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Inglês

in the race for hquality, there is no finish line

Telugu

నాణ్యత కోసం రేసులో, ముగింపు రేఖ లేదుy

Última atualização: 2022-09-11
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Inglês

there are six or seven species of swan in the genus cygnus; in addition there is another species known as the coscoroba swan, although this species is no longer considered one of the true swans. swans usually mate for life, though "divorce" does sometimes occur, particularly following nesting failure, and if a mate dies, the remaining swan will take up with another.

Telugu

స్వాన్స్ ప్రజాతి cygnus లోపల కుటుంబం anatidae పక్షులు ఉన్నాయి. స్వాన్స్ 'దగ్గరి బంధువులు గీసే మరియు బాతులు ఉన్నాయి. స్వాన్స్ వారు తెగ cygnini అక్కడ ఉపకుటుంబంగా anserinae లో దగ్గరి సంబంధం గీసే తో చేయబడ్డాయి. కొన్నిసార్లు, వారు ఒక ప్రత్యేకమైన ఉపకుటుంబంగా, cygninae భావిస్తారు.

Última atualização: 2016-11-10
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Referência: Anônimo
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Inglês

hello, fight is still on but the focus has shifted from issues to people. satyamevajayate • reply•share › avatar dildara dildara • 4 days ago as my communication will not give that much worth as yours, hence i am putting my thought before you on resolving water problem - government shall pass the resolution that every city, town and/or village (e.g. like i'm living in ulhasnagar and ur living at bandra) has it's own lake which will help at least at the time of summer season as in other seasons that much water is not required. for creation of lake's government may charge from every house depends on number of members living in the house. please give a thought on this. • reply•share › avatar rama ganga • 4 days ago hai aamir sir... after a long time am talking with you, i was busy in my personal problem...... let it be. sir there are many people who are unemployed they are educated people but they don't have job.... why this happening i don't know, we are telling that our country is developing country, but still educated people don't have job. please sir find solution for this problem . • reply•share › avatar credai clean city movement • 6 days ago credai clean city movement brochure thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail thumbnail see more • reply•share › avatar sunny b • 9 days ago hey aamir sir, i also want to join your fight with satyamev jayete..plz lemme knw hw can i help. regardssunny#9322210951 • reply•share › avatar subhakantabiswal92@gmail • 9 days ago hi aamir ,i am a student under graduation.i want to join in your team because i want change our society ,our mentality and miss use of power in our society. about your show,it is so much different from other tv shows ,its unique. i want to mention that ,it is only we saw in hindi, but i think if it is come in all regional languages then who didn't understand hindi thay also see it,becouse i am from odiasha and many odia middle class people didn't understand hindi so they avoid the show so please give importants on my suggestion. i think you make a team which work in all our states that's why i and many boys who want to work for our country they get a way of selfless work for india.i think you are the perfect inspiration for young boys & student.please sir i want to work with you .please sir • reply•share › avatar rashmi shingavi • 12 days ago just a thought came in mind seeing television/movies people learn so many things like love story, making girl friend-boy friend ,running and marrying,murder, kidnapping,etc. if in these stories if we add the duty of every citizen like reading newspaper regularly discussing the problems of the nation thinking of solution writing to pm asking for what effective steps pm is taking why given solution which was in majority not taken by pm by these basic things are added in which movie the fan of each hero which are millions will start doing the same. if this happens india will soon change toward development of public the day will come when pm write laws as per public demand and not as per their wish which will increase them to earn money which help to reduce or nullify corruption. to start with this i have one solution every movie requires publicity so this can be started through fan movie(im tweetting it even you tweet it) and also demand these actors to promote their movie they should go to school/colleges read newspaper discuss the main problems of nation and also discuss the solutions and make them habit of writing the same to pm website and also see that pm implements your solution and the same is not done it should be published on facebook and other social networking site. im tweeting it even you tweet the same and help indian cinema to change good night. • reply•share › avatar aftab shaikh • 14 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन है की आपकी यह वेब साईट राष्ट्रभाषा हिंदी में भी क्यों नहीं है • reply•share › avatar akash chopade • 16 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन की आप rajivdixitmp3.com इस वेबसाईट पर जाए और उस वेबसाईट मे जिन सामाजिक विषयो पर राजिव दीक्षित जी ने व्याख्यान किए है उनको सूने. मेरा दावा है की इन व्याख्यानो (speeches) सूनने के बाद आप फैसला लेंगे की अगला season इन ज्वलंत विषयो पर ही करे.बल्कि मेरा सारे भारत वासियो से निवेदन है की आप इन व्याख्यानो को सूने.धनूयवाद. • reply•share › avatar v • 23 days ago dont stop the show! if aamir is busy, can you not find another anchor to keep the show going? india needs to discuss all the tough challenges we face to improve and grow. • reply•share › avatar satwinder setia • a month ago dear aamir wrote you 8 days back about asking for financial donation. i am not sure if you did that or not. didn't get any mail / response. these forums are good if there is two way communication. so far my experience has been it is simply one way communication. we writing to you - that's it. may be you / your team take cream of all you get and whatever suits you is followed. so, i think 90+% of what's written here by countless people go waste. that's a lot of waste of their time. bureaucrats and politicians in our country work like this fashion. hard to approach, hard to talk to. you don't want to be like that. right? you are better than that. again, my plea - we represent hyderabad school parents association and we are in the middle of hc case against schools and govt to fight the ever increasing menace of unjustified profiteering and school fee hike in double digits for last so many years. the idea of filing a case against govt. gives us