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reason for creation

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reason for creation

Última atualização: 2021-01-27
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god s creation is beautiful

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god made you so beautiful

Última atualização: 2020-11-13
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at creation ka vender exit par kam kat rana hein

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at creation ka vender exit par jam kat rana hein

Última atualização: 2021-09-19
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human being is the finest creation of god

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Última atualização: 2021-06-24
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l creation ki taraf se समस्त परिवार को स्वतंत्रता दिवस की हार्दिक शुभकामनाएं भाई

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happy independence day to all family bhai

Última atualização: 2021-08-15
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it means that the computer science department in your college has enough income to support itself. it is financially independent of the other classes at your college. i don’t understand why they would add that to title of the course, it has nothing to do with what is being taught and i don’t think it will affect you in any way. is it worth it to join srm university for a btech in computer sciences. how is the scope at srm? i’ll go anonymous for personal reasons. this is a completely honest from the heart kind of an opinion and i’ll keep it as short as possible. this is about srm kattankulathur(and is probably the only srm even worth writing a review about). but, what ruins it all is srm itself. they are greedy as fuck! they cannot limit their intake. they have to have 30,000 good for nothings in the campus. they have to sell their seats. the seats sold is close to 70%. that ruins everything. and the result? mediocrity or even worse. what’s the point in teaching machine learning to folks whose only aim in life is to get laid or get a girlfriend? yes, that’s 80%% of the crowd you meet here. and as you can guess, those folks have made it here by buying seats using their baap ka paisa. their new semester’s resolution is not to improve their gpa by studying hard but by improving their malpractice skills. the telugu crowd is probably the worst(though there are genuine exceptions). the north indians are the better lot(though again there are exceptions). you don’t need to have be a nerd, but at least maintain some standards close to the alumni produced by other universities. srm university is the most depressing university one can be in if one’s got any sort of ambitions in engineering. if you haven’t made it to iits/nits/bits stay clear out of such universities. it’s better to join some third grade university and stay in your home town. it’s unimaginably hard working on yourself if you cannot find a single soul who is half as like minded as you are. if you are like the other good for nothings as mentioned above, this place is your heaven. go ahead! buy your seat right now. you are a very crucial asset for the university to maintain its times no. 1 ranking. hurry up! the prices tend to increase after a while. conclusion: srm university can be a way better university and can even match the standards produced by iits if it stops being such a prostitute. adios. is computer science a good career track for me? yes, computer science is a good career to choose in the future. the reason behind this is that the tech industry is growing day by day due to which getting a degree in computer science will never be a waste of time. in other words we can say that getting a computer science degree is an investment for you. let us tell you some benefits that you can get in your future by having a career in computer science. if you want to know them, then have a look: · the career in computer science is powerful in a way that it can influence and affect a large group of people. · there will always be a need of tech professionals adept in several fields of computer science because of the number of tech companies and it positions needed to fill-in. let us tell you that it professionals are not only found in the tech industry but also in other fields with needed computer specialists. due to this, finding a job won’t be that hard for the computer science students. · graduates of computer science degrees have higher paying jobs and better job opportunities than those who don’t. the reason behind this is that they have the proof to back up their capabilities. · the career in computer science can help make a difference for the better using technology. · we are all familiar with this that technology is constantly changing and having the career in computer science means that knowledge will always be up to date in this fast-growing industry. there will always be a room for growth for the graduates which help them in serving the industry with their best potential. along with these, there are huge number of benefits available that shows the worth of having career in computer science. gateway education offers a wide range of technical and professional courses that help the students in making their career shine. we have colleges and institutes that have a great staff of trainers and faculty that are providing students with the best of their knowledge and experience and this provides opportunities to the students to take their career to new heights. also, our placement cell is best among the other colleges that provide the students to get placed in top mncs. for more information and details kindly visit the official website of gateway education. which branch is the best in computer science? there are lots of branches in computer science among which you can choose anyone that suits you. but let us tell you that all of these branches are better in their own way. if you want to know them then have a look on these branches which are enlisted below: · computer architecture: design new computer instruction sets, and combine electronic or optical components to provide powerful but cost-effective computing. · artificial intelligence: develop computers that simulate human learning and reasoning ability. · software engineering: develop methods for the production of software systems on time, within budget, and