys: your daughter/son will fill out a questionnaire which will be provided by [name of distributor of blank questionnaires] and collected by [name of collector of completed questionnaires].or the questionnaire can be read aloud and she/he can give me the answer which she/he wants me to write.) explain the type of questions that the participants are likely to be asked in the focus group discussion, interview or in the questionnaire. if the questions are sensitive, acknowledge this, try to anticipate parents' concerns and protective responses, and address these. parents may be concerned that if researchers talk to their children about sexuality it may encourage them to explore sexual activities with their peers. other concerns may include disbelief that their child is ready to talk about sexuality, or parents may be personally embarrassed. (examples: 1) the following applies only to focus group discussions: the group discussion will start with me, or the focus group guide (use the local word for group discussion leader), making sure that the participants are comfortable. we will also answer questions about the research that they might have. then we will ask questions about the health system in this community. we will talk about where they go for information about health, and whether they get the information and services they need and want. we will encourage them to talk about sexual and reproductive health as well as other important health topics such as food and nutrition. these are the types of questions we will ask. we will not ask them to share personal stories or anything that they are not comfortable sharing. the discussion will take place in [location of the fgd], and no one else but the people who take part in the discussion and the guide or i will be present during this discussion. the entire discussion will be tape-recorded, but no-one will be identified by name on the tape. the tape will be kept [explain how the tape will be stored]. the information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the tapes] will be allowed to listen to the tapes. [the tapes will be destroyed after ____period of time.] 2) the following applies only to interviews: if your daughter does not wish to answer any of the questions during the interview, she may say so and the interviewer will move on to the next question. the interview will take place in [location of the interview], and no one else but the interviewer will be present unless your child asks for someone else to be there. the information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to the information documented during your interview.) [the tapes will be destroyed after ________period of time.] 3) the following applies only to questionnaires and surveys: if your daughter/son does not wish to answer some of the questions included in the questionnaire, she/he may skip them and move on to the next question. the information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to her questionnaire. [the questionnaires will be destroyed after _____period of time.]) duration include a statement about the time commitments of the study for the child and any time commitments on the part of the parent(s). include both the duration of the study and follow-up, if relevant. (example: we are asking your child to participate in an interview which will take about 1 hour of her/his time. we can do this outside of school/work hours. there is also a questionnaire that we will either provide to your child or which we will do together with her/him. this also takes about an hour. altogether, we are asking for about 2 hours of your child's time.)  examples of question to elucidate understanding: if you decide that your child can take part in the study, do you know how much time will the interview take? where will it take place? do you know that we will be sending a transport to pick up your child from your home? do you know how much time will the discussion with other people take? if you agree that your child can take part, do you know if he/she can stop participating? do you know that your child may not respond to the questions that he/she deso not wish to respond to? etc. do you have any more questions? risks and discomforts explain any risks or discomforts including any limits to confidentiality. (if the discussion is on sensitive and personal issues e.g. reproductive and sexual health, personal habits etc. then an example of text could be something like "we are asking your son/daughter to share with us some very personal and confidential information, and he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. you must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she doesn't wish to do so, and that is also fine. he/she does not have to give us any reason for not responding to any question, or for refusing to take part in the interview" or if for example, the discussion is on opinions on government policies and community beliefs, and in general no personal information is sought, then the text under risks could read something like "there is a risk that your son/daughter may share some personal or confidential information by chance, or that he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. however, we do not wish for this to happen. you must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she feels the question(s) are too personal or if talking about them makes him/her uncomfortable.) your daughter/son may choose to tell you about the interview and the questionnaire but she/he does not have to do this. we will not be sharing with you either the questions we ask nor the responses given to us by your child.) benefits describe any benefits to their child, to the community, or any benefits which are expected in the future as a result of the research. (example: there will be no immediate and direct benefit to your child or to you, but your child's participation is likely to help us find out more about the health needs of teenage girls and boys and we hope that these will help the local clinics and hospitals to meet those needs better in the future.) reimbursements state clearly what you will provide the participants with as a result of their participation. who does not encourage incentives beyond reimbursements for expenses incurred as a result of participation in research. the expenses may include, for example, travel expenses and reimbursement for time lost. the amount should be determined within the host country context. (example: your daughter/son will not be provided with any payment to take part in the research. however, she/he will be given with [provide a figure, if money is involved] for her/his time, and travel expense (if applicable).)  