kick as it shows how determined we are to even (try to ) move a giant elephant called india politics. we need help. we are asking for what you have abundant of. we, the common people helped you amass insanely huge amount of money. too much of anything is bad for health - not only yours, but also others. don't you want to give something back? the act of kindness and gratitude have ripple effects and it sure comes back sooner or later. do good karma and donate. remember - there is enough in the world for man's need; but not enough for man's greed. donation link at our facebook page - /hspaindia satwinder • reply•share › avatar maitri • a month ago hi, i really appreciate your efforts to bring change in the country. i have been observing from many years education is becoming a business these days. for teachers only money matters and not the quality of education they are imparting to the children. i think that if education is not received by a child, who is the future of this country, india cannot prosper. even school's are using books which are very costly instead of the state board books. and in return school's get commission from the book publisher. these books don't contain any qualitative knowledge. i hope you consider this subject in the upcoming season of satyamev jayate. • reply•share › avatar ravneel • a month ago hi i would like to share my view about this show satyamev jayate. first of all i have enjoyed every episode of season 3 shown in fiji islands on fbc tv. we are about to witness the season finale of the show "when masculinity harms men" on thursday. i would like to thank mr.aamir khan for bringing such a wonderful show to viewers around the world. my suggestion is that if we want to bring changes to the society then first we have to get rid of the cast system and dowry system in india as this is only practiced in india. it clearly shows the bad image of india to the world in recent times the high number of corruption in government departments in india. unavailability of basic things such as medicines / water / electricity in india. to tell you the true facts that we in fiji import almost all the medicines from india because it is the cheapest in the world and also for medical treatments our first priority is india even though countries like australia and new zealand are our close neighbours but things are very expensive there. i just cannot image that, if we in fiji can get these medicines from india at a cheap price in our country then why the ordinary citizens of india cannot get these medicines at a reasonable price in india as it is manufactured there. to all those who have been criticizing mr.aamir khan my suggestion to you all if you are a true indian then do something positive for your country that will change the mind set of others. in this way you will move forward jai hind • reply•share › avatar satwinder setia • a month ago hi aamir, have been writing you again after few months. last time i wrote on this forum was few months back - on the day to defend your stand on intolerance. i must have written 10+ messages that day, if i remember correctly. :-) i, infact, we need your help. i have been part of hspa ( hyderabad school parents association ) and among all states, hyderabad private school education is on top - in terms of greed and arbitrary and absolutely unjustified fee hike year after in private schools. we are fighting tooth and nail and trying to put pressure on schools and govt and asking parents to join us. our efforts are making a difference, but not much that we want to be. ministers in hyderabad love private schools more than public and they love to inaugurate new schools opening every now and then. i am sure lots of monies are exchanging hand when they show up for a new school branch opening. we have decided to take govt. head on. we have filed pil ( public interest litigation ) on govt of telengana for their inaction to curb "indecent" school fee hike and hope to put huge pressure on govt to act and listen to our woes. bhopal parents association also did that recently. i have heard many other states this prt. school menace is making life hell for parents and causing them so much of financial burden. infact recent movie of juhi chawla also highlighted this issue. we need some help from you - you being social conscience person. 1. a movie which highlight the huge profitability of schools - to spread awareness. if you say, the whole world listens. you have given master pieces before - shaken up beliefs and am sure in that position - we would love to make you hit this huge problem head on with a relevant movie on the subject. 2. our high court case against govt, needs fund. we hspa members are contributing and asking many of our contacts and other parents to join. can you please donate too? if you don't want to donate as aamir khan ( for not to get target of media. you seems to get attention of media even when you sneeze ) , can you please get your donation by other means? donation is possible through our facebook page - /hspaindia ( https://www.facebook.com/hspai... ). you have enough by god/nature and some (anonymous) generosity would get you many blessings from parents all over hyderabad and india. i am part of the parents association who earn enough, but the body and people we are fighting is big enough. movies mai heros praja ko bachata hai. can you be our real hero with the resource you have aplenty of? satwinder see more • reply•share › avatar santosh n jois • a month ago my adventures with #composting is shared here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse... happy to connect and share and co-create a #swachh india • reply•share › avatar goldy sakhre • a month ago i am a huge fan of this show and i watched all the episodes of this shows. this is great and helpful for improve their lives for better future. every thing is possible in life when people around us are very good. after a long time i am writing this comment because i was very confused till now in my life but now i can say that i understand how to live our life with passion and courage. i will try to make a better future for me and my family. • reply•share › avatar d patel • a month ago i watched couple of episode of satyamev jayate but i don't like them because your tv shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not good for indian people. how will they take pride of own country? every indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. what kind message children would get from your show? why not talk about how much progress india