with few or no defects. · computer design and engineering: design new computer circuits, microchips, and other electronic components. · operating systems and networks: develop the basic software computers use to supervise themselves or to communicate with other computers. · information technology: develop and manage information systems that support a business or organization. · software applications: apply computing and technology to solving problems outside the computer field - in education or medicine. · computer theory: investigate the fundamental theories of how computers solve problems, and apply the results to other areas of computer science. along with these, there are lots of branches available among which you can choose anyone for your career according to your interest. all of these branches have bright future. thus you can choose anyone for your career. if you want to know more information regarding this then you can contact to us at gateway education at any time as we have highly certified and experienced staff that love to serve all the students and love to brighten the future of each and every one by giving the best advice as per your needs and interests. gateway education offers a wide range of technical and professional courses that help the students in making their career shine. we have colleges and institutes that have a great staff of trainers and faculty that are providing students with the best of their knowledge and experience and this provides opportunities to the students to take their career to new heights. also, our placement cell is best among the other colleges that provide the students to get placed in top mncs. for more information and details kindly visit the official website of gateway education. which undergraduate program can prepare you to build medical devices? biomedical engineering? electrical engineering? computer science? medical devices could be of different kind. i am answering this question from the perspective of medical device that fall under the category of medical electronics. this subset consists of medical device that have electronics or photonics as subassemblies. any medical device building needs an interdisciplinary team. depending on where you are building the device, the requirements differ. working in a medical device organisation this requires you to have good knowledge in your subject of specialization and an aptitude to understand other subjects. your subject of specialization could be any technical branch: medical and non medical. a lot of interns who worked with me were qualified as computer scientists and were pursuing masters in medical imaging. likewise, the product design team has people from mechanical engineering specialized in design. the same goes for electrical and electronics engineers. you will notice that the examples that i cited, all these guys have bachelors in core fields of engineering and are pursuing specialization in fields that combine their core field and medical field. here they develop the aptitude for applying their core field to the medical field. i am in no way suggesting that you need to study for this. you may do a project on your own, take online classes, or work at an organisation to develop this application mindset. working on your own medical device in this case you need to develop three traits skills: as a founder, you need to develop the capability to assess need, creativity to devise solution, technical knowledge to do feasibility of the solution to address the problem team person: you may not have all the skills mentioned in (1). and that is when you would need a team perseverance: a medical device field is a high risk, high reward industry. however a successful device building needs perseverance for need assessment, prototype building, clinical research and regulatory and intellectual property creation (it may take anywhere from 3–5 years). motivation in medical device it is not as simple as people often think. on one hand, it is so natural to be highly motivated to work on a medical device because it saves lives. you and your near ones can take immense pride in it. at the same time, it get’s difficult to keep up the motivation because it takes lot more time than a regular engineering product. there is hardly a concept of minimum viable product in case of medical device because even in case of your prototype, you have to evaluate and implement all the necessary sub-assemblies to test the performance. having said all that, the motivation to build one does triumph many a times and that is why amazing medical devices are getting built by the startups. what is the difference between computer science, computer engineering, and software engineering? how is the scope of it in comparison to se or cs? is computer science a good choice for specializing in mobile app development? the difference between computer science and computer engineering/software engineering is like comparing apples and oranges. science is the study and observation of physical and natural phenomena to understand our reality. through the scientific hypothesis we formulate scientific knowledge. on the other hand, engineering is the application of scientific knowledge in order to improve our reality. suppose, computer science is the apple and computer engineering/software engineernig is the orange. logically speaking, computer science and computer engineering/software engineering are intrinsically relatable in the area of ‘computers’ just as apples and oranges belong to the same set or group called ‘fruits’. both belong to the same realm and the same holds for software engineering. people often muddle up all three fields. in reality, computer science is the most theoretical out of the bunch. computer engineering relates to the integration of hardware and software in computers and electronics. on the other hand, software engineering deals with the development, development, and maintance of software. there exists a common intersection for both kinds of engineering fields to computer science. the real difference is that computer science removes the excess worries of hardware and are less interested in coding. computer scientists deal with a level of abstraction that closely aligns towards the research interests of mathematicians (through computation). computer science is an apple. it deals with understanding the theory of computation, the behavior of artificial intelligence, cybersectuity, cryptology/cryptocurrency, algorithms, machine learning, and plenty of cool stuff that relates to upper-level mathematics (beyond calculus — i won’t spoil you can research this). computer science’s scope goes further than applications to information technology (it) and software development. the relevance of a bachelor’s in computer science fades once you get a feel of programming language acquisition which is the most important skill to software engineering. in fact, computer science will mostly teach you three to four programming languages at most. there’s a whole sea of programming languages out there. good luck. what is the difference between a degree in software engineering vs. computer science? 