examples of question to elucidate understanding: can you tell me if you have understood correctly the benefits that your child will have if you allow him/her to take part in the study? do you know if the study will pay for your travel costs and time lost, and do you know how much you will be re-imbursed? do you have any other questions? confidentiality: explain how the research team will maintain the confidentiality of data, especially with respect to the information about the participant. outline any limits there are to confidentiality. note that with focus groups confidentiality cannot be guaranteed because what is said within the group becomes common knowledge. participants can be asked not to share outside of the group but this does not guarantee confidentiality. (examples: because something out of the ordinary is being done through research in your community, it will draw attention. if your daughter/son participates, she and you may be asked questions by other people in the community. we will not be sharing information about your son or daughter outside of the research team. the information that we collect from this research project will be kept confidential. information about your child that will be collected from the research will be put away and no-one but the researchers will be able to see it. any information about your child will have a number on it instead of his/her name. only the researchers will know what his/her number is and we will lock that information up with a lock and key. it will not be shared with or given to anyone except [name who will have access to the information, such as research sponsors, dsmb board, your clinician, etc]. the following applies to focus groups: we will ask your child and others in the group not to talk to people outside the group about what was said in the group. we will, in other words, ask each participant to keep what was said in the group confidential. you should know, however, that we cannot stop or prevent participants who were in the group from sharing things that should be confidential.)  example of question to elucidate understanding: did you understand the procedures that we will be using to make sure that any information that we as researchers collect about your child will remain confidential? do you understand that the we cannot guarantee complete confidentiality of information that your child shares with us in a group discussion do you have any more questions? sharing of research findings include a statement indicating that the research findings will be shared in a timely fashion but that confidential information will remain confidential. if you have a plan and timeline for the sharing of information, include the details. also inform the parent that the research findings will be shared more broadly, for examples, through publications and conferences. (example: at the end of the study, we will be sharing what we have learnt with the participants and with the community. we will do this by meeting first with the participants and then with the larger community. nothing that your child will tell us today will be shared with anybody outside the research team, and nothing will be attributed to him/her by name. a written report will also be given to the participants which they can share with their families. we will also publish the results in order that other interested people may learn from our research.) right to refuse or withdraw explain again the voluntary nature of consent. also explain that their child will be asked to agree - or assent - and that the child's concerns and wishes will be taken very seriously. (example: you may choose not to have your child participate in this study and your child does not have to take part in this research if she/he does not wish to do so. choosing to participate or not will not affect either your own or your child's future treatment at the centre here in any way. you and your child will still have all the benefits that would otherwise be available at this centre. your child may stop participating in the discussion/interview at any time that you or she/he wish without either of you losing any of your rights here.) who to contact provide the name and contact information of someone who is involved, informed and accessible (a local person who can actually be contacted. state also that the proposal has been approved and how. (example: if you have any questions you may ask them now or later, even after the study has started. if you wish to ask questions later, you may contact any of the following: [name, address/telephone number/e-mail] this proposal has been reviewed and approved by [name of the irb], which is a committee whose task it is to make sure that research participants are protected from harm. if you wish to find about more about the irb, contact [name, address, telephone number.])  example of question to elucidate understanding: do you know that you do not have to allow your child tak