has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. do you know india had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom, look at how much progress made in last 60 years. jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai agar koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. • reply•share › avatar satwinder setia d patel • a month ago i somewhat agree with you. there should be balance of reporting. lots of wonderful things about people. but there are other shows out there - which do that. hardly there has show which shows issues people face in india. there was a good space there and aamir pitched in. so, with plenty of good stuff marketed by many other shows, aamir show is sort of reality check. it's a risky business, but that's what aamir signature is...:-) • reply•share › avatar d patel • a month ago i watched couple of episode of satyamev jayate but i don't like them because tv your shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not for indian people. every indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. what kind message children would get from your show? why not talk about how much progress india has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. do you know india had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom look at how much progress made in last 60 years. jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. yes, india will become a developed country one day. • reply•share › avatar ritu pande • a month ago all that said. how about and episode on female genital mutilation? that is really need of the hour today with many women who are suffering from it have started coming forward and protesting. please sign the petition below to support ban on fgm in india : https://www.change.org/p/end-f... • reply•share › avatar ritu pande • a month ago hello aamir, don't let the voice of the few make you believe that all of us in india have lost our mind. to us you are just aamir whom we respect and look up to for all the good work that you have done. it is easy for us to tell you not to get discouraged, but i can understand it might be difficult. but all we can at our end do is to let you know that we exist and you are not alone. • reply•share › avatar ritu pande ritu pande • a month ago though sometimes i kind of feel ashamed and bound to think if we even deserve someone like aamir to stand up for all of us :-( • reply•share › avatar deepika ambwani • a month ago dear aamir, i feel really unfortunate that people in this country form perceptions ( good n bad) so easily. please don't let this discourage you in doing the noble work you are doing for us in india by creating awareness amongst people through smj and bringing radical changes in our society and laws. looking forward to your next season... a proud hindu supporter. • reply•share › avatar satwinder setia deepika ambwani • a month ago +1. on the dot. well said. judging people is easy, very very easy, but what you have done and taken challenges in bringing satyamev jayate is amazing. i just wish more movie people share their fortunes and wealth with common man - at least 1-2% percent of what they have. the result would be amazing and also it would be good for you guys who would receive blessings for your generosity. too much money corrupts mind and body. too much generosity opens heart and magic happens. • reply•share › avatar truth hurts • a month ago hi amir i saw i video which you show how a kid cheats a old guy by taking him in trust and visit varanasi and many temples and then go to ganga and take a bath and then this kids disappear with his clothes and his stuff and i see you always use hindu faith and try show negative view my question is have you ever made i video where you explain how islam in negative view have you ever explained how mullah in mosque creat terrorists and claim doing under faith why not you do that because you do not think islam is misused or are scared of fatwa will be issued to kill you if you say any word negative against islam • reply•share › avatar satwinder setia truth hurts • a month ago right - too scared. if aamir sneeze, media people would be around. and you are asking him to talk on something which can bring his whole hard earned career down! only a fool would do that. instead...learn to read between lines ( rather dialogue ) see "pk" read between lines / dialogues and you should get it. something said artistically goes long way than saying bluntly to judgemental audiences. remember, aamir is an artist. • reply•share › avatar abdulhakim hamza • 2 months ago hi my nama abdulhakim i fall in love with the women and i am afraid to tell her and finally she goes abroad usa and then after one of my friend tell her thathe is (abdulhakim) in love you and then after she called me and ask me "you love usa or me " then i replied her i love but i fail to tell you she hang up on me and she couldnt answer my phone and i am in hell. please help me • reply•share › avatar ram • 2 months ago hi aamir, i started to watch your show on old age..(.a bit late) but had to stop it just after 5 minutes to write this message. instead of judging children as inconsiderate and cruel to parents in their old age, does anyone ever consider the possibility of abuse and wrong upbringing children have to put up with from parents which then reflects on their relationships in old age? my birth mother is in delhi she is 75 and has given the impression to all he neighbours that none of her children ever come to visit her or look after her. but this due to her own doing. she manipulated, physically and mentally abused us as children. systematically, one by one. she played us against each other and we had to forgive everything because she was a mother. till date she has to win every argument, and knows how to play the victim in full glory. she's been to school only till the 5th but she is smarter than all of us put together. why aren't children considered equal citizens with equal rights when it comes to parents? why do we turn a blind eye when we see someone beating their children mercilessly even in streets? how can it be good for their own sake? my and my sibling's childhood and teenage years has been ruined because we had to be sacrificed for her ego. if we dared to go against her and even for replying back she would hit us and deprive us of food for days till we were broken and apologised to her. many time we had to face public humiliation for daring to stand up against her methods. we could not say anything to anyone because she was the mother and no one would belie