1. ​ ​ ​ ​the above image is self-explanatory. source for further content: 2. “a scientist builds in order to learn; an engineer learns in order to build.” scientists learn what is true, how to test hypotheses, and how to extend knowledge in their field. engineers learn what is true, what is useful, and how to apply well-understood knowledge to solve practical problems. 3. the software world has become a victim of its own success. the software job market has been growing faster than the educational infrastructure needed to support it, and so more than half the people holding software development jobs have been educated in subjects other than software. employers can’t require these software retreads to obtain the equivalent of an undergraduate engineering degree in their off hours. even if they could, most of the courses available are in computer science, not software engineering. the educational infrastructure has fallen behind industry’s needs. universities award computer science degrees, and they normally expect their computer science students to obtain software development jobs in which they will immediately begin solving real-world problems. only a small fraction of computer science undergraduates go on to graduate school or research environments in which they are advancing the state of knowledge about software or computers. this puts computer science students into a technological no-man’s land. they are called scientists, but they are performing job functions that are traditionally performed by engineers, without the benefit of engineering training. the effect is roughly the same as it would be if you assigned a physics ph.d. to design electrical equipment for commercial sale. another explanation : which b.tech cse specialization is the best? computer science is really an umbrella term that encompasses a number of fields. here are some of the specializations that you can consider for your computer science degree. computer and network security : in this field, cs experts address software vulnerabilities and mitigate security risks. coursework for this specialization typically includes topics such as database management, advanced operating systems, cryptography, and advanced encryption strategies. mobile and web computing: in this field may focus on broad, theory-based applications of networking protocols and other aspects of systems design. other programs will focus on the creation of websites or mobile applications with an emphasis on interface design. human-computer interaction: it might include moving beyond the traditional model of a keyboard and monitor to any number of other interfaces. programs in this concentration often include coursework on design thinking and user studies. software engineering: these programs typically highlight collaborative teamwork and software security. students in this concentration will take courses on computer systems, compilers, and databases. bioinformatics: bioinformatics focuses on the intersection of computer science and biological science. this specialization often includes applications of technology in medical contexts, such as genome sequencing and computational biology. information management and data analytics: in this field, students will learn techniques and strategies to store, organize, and analyze massive data sets. topics for coursework in this field generally include algorithms for data mining, database architecture, and distributed systems and networking. artificial intelligence: it incorporates topics such as probability and modeling, robotics, logical reasoning, natural language processing, and machine learning. according to your choice and interest you can select any one of the option for your specialization. which course is harder between nursing and computer science? i'm a nurse and i say you should major in computer science! 100%…hands down. no more to say. period. i could write you a book here, but i won't. i suggest you talk to nurses. seasoned nurses and new nurses. both! because each will have different perspectives. a lot has changed in education of nurses and the job market, so talking to newer nurses is probably more beneficial than talking to older nurses. i only had older nurses guiding me when i decided to go to nursing school and their view was very outdated. had i talked with newer nurses, i would've chosen something else. again, i could go on…but i unfortunately have to get to work! as a nurse. a dirty, depressing, thankless job where i feel more like a slave than the professional i thought i'd be treated like — and was told i'd be treated like by lying instructors in college who only cared about tuition money. *another hint…dont blindly believe the bs schools tell you* theyll fill your head with future scenarios where you'll be a respected member of the medical team when in reality, you'll be an overworked, disrespected slave — who works holidays, weekends, and goes blind on paperwork way more than actually spending time with patients. and let's not forget having any and every possible bodily fluid on you. the worst fluid you'll get on your clothes, face, hair, shoes, or hands in a computer/it job is ink toner. proceed wisely. good luck. which sub-branch in computer engineering has a good scope in the coming future? thanks for the a2a! nice question. since you have chosen to live with computers and bugs, i assume that you are interested in the stream, your decision is all yours and not your parents'. however good a course might be, it becomes truly good only when you are interested in it. having said the punch line, let me get into the details. there is a new branch of computer science coming up almost everyday and the choice of the right course should be made depending