Telugu

Laatste Update: 2020-09-22
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem
Waarschuwing: Bevat onzichtbare HTML-opmaak

Engels

india has set an important example of communal harmony to this world. india is the only country of the world where people of all religion and beliefs have been living peacefully for a long time. it is important to note that even during the reign of british, there was no tension among the various religious people. india, a multi-religious, multilingual and multi-racial country, has always ‘enjoyed the essential unity of culture amidst diversities that kept her people united. after independence, narrow religious, regional and communal feelings attracted the country. the apparently mindless communal tensions and bloody riots that take place occasionally create a sense of mistrust among the two principal religious communities involved in clashes. the country pays a heavy price for such disturbances through loss of life and property.

Telugu

తెలుగు వ్యాసంలో మత సామరస్యాన్ని గురించి

Laatste Update: 2017-11-22
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem

Engels

nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

Telugu

nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

Laatste Update: 2015-06-08
Gebruiksfrequentie: 2
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem
Waarschuwing: Bevat onzichtbare HTML-opmaak

Engels

vada debbasummer is on it's way and the impending risk of heatstroke or sun stroke is both real and dangerous summer is here's everything you need to know to avoid turning a nice summer day into your own, personal heated hell hole. what is sun stroke? sun stroke is, for all intents and purposes, a form of heat stroke (the most serious of heat injuries) which is exacerbated by overindulgent sun exposure. heat stroke is generally triggered one of two ways: one. exposure to a hot environment (e.g. through direct sun exposure); and two. “exertion-induced heat stroke” generally caused by overexertion during exercise. if you’ve ever arrived home after a day of sun-soaked folly with signs and symptoms reminiscent of a mild hangover, you may have suffered a form of heat “exhaustion”. heat exhaustion can cause fatigue and rapidly lead to heat stroke if it goes untreated, especially if it occurs while you’re still out and about in the sun. with 2013 already shaping up to be one of the hottest years on record in australia, it’s important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of heat/sun stroke and what to do if you experience them this coming summer. signs and symptoms of sun stroke if you experience any of the below symptoms or happen to be with a friend who shows similar signs after a day outdoors, you may need to consider treating yourself or them for heat stroke whilst immediately contacting your state ambulance service. symptoms include: • red, hot and dry (sweatless) skin • dizziness and a headache • nausea and vomiting • rapid (and often weak) heartbeat • abrupt behavioural changes • seizures and unconsciousness not all of these signs and symptoms are required for the diagnosis of heat stroke as varying severities can develop over time (sometimes days). whilst some symptoms can be managed, heat stroke is a severe ailment and can lead to brain damage and even death (especially if you’re alone). preventing sun stroke like most health issues, prevention is the best cure for sun stroke. if you’re planning on catching some rays anytime soon, make sure you keep at least a few preventative measures in mind. one. pre-hydrate and re-hydrate one of the major causes of sun stroke is dehydration. if you don’t have an adequate capacity for producing sweat (otherwise evaporating to rapidly cool you down) you’ve already lost one of your best physiological defences against sun stroke. make sure to drink plenty of water and eat a proper breakfast before venturing outdoors on hot days and throw a bottle of h20 in with your towel and sunscreen. if you think that the best cure for a hangover is some uv, try staying indoors and rehydrating instead. alcohol in your blood makes it near impossible to rehydrate effectively and increases your chances of heat stroke significantly. two. slip on something loose to wear as fashionable as tights and skinny jeans were on winter days, as the temperature climbs make sure to start wearing looser clothing outdoors. restrictive clothing in extreme heat can be as dangerous as being dehydrated. evaporation of sweat is entirely dependent on air and airflow. if your sweat is soaking into your jeans or trackies, it’s hardly doing its job. three. embrace the shade sure, your tan isn’t going to develop indoors. but perhaps it’s a more realistic recommendation to encourage regular breaks from direct sun exposure rather than to just reiterate the countless government campaigns promoting the fact that nothing about a deep tan is healthy. for at least the sake of sun stroke prevention, break up your sun exposure as best you can throughout the day (preferably avoiding the hours around midday) and try not to fall asleep at the beach or by the pool. try to take regular breaks from direct sun exposure - image shutterstock first aid for sun stroke in case the role of sun-safety hero befalls you this summer and a friend in need suffers from heat stroke, take care to revise these examples of first aid treatments. but remember, as soon as you suspect that heat stroke is the culprit, dial 108 • move the person to a cool, shaded area with circulating air • remove any unnecessary clothing, especially headwear • elevate their legs to prevent shock (low blood volume can result from severe dehydration) • give them fluids if they are conscious and able to swallow • cover them with a wet sheet and apply ice packs to their armpits, groin, neck and back note: sun stroke can be life-threatening and must be treated immediately. dr. pellakuru bhasker reddy medical officer, primary health centre d.v.satram

Telugu

వడ debba

Laatste Update: 2015-04-06
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem

Engels

examples of good titles: "plasma crashed after adding the notes widget and writing on it" "konqueror crashed when accessing the facebook application'x '" "kopete suddenly closed after resuming the computer and talking to a msn buddy" "kate closed while editing a log file and pressing the delete key a couple of times"

Telugu

@ action: button

Laatste Update: 2011-10-23
Gebruiksfrequentie: 1
Kwaliteit:

Referentie: Anoniem
Waarschuwing: Bevat onzichtbare HTML-opmaak

Krijg een betere vertaling met
4,401,923,520 menselijke bijdragen

Gebruikers vragen nu voor assistentie



Wij gebruiken cookies om u de best mogelijke ervaring op onze website te bieden. Door de website verder te gebruiken, geeft u toestemming voor het gebruik van cookies. Klik hier voor meer informatie. OK