Telugu

బింగ్ అనువాదకులు

Última atualização: 2016-03-23
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Inglês

sample essay on cricket | essay samples blog--paperwritings.com--sample essay on cricket is cricket a global game? cricket is a bat-and-ball kind of game that is played between two teams, 11 players in each of them. the field has an oval shape and in the center there is rectangular 22-yard long pitch. in the game process, one team bats and tries to score runs, the more, the better, while the second team fields and bowls, and attempts to dismiss the batsmen and limit runs received by the first team. teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of innings. the history of cricket started in the 16th century in england. the first written evidence dates back to 1598. then it was called creckett. there are many facts that make it clear that cricket was actively developing in the 17th century, and by its end it became an organized activity that was played for high stakes. in the next century it became the national sport of england. since then it gained recognition and today there are fans around the world and matches gather lots of people who are dedicated to this game. this game has several peculiarities that make it very appealing to people. first of all, it is interesting that there are laws that players have to abide to, but also there is the spirit of the game, which is no less important. besides, the fields for cricket are unique and vary considerably in shape and size. there are many other peculiarities that make this sport interesting and unique for many people, as everyone can find something interesting in it for themselves. today the international cricket council has 104 members, which proves the point.

Telugu

query length limit excedeed. max allowed query : 500 chars

Última atualização: 2015-10-25
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Inglês

use fixed assets as a whole is made up of a variety of different types of assets. the balance sheet represents this variety using the balance sheet items intangible assets fixed assets financial a ssets it is generally desirable to provide for a more detailed classification of assets according to asset types. the fi-aa component does not provide predefined asset types. there is no object or control indicator in the system called asset type. every asset type is represented by one or more asset classes that you define. these asset classes contain certain control indicators. the asset class can serve as a kind of sample master record for the assets in that class. generally, all the asset classes for an asset type will use the same account determination screen layout control 1.2.4.2.1 assets

Telugu

పర్ఫెక్ట్

Última atualização: 2015-06-07
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Inglês