on your goals and not the trend. however, it is considered safe to do computer science and engineering first and then do a specialization in your field of interest. to be short, a b.tech in computer science and engineering or information technology is the safest thing to do. while doing b.tech, you can also complete some good courses based on your interest. for example, if you are interested in networking and routing, you can consider doing ccna and it's higher levels. if ethical hacking is your thing, you can consider doing ceh or rhce. and the list goes on.. here's a nice little tip for you : google is an engineer's best friend.consider looking up for more courses online. hope it helps. good luck! what kind of projects should be done at mca? hello, there are plenty of options are their for mini and major projects for mca. but most of them are already developed. if you have any new idea then you can implement it using old technologies (php, .net, android etc). but if you really want to do something, you need to study hard at yourself. choose any old concept, just like hotel room booking ticket booking matrimonial portal job portal etc. and design it in totally new technology. the technologies or languages which are not included in your syllabus and far better in execution and performance are available in computer science now. you can use those things and develop your project. also, don’t develop only website. develop web-api’s along with it. so that you can attach desktop and mobile app for t

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Última atualização: 2021-06-09
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francis fukuyama from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia yoshihiro francis fukuyama image from bloggingheads.tv podcast fukuyama in 2005 born october 27, 1952 (age 63) chicago, illinois, u.s website fukuyama.stanford.edu institutions george mason university[1] johns hopkins university stanford university main interests developing nations governance international political economy nation-building and democratization strategic and security issues notable ideas end of history influences [show] yoshihiro francis fukuyama (born october 27, 1952) is an american political scientist, political economist, and author. fukuyama is known for his book the end of history and the last man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the west and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. however, his subsequent book trust: social virtues and creation of prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] fukuyama has been a senior fellow at the center on democracy, development and the rule of law at stanford university since july 2010.[4] before that, he served as a professor and director of the international development program at the school of advanced international studies of the johns hopkins university. previously, he was omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy at the school of public policy at george mason university.[4] he is a council member of the international forum for democratic studies founded by the national endowment for democracy and was a member of the political science department of the rand corporation.[5] contents 1 early life 2 education 3 writings 3.1 neoconservatism 3.2 fukuyama's current views 4 affiliations 5 personal life 6 see also 7 selected bibliography 7.1 scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 books 7.3 essays 8 see also 9 references 10 external links early life francis fukuyama was born in the hyde park neighborhood of chicago. his paternal grandfather fled the russo-japanese war in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the second world war.[6] his father, yoshio fukuyama, a second-generation japanese american, was trained as a minister in the congregational church, received a doctorate in sociology from the university of chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] his mother, toshiko kawata fukuyama, was born in kyoto, japan, and was the daughter of shiro kawata, founder of the economics department of kyoto university and first president of osaka city university.[10] francis grew up in manhattan as an only child, had little contact with japanese culture, and did not learn japanese.[7][8] his family moved to state college, pennsylvania in 1967.[10] education fukuyama received his bachelor of arts degree in classics from cornell university, where he studied political philosophy under allan bloom.[8][11] he initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at yale university, going to paris for six months to study under roland barthes and jacques derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at harvard university.[8] there, he studied with samuel p. huntington and harvey mansfield, among others. he earned his ph.d. in political science at harvard for his thesis on soviet threats to intervene in the middle east.[8][11] in 1979, he joined the global policy think tank rand corporation.[8] fukuyama lived at the telluride house and has been affiliated with the telluride association since his undergraduate years at cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including steven weinberg, paul wolfowitz and kathleen sullivan. fukuyama was the omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy in the school of public policy at george mason university from 1996 to 2000. until july 10, 2010, he was the bernard l. schwartz professor of international political economy and director of the international development program at the paul h. nitze school of advanced international studies of johns hopkins university in washington, d.c. he is now olivier nomellini senior fellow and resident in the center on democracy, development, and the rule of law at the freeman spogli institute for international studies at stanford university.[11] writings fukuyama is best known as the author of the end of history and the last man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the cold war and the fall of the berlin wall in 1989. fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: what we may be witnessing is not just the end of the cold war, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. authors like ralf dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] he continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading american communitarian amitai etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. they are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. but he has lasted."