the most important thing that you need to realize in this fastest way to lose weight is to not stay hungry at all. this will do the opposite and instead of your plans to lose weight you might end up gaining a few extra kilograms. this plan suggests you the right amount and the right quantity of food that you can intake in order to make you feel you are full always. you might be curious thinking of how a diet plan will work when you are allowed to eat and that too at a specified amount. also, many people who took this lose weight diet program from gm were puzzled on how a diet program that does not ask you to fast will help in effective weight loss. but, there is nothing to worry about in this diet plan as it is a sure shot procedure that will help you to reduce your overall body weight by 5 to 8 kilos in about a week. day one the first day is the most important day in your gm diet plan program. you are just stepping into the world of knowing how you can reduce your body weight and that too in 7 days time. the gm diet plan says that the first day of the diet must be a complete fruit diet day. you have the option of eating all the fruits that you possibly can and also take in whatever fruit that you like. but, it is important for you to make sure that you avoid bananas from your fruit list on day one. some of the suggested fruits that you can take on the gm’s weight loss diet plan are watermelons and cantaloupe. you are also supposed to drink about 8 to 12 glasses of water on day one and make sure that you do not even touch any other food items, not even raw or boiled vegetables. if you need this plan to work effectively in your body, then you should only consume various kinds of assorted fruits throughout the day. if you feel hungry, try to eat more fruits and of course drink water. day two if day one was a day that gave you the opportunity to binge on your favorite fruits, then day two provides you an opportunity to eat only vegetables throughout the day. you can take in the vegetables that you like both in the raw state and in cooked state. but, it is important for you to make sure that you do not use any sort of oil while cooking vegetables. consuming boiled vegetables are also a good option. you can take any vegetable that you like including potatoes. but, it would be safe for you to try out the boiled potatoes early in the morning itself so that the carbohydrates get burnt during the course of the day. some of the common vegetables that are good to be consumed on day 2 of the lose weight diet regime are: cooked beans, raw and cooked carrot, broccoli, cucumber, boiled bottle and ridge gourd, lettuce, boiled cabbage and so on. there is no doubt that your digestive system will completely undergo an overhaul by the evening and you also would need to visit the toilet more times than before. make sure that you do not miss out on your daily dose of 8 to 12 glasses of water along with a strict veggie diet on day two. day three the third dray of your gm weight lose plan will allow you to take both vegetables and fruits for the entire day. make sure that you do not touch potatoes in the veggie section and also make sure that you do not consume bananas from the fruit section. you have the option of going for a fruit diet in the morning followed by a veggie diet in the afternoon and a fruit diet in the evening followed by a veggie and fruit diet at night. the options and the permutations and combinations of consuming the fruit and vegetable diet or combination of both the diets is totally left to your disposal. you can decide on what you would like to have provided it is fruits and vegetables. never miss the option of drinking 8 to 12 glasses of water even on day three as well. day four day four would interest dieters looking for the fastest way to lose weight as it is filled with a banana and milk diet. yes, you need to take at least a minimum of 8 to 10 bananas throughout the day and are allowed three glasses of milk. you might be a bit worried if this diet will make you feel hungry. but, on the contrary, you will feel quite full with this diet plan at the end of the day. you need to divide the bananas and the glasses of milk properly so that you do not feel any kind of starvation on the fourth day of gm diet plan regime. consuming a banana and a glass of milk in the morning followed by a couple of bananas during the midday will be an ideal start to day four. you can take a glass of milk and two bananas for lunch on day four. you can also take a couple of bananas in the evening or even three bananas and then take a couple of bananas and a glass of milk at night. there will be no sign of hunger at all throughout the entire day if you follow this simple day four regime. day five if you love having a feast, then day 5 of the gm’s lose weight diet plan offers you the opportunity to a feast on day five. it is the day when you can have a cup of rice for lunch and take about six to seven tomatoes throughout the day. as there is every chance of producing a lot of uric acid in your body, it is ideal for you to increase the water level from 12 glasses to 15 glasses on day five. day six you are in for another feast day on day six of the gm’s diet plan. here too, you will be allowed to take a cup of rice in the afternoon for lunch and you also need to stick on to a vegetable diet for the rest of the day. it is also important for you to make sure that you take at least 8 to 12 glasses of water on day six as well. this is the penultimate day of your seven day gm diet plan regime and you are sure to feel quite lighter than before by the sixth day. there is no doubt that you will also be improving your digestive system completely with this seven day diet plan from general motors. day seven this is the last day of the lose weight diet plan from gm. here, you are allowed to take a cup of rice and all the veggies that you would love to eat along with the fruit juice of your choice. this is considered to be the best day of your entire diet regime as you have the option to eat all the vegetables that you like and to flush it off by consuming the fruit juices of your choice. [also read: simple vegetarian diet plan for quick weight loss] there is no doubt that you will see a considerable amount of weight loss in your body and you have done nothing other than following a strict fruit and vegetable and drinking water diet plan. there are also quite a lot of benefits that you gain from the gm diet plan. you will see your face to glow even better than before and also will improve your digestive system. the best advantage though would be that you would see a reduction in your body weight by about 4 to 5 kilos or even more. so, for all the overweight people who are starving their stomach away to lose excess weight, try the healthier and fastest way to lose weight by following the simple gm diet plan.

Telugu

bharata desam abhivruddi ela

Última atualização: 2015-08-08
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Inglês