[14] one of the main reasons for the massive criticism against the end of history was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. postmodern philosophy had, in fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] the fact that marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity and our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. in the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] one possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. he is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. in another work, the great disruption: human nature and the reconstruction of social order, fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. this shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. in 2006, in america at the crossroads, fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. he outlines his rationale for supporting the bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. in 2008, fukuyama published the book falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states, which resulted from research and a conference funded by grupo mayan to gain understanding on why latin america, once far wealthier than north america, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. discussing this book at a 2009 conference, fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within latin american nations is a key impediment to growth. an unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] neoconservatism as a key reagan administration contributor to the formulation of the reagan doctrine, fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after irving kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] fukuyama was active in the project for the new american century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that president bill clinton support iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-president of iraq saddam hussein.[20] he was also among forty co-signers of william kristol's september 20, 2001 letter to president george w. bush after the september 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the u.s. not only "capture or kill osama bin laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove saddam hussein from power in iraq".[21] in a new york times article from february 2006, fukuyama, in considering the ongoing iraq war, stated: "what american foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] in regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "what is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how america is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of american power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] fukuyama's current views fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the middle east. by late 2003, fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the iraq war[23] and called for donald rumsfeld's resignation as secretary of defense.[24] at an annual dinner of the american enterprise institute in february 2004, dick cheney and charles krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under american hegemony. "all of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] fukuyama remembers. he believes that the iraq war was being blundered. "all of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] he has not spoken to paul wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] fukuyama declared he would not be voting for bush,[26] and that the bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] overstating the threat of radical islam to the us failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". from the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the united nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-americanism in other countries misjudging what was needed to bring peace in iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to iraq and the middle east in general. fukuyama believes the us has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. a latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. the us spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. the us should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. the best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. the secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. one thing the us proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of world war ii was the formation of international institutions. a return to support for these structures would combine american power with international legitimacy. but such measures require a lot of patience. this is the central thesis of his 2006 work america at the crossroads. in a 2006 essay in the new york times magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with leninism. he wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. leninism was a tragedy in its bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the united states. neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something i can no longer support. fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the war on terrorism:[28] [w]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting john f. kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary muslims around the world. fukuyama endorsed barack obama in the 2008 us presidential election. he states:[29] i'm voting for barack obama this november for a very simple reason. it is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of george w. bush. it was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the united states throughout the world in his first term. but in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the american financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. as a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. while john mccain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the republican party, i think it would be a travesty to reward the republicans for failure on such a grand scale. affiliations between 2006 and 2008, fukuyama advised muammar gaddafi as part of the monitor group, a consultancy firm based in cambridge, ma.[30] in august 2005, fukuyama co-founded the american interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "america in the world". he is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] fukuyama was a member of the rand corporation's political science department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. he is now a member of the board of trustees.