jsome of the important merits and the demerits of joint family system in india are as follows: in india, the joint family system has continued down the ages for various reasons. as we all know, a particular social institution continues to exist so long as it has a purpose to serve. it always responds to the social requirements of the times. it stagnates and finally withers away only when there is no proper leadership to direct it. family image courtesy : jrobertsphotography.com.au/files/2713628/uploaded/20001.jpg in the indian context, the system continued due to a host of factors. first, our country was under foreign domination for several centuries. secondly, the leadership, perhaps unimaginatively, believed in continuity for its own sake, rather than in change. thirdly, there was a sort of indifferent passivity on the part of the leaders. it could, of course, be also due to the exhaustion of the will to act. be it as it may, let us now discuss the merits and the demerits of the system. merits of the joint family: (1) simple division of labour: joint family system enjoys all the advantages of a simple division of labour. here the work is distributed among the members on the basis of age and sex keeping individual ability in view. in an agricultural economy much manpower is needed for sowing, ploughing, harvesting and also protecting crops from heat and wind. the male members are engaged in such work as furrowing, sowing and irrigation. children, old persons and women watch the crops in the field particularly during the harvesting period. in this way, the co-operation of all members helps to save money that would have otherwise been paid to outside labourers. moreover, every member of the family is ensured of at least some food, clothing and shelter, which are very essential for a healthy and developed economy. (2) avoids fragmentation of land: so far as the joint family is concerned, the property is held in common. as such it does away with the evils of subdivision and fragmentation of land and promotes scientific farming. it enjoys all the advantages of large scale production. (3) money saving device: a joint family is advantageous from the economic standpoint. since things are consumed in a large quantity, they can be procured at a cheap rate. again so far as accommodation is concerned, the joint family saves money that would have otherwise been paid for establishing separate households. besides, the family saves considerable amount of money by not employing outside labour. (4) insurance against odds: favouring the joint family system pandit jawaharlal nehru has remarked that it is an insurance against difficult times. it provides social security to its members, especially to the old, the children, the insane, the widows, the physically handicapped and the helpless. further, the joint family plays an important role in providing much assistance and help at such time as pregnancy, sickness etc. life of an individual in the joint family is properly looked after right from the cradle to the grave. (5) place of recreation: the joint family is an ideal place for recreation. it is instrumental in creating a stimulating atmosphere through the cumulative effect of the lisping talk of the children, the expression of sisterly, brotherly and motherly love, the reproach of the elders and the fun and frolic of the other family members. in this way the joint family naturally acts as a veritable source of recreation with immunity from monotony and boredom. (6) satisfaction of basic needs: food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs of man. the joint family system caters to these basic needs of its members. (7) provides leisure: so far as joint family system is concerned, work is shared by all the members on the basis of age, sex and experience. hence they avail ample leisure. (8) social control: the joint family acts as an agency of social control. the social control .exercised by the joint family is informal in nature. under the constant vigilance of the elders, the undesirable and antisocial propensities of the youngsters are properly checked and thus they are not allowed to go astray. all members scrupulously observe family rules and regulations and respect the elders. (9) cradle of social virtues: the joint family fosters good qualities among its members. they are taught discipline, patience, co-operation, obedience, generosity, selfless service etc. which are virtues of a social life and a real possession of every individual. dr. r. k. mukherjee rightly observes, “the joint family system, based on the virtue of affection, produced that peculiar socio­economic outlook in indian economic organisation which contrasts so favorably with the aggressive individualism of the west.” (10) provides psychological security: the joint family provides psychological security to its members. by attaching supreme importance to collective interests it arrests the growth of excessive individualism and promotes social solidarity. (11) co-operation and economy: the joint family fosters co-operation and economy achieved by few other institutions. cultural unity and associational feeling are markedly visible among the members. (12) socialism in wealth: joint family instills the socialistic spirit among the members. according to jathar and berry, everyone in a joint family earns according to his capabilities but obtains according to his need. in this way, in a joint family the socialistic ideal “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs” is realized. (13) continuity of culture: in a joint family, the younger members are immensely benefitted by the experiences of elders. the elders also guide the young members in developing joint family sentiment and broad social outlook. all these are potent factors in the continuance of cultural traditions. this institution of joint family though of ancient origin has not only survived for its manifold virtues but has stimulated the social life. it has ensured the continuity of rich traditional value and culture. demerits of the joint family: in the present context, the joint family system, for the most part, has lost its effectiveness. some of its merits have turned out to be dysfunctional in certain respects. the demerits of the joint family system are as follows: 1. hindrance in the development of personality: one of the ugliest features of the joint family system is that it stands in the way of the development of the personalities of its members. it so happens that the oldest member very often assumes rulership. he, in virtue of his age, tends to look upon all others as mere children. he behaves with them accordingly. as a result, the other members, though they are full-blown individuals, fail to develop their personalities in a natural way. they get dwarfed emotionally and intellectually. furthermore, the youngsters in the joint family do not get enough scope to develop qualities like adventure, initiative, self- determination, industriousness etc. 2. strife: one word of opposition or of self-assertion with dignity from the daughters-in-law is enough to set the house on fire literally. they are abused and even beaten by their husbands who are provoked to do so by their mothers. mutual hatred and jealousy among the daughters-in-law leads to enmity among the brothers themselves. there is round-the clock infighting over the doings of children. adults are compelled to spend their precious time in the setting of petty quarrels. the house gets divided against itself. 3. source of litigation: the joint family system encourages litigation. normally disputes occur at the time of the partition of movable or immovable property. often they assume serious proportions and ordinarily these are not settled without the intervention of the court of law. moreover, the disputes involve colossal wastage of time, energy, money and more importantly loss of mental equilibrium. 4. loss of privacy: privacy is practically absent in a joint family set-up. the newlywed couple hardly avail an opportunity to develop intimacy between them. this lack of privacy naturally leads to frustration and psychological disturbances. again over crowdedness also has its baneful effects on the development of children. 5. the deplorable condition of women: this is one of the major causes for the disintegration of joint family system. in the joint family, the daughters-in-law do not get any opportunity whatsoever to unfold their potentialities, talents etc. they are expected to serve the whole family like slaves. more often than not, they cannot afford to look after their own children for fear of censure etc. they can hardly meet their husbands during day time. the position is no better at night. the husbands return home and either fall asleep or merely gratify sexual impulse with them without any emotional overtones to the act. mothers-in-law do untold injustice to daughters-in-law. the other relatives make things even worse for the poor brides. this often leads to the very tragic phenomenon of commission of suicide. the husband-wife, mother-child relations become purely artificial without a touch of spontaneity about them. 6. lethargy and indolence: due to collective responsibility most members tend to be lethargic. the reason is simple. they get all the facilities, whether or not they work hard. the wives of the hard-working members instigate them not to exert themselves unnecessarily. the net result of all this is that while a few members do honest labour, the majority profit at their expense and do nothing but eat, sleep and bring forth offspring. 7. uncontrolled procreation: since the responsibility of bringing up children is purely collective, individual parents do not feel the necessity of limiting the size of their families. family planning does not confer any additional advantages on the practitioner in a joint set-up. nor does the member who earns more get any additional benefit there from. this has a highly depressing effect on such members and simultaneously, promotes irresponsibility among others. the upshot of it all is that they procreate children rather irresponsibly adding to the collective burden. 8. child marriage: incidence of child marriage is quite high in case of the joint family. factors like perception of marriage as a burden on the part of ‘karta’ and the eagerness of the elderly people to see the marriage of their grandsons and granddaughters lead to child marriage. child marriage not only affects the physical and mental health of the children but also contributes to the rapid growth of population. 9. limits social mobility: the joint family system hinders the process of social mobility. factors like intimate familial ties and sentimental attachment of the members to the family limit social mobility. 10. miserable economic condition: due to prevalence of many formidable factors such as the daily strife, the deplorable plight of women, absolute rule of elders, lack of responsibility on youngsters and blind procreation, the economic condition of the joint family becomes very dismal and miserable. everyone in a joint family knows that whatsoever he spends will be managed by the family. he will, therefore, not try to save but will, on the other hand, spend to the maximum. this is certainly an unhealthy practice pursued by some in a joint family set-up. again, being joint responsibility common property is neglected and particularly nobody pays any care and attention to the landed property. produce considerably comes down. there is no initiative and this result in lowering of standard. 11. hinders social change: the joint family system believes in conservative practices, status quo, customs and traditions. as such, the process of social change is arrested to a remarkable extent. to sum up, the defects of the joint family far outweigh the advantages which accrue from it and have negative them. consequently, the joint family is fast becoming disorganised. it is impossible to save the joint family system from disorganization, though its advantages can, with effort, be reinstituted in novel form in the nuclear families.