[11] fukuyama was a member of the president's council on bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] fukuyama is a fellow of the world academy of art and science (waas). fukuyama is on the steering committee for the scooter libby legal defense trust.[31] fukuyama is a long-time friend of libby. they served together in the state department in the 1980s. fukuyama is a member of the board of counselors for the pyle center of northeast asian studies at the national bureau of asian research.[32] fukuyama is on the board of global financial integrity. fukuyama is on the executive board of the inter-american dialogue. personal life fukuyama is a part-time photographer. he also has a keen interest in early-american furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] he is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "these days i seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as i do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] fukuyama is married to laura holmgren, whom he met when she was a ucla graduate student after he started working for the rand corporation.[8][11] he dedicated his book trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity to her. they live in california, with their three children, julia, david, and john away in school. see also daniel bell selected bibliography scholarly works (partial list) the soviet union and iraq since 1968, rand research report, 1980 books the end of history and the last man. free press, 1992. isbn 0-02-910975-2 trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. free press, 1995. isbn 0-02-910976-0 the great disruption: human nature and the reconstitution of social order. free press. 1999. isbn 0-684-84530-x our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2002. isbn 0-374-23643-7 state-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. ithaca, ny: cornell university press. 2004. isbn 0-8014-4292-3 america at the crossroads: democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy. new haven, ct: yale university press. 2006. isbn 0-300-11399-4 us edition after the neo cons: where the right went wrong. london: profile books. 2006. isbn 1-86197-922-3 uk edition falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states (editor). new york, ny: oxford university press. 2008. isbn 978-0-19-536882-6 the origins of political order. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2011. isbn 978-1-846-68256-8 political order and political decay: from the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. new york: farrar, straus and giroux. 2014. isbn 978-0-374-22735-7 essays the end of history?, the national interest, summer 1989 women and the evolution of world politics, foreign affairs october 1998 immigrants and family values, the immigration reader 1998. isbn 1-55786-916-2 human nature and the reconstruction of social order, the atlantic monthly, may 1999 social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the international monetary fund conference on second generation reforms, october 1, 1999 the neoconservative moment, the national interest, summer 2004 after neoconservatism, the new york times magazine, february 19, 2006 supporter's voice now turns on bush, the new york times magazine, march 14, 2006 why shouldn't i change my mind?, los angeles times, april 9, 2006 the fall of america, inc. newsweek, october 13, 2008 the new nationalism and the strategic architecture of northeast asia asia policy january 2007 left out, the american interest, january 2011 is china next?, the wall street journal, march 12, 2011 the future of history; can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle class?, foreign affairs, january/february 2012 what is governance? governance (journal), march 2013

Inglês

fukuyama francis fukuyama from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia yoshihiro francis fukuyama image from bloggingheads.tv podcast fukuyama in 2005 born october 27, 1952 (age 63) chicago, illinois, u.s website fukuyama.stanford.edu institutions george mason university[1] johns hopkins university stanford university main interests developing nations governance international political economy nation-building and democratization strategic and security issues notable ideas end of history influences [show] yoshihiro francis fukuyama (born october 27, 1952) is an american political scientist, political economist, and author. fukuyama is known for his book the end of history and the last man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the west and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. however, his subsequent book trust: social virtues and creation of prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] fukuyama has been a senior fellow at the center on democracy, development and the rule of law at stanford university since july 2010.[4] before that, he served as a professor and director of the international development program at the school of advanced international studies of the johns hopkins university. previously, he was omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy at the school of public policy at george mason university.[4] he is a council member of the international forum for democratic studies founded by the national endowment for democracy and was a member of the political science department of the rand corporation.[5] contents 1 early life 2 education 3 writings 3.1 neoconservatism 3.2 fukuyama's current views 4 affiliations 5 personal life 6 see also 7 selected bibliography 7.1 scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 books 7.3 essays 8 see also 9 references 10 external links early life francis fukuyama was born in the hyde park neighborhood of chicago. his paternal grandfather fled the russo-japanese war in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the second world war.[6] his father, yoshio fukuyama, a second-generation japanese american, was trained as a minister in the congregational church, received a doctorate in sociology from the university of chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] his mother, toshiko kawata fukuyama, was born in kyoto, japan, and was the daughter of shiro kawata, founder of the economics department of kyoto university and first president of osaka city university.[10] francis grew up in manhattan as an only child, had little contact with japanese culture, and did not learn japanese.[7][8] his family moved to state college, pennsylvania in 1967.[10] education fukuyama received his bachelor of arts degree in classics from cornell university, where he studied political philosophy under allan bloom.[8][11] he initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at yale university, going to paris for six months to study under roland barthes and jacques derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at harvard university.[8] there, he studied with samuel p. huntington and harvey mansfield, among others. he earned his ph.d. in political science at harvard for his thesis on soviet threats to intervene in the middle east.[8][11] in 1979, he joined the global policy think tank rand corporation.[8] fukuyama lived at the telluride house and has been affiliated with the telluride association since his undergraduate years at cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including steven weinberg, paul wolfowitz and kathleen sullivan. fukuyama was the omer l. and nancy hirst professor of public policy in the school of public policy at george mason university from 1996 to 2000. until july 10, 2010, he was the bernard l. schwartz professor of international political economy and director of the international development program at the paul h. nitze school of advanced international studies of johns hopkins university in washington, d.c. he is now olivier nomellini senior fellow and resident in the center on democracy, development, and the rule of law at the freeman spogli institute for international studies at stanford university.[11] writings fukuyama is best known as the author of the end of history and the last man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the cold war and the fall of the berlin wall in 1989. fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: what we may be witnessing is not just the end of the cold war, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such.... that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. authors like ralf dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] he continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading american communitarian amitai etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. they are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. but he has lasted."[14] one of the main reasons for the massive criticism against the end of history was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. postmodern philosophy had, in fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] the fact that marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity and our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. in the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] one possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. he is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. in another work, the great disruption: human nature and the reconstruction of social order, fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. this shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. in 2006, in america at the crossroads, fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. he outlines his rationale for supporting the bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. in 2008, fukuyama published the book falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states, which resulted from research and a conference funded by grupo mayan to gain understanding on why latin america, once far wealthier than north america, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. discussing this book at a 2009 conference, fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within latin american nations is a key impediment to growth. an unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] neoconservatism as a key reagan administration contributor to the formulation of the reagan doctrine, fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after irving kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] fukuyama was active in the project for the new american century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that president bill clinton support iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-president of iraq saddam hussein.[20] he was also among forty co-signers of william kristol's september 20, 2001 letter to president george w. bush after the september 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the u.s. not only "capture or kill osama bin laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove saddam hussein from power in iraq".[21] in a new york times article from february 2006, fukuyama, in considering the ongoing iraq war, stated: "what american foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] in regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "what is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how america is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of american power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] fukuyama's current views fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the middle east. by late 2003, fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the iraq war[23] and called for donald rumsfeld's resignation as secretary of defense.[24] at an annual dinner of the american enterprise institute in february 2004, dick cheney and charles krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under american hegemony. "all of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] fukuyama remembers. he believes that the iraq war was being blundered. "all of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] he has not spoken to paul wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] fukuyama declared he would not be voting for bush,[26] and that the bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] overstating the threat of radical islam to the us failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". from the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the united nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-americanism in other countries misjudging what was needed to bring peace in iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to iraq and the middle east in general. fukuyama believes the us has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. a latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. the us spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. the us should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. the best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. the secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. one thing the us proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of world war ii was the formation of international institutions. a return to support for these structures would combine american power with international legitimacy. but such measures require a lot of patience. this is the central thesis of his 2006 work america at the crossroads. in a 2006 essay in the new york times magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with leninism. he wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. leninism was a tragedy in its bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the united states. neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something i can no longer support. fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the war on terrorism:[28] [w]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting john f. kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary muslims around the world. fukuyama endorsed barack obama in the 2008 us presidential election. he states:[29] i'm voting for barack obama this november for a very simple reason. it is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of george w. bush. it was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the united states throughout the world in his first term. but in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the american financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. as a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. while john mccain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the republican party, i think it would be a travesty to reward the republicans for failure on such a grand scale. affiliations between 2006 and 2008, fukuyama advised muammar gaddafi as part of the monitor group, a consultancy firm based in cambridge, ma.[30] in august 2005, fukuyama co-founded the american interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "america in the world". he is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] fukuyama was a member of the rand corporation's political science department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. he is now a member of the board of trustees.[11] fukuyama was a member of the president's council on bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] fukuyama is a fellow of the world academy of art and science (waas). fukuyama is on the steering committee for the scooter libby legal defense trust.[31] fukuyama is a long-time friend of libby. they served together in the state department in the 1980s. fukuyama is a member of the board of counselors for the pyle center of northeast asian studies at the national bureau of asian research.[32] fukuyama is on the board of global financial integrity. fukuyama is on the executive board of the inter-american dialogue. personal life fukuyama is a part-time photographer. he also has a keen interest in early-american furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] he is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "these days i seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as i do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] fukuyama is married to laura holmgren, whom he met when she was a ucla graduate student after he started working for the rand corporation.[8][11] he dedicated his book trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity to her. they live in california, with their three children, julia, david, and john away in school. see also daniel bell selected bibliography scholarly works (partial list) the soviet union and iraq since 1968, rand research report, 1980 books the end of history and the last man. free press, 1992. isbn 0-02-910975-2 trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. free press, 1995. isbn 0-02-910976-0 the great disruption: human nature and the reconstitution of social order. free press. 1999. isbn 0-684-84530-x our posthuman future: consequences of the biotechnology revolution. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2002. isbn 0-374-23643-7 state-building: governance and world order in the 21st century. ithaca, ny: cornell university press. 2004. isbn 0-8014-4292-3 america at the crossroads: democracy, power, and the neoconservative legacy. new haven, ct: yale university press. 2006. isbn 0-300-11399-4 us edition after the neo cons: where the right went wrong. london: profile books. 2006. isbn 1-86197-922-3 uk edition falling behind: explaining the development gap between latin america and the united states (editor). new york, ny: oxford university press. 2008. isbn 978-0-19-536882-6 the origins of political order. new york, ny: farrar, straus and giroux. 2011. isbn 978-1-846-68256-8 political order and political decay: from the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. new york: farrar, straus and giroux. 2014. isbn 978-0-374-22735-7 essays the end of history?, the national interest, summer 1989 women and the evolution of world politics, foreign affairs october 1998 immigrants and family values, the immigration reader 1998. isbn 1-55786-916-2 human nature and the reconstruction of social order, the atlantic monthly, may 1999 social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the international monetary fund conference on second generation reforms, october 1, 1999 the neoconservative moment, the national interest, summer 2004 after neoconservatism, the new york times magazine, february 19, 2006 supporter's voice now turns on bush, the new york times magazine, march 14, 2006 why shouldn't i change my mind?, los angeles times, april 9, 2006 the fall of america, inc. newsweek, october 13, 2008 the new nationalism and the strategic architecture of northeast asia asia policy january 2007 left out, the american interest, january 2011 is china next?, the wall street journal, march 12, 2011 the future of history; can liberal democracy survive the decline of the middle class?, foreign affairs, january/february 2012 what is governance? governance (journal), march 2013

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