Telugu

ఉమ్మడి కుటుంబం వ్యాసం

Última atualização: 2015-08-25
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Inglês

1.0 introduction 1.1 back ground hpcl is a government of india enterprise with a navratna status, and a forbes 2000 and global fortune 500 company. it had originally been incorporated as a company under the indian companies act 1913. it is listed on the bombay stock exchange (bse) and national stock exchange (nse), india. hpcl continually invests in innovative technologies to enhance the effectiveness of employees and bring qualitative changes in service. business process re-engineering exercise, creation of strategic business units, erp implementation, organizational transformation, balanced score card, competency mapping, benchmarking of refineries and terminals for product specifications, iso certification of refineries and supply chain management are some of the initiatives that broke new grounds. m/s. hpcl has appointed sv enviro labs & consultants, visakhapatnam for preparation of eia/ra reports for proposed project in order to seek environmental clearance. sv enviro labs & consultants is a qci-nabet accredited eia consultancy organization for “isolated storage & handling of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 structure of eia report the eia report has been prepared and aligned as per “generic structure of eia/emp/ra report” required by the moef, govt. of india as per the general condition stipulated in the eia notification. the salient features of the report have been projected by identifying the environmental and ecological stressors. the impact assessment has been presented by making compliance with the threshold limit of the environmental and ecological stressors and other norms available through government or non-government agencies. the environmental impact assessment documentation has been prepared in terms of eia notification of the moef dated 14-9-2006, as amended on 1st dec 2009, 4th april 2011 for seeking environmental clearance for m/s hindustan petroleum corporation limited, construction of new lpg bottling plant situated at sy. no: 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, kamalapur (v&m), karimnagar district, telangana falling under category “b”. 1.3 project proposal hpcl, karimnagar proposes to establish new lpg plant for bottling and storage facilities at sy. no: 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, kamalapur (v&m), karimnagar district, telangana district and storage capacity is 3 x 300 mt mounded storage vessels, bottling capacity is 60,000 mtpa. the lpg bottling plant will be operated in two shifts /day and 300 days/year to achieve the targeted production by making use of facilities listed 1.4 project location the proposed lpg bottling plant of hpcl is located at 744/1/2,744/1/4,744/1/3,744/14 & 744, kamalapur (v&m), karimnagar district, telangana district. the bottling plant is spread over an area of 26.69 acres of land. geographically, the plant is at latitude 18°11'24.08"n; longitude 79°32'13.47"e; at an altitude of about 4m above mean sea level. uppal railway station around 5.0 kms from the proposed lpg bottling plant. 2.0 executive summary the executive summary covers the following chapters in brief: 1. project description 2. description of environment & identification of impacts and mitigation measures 3. significance &project benefits 4. environmental management plan 2.1 project description goal and objectives: the goal of the project is to attain rural penetration of hpcl bottled lpg cylinders in the state of telangana in a safe & environmental friendly way, and the objectives to attain this goal would be construction & operation of 3x300 mt mounded storage vessels, bottling capacity of 60,000mtpa lpg cylinders by following all applicable safety & environmental regulations prevailing in the region. proposed facilities the salient features of the project proposed to construct 3x300 mt mounded storage vessels, bottling capacity of 60,000mtpa lpg cylinders in an area of 26.69 acres is as follows: table: proposed infrastructure at m/s lpg bottling plant - karimnagar sr.no. description size(m x m) 1 filled cylinder storage shed 40 m x 25m 2 bulk t/t unloading gantry (6 bays + 2 future) 36 m x 16m 3 empty cylinder cum filling shed 85m x 40m 4 valve changing shed 25 m x 20m 5 pressure testing shed 40 m x 25m 6a weigh bridge cabin 4m x 42 6b weigh bridge 12 m x 3m 7 lpg mound (3 x 300mt) 50m x 35m 8a gate cabin 3m x 3m 8b gate cabin 6m x 4m 9 office building with control room 30m x 12m 10 amenity block 30 m x 10m 11 dg shed 12 m x 10m 12 fire water tank (2 nos) – 3500m3 each Ǿ18m x 14m 13 air comp. house 15 m x 10m 14 mcc room 22m x 10m 15 ware house 20 m x 10m 16 fire water pump house 40 m x 10m 17 invoice room 15m x 5m 18 service water tank with pump shed Ǿ2.4m x 3.5m 19 lpg pump & compressor house 25m x 8m 20 cylinder unloading platform 25m x 10m 21 cylinder loading platform 25m x 10m 22a connecting platform 3m x 32m 22b connecting platform 3m x 32m 22c connecting platform 3 m x 17m 22d connecting platform 3m x 16m 23 drivers amenity 20m x 5m 24 visitors parking and two wheeler parking 20m x 5m 25 employee car parking 20m x 5m 26 flood light tower 8 nos 27 watch tower 8 nos 28 t/t parking area - 29 - 10m x 10m 30 maintenance room 10m x 5m 31 diesel unloading tank area (16 kl ug) 13m x 16m 32 effluent treatment plant 18m x 7m 33 ht yard (4 pole) 3m x 3m 34 cylinder counting platform 7m x 1.2m  fire fighting system is consisting of automatic sprinkler system provided in all lpg handling areas/sheds covered with network of hydrants & monitors as per requirement of oisd-144  hydrant network as above shall further be extended for storage vessels area.  ring main hydrants are provided with fire hydrants & monitors at strategic locations as per oisd-144 2.2 description of environment & identification of anticipated impacts description of baseline environmental status and the impact on the existing environment after construction and operation of the proposed project have been detailed with respect to the following components of the environment. the existing status of important environmental components and impact of project activities on them is summarized below. land environment: the proposed mounded bullets shall be installed in an area of 26.69acres. hence there is no change in land use pattern. the following prominent land use classes have been observed in the study area (10km radius): s.no lu/lc class area in hectare 1 rivers & streams 8640.8 2 industrial 1440.9 3 residential 8882.6 4 water body 142.5 5 cultivation 11336.4 6 plantation 242.2 7 open scrub 616.3 8 others 98.3 total 34100 there is no solid and hazardous waste generation due to the proposed project and consequently any adverse impact on land is not envisaged. thus, there will be no change in the soil characteristics, land use pattern and landscape due to the construction & operation of the proposed facilities. to characterize the nature of soil, samples from four locations in different directions within the study area were collected and characterized. the ph of the soil is an important property; vegetation cannot grow in low and high ph value soils. the normal range of ph in the soils is 6.0 to 8.5. these soils are called as normal to saline soils. most of the essential nutrients like n, p, k, cl and so4 are available for plants at the neutral ph except for fe, mn and al (not mentioned in the table) which are available at low ph range. the soils having ph below 7 are considered to be acidic from the practical standpoint, those with ph less than 5.5 and which respond to liming may be considered to qualify to be designated as acid soils. on the basis of ph measurements, the degree of soil acidity may be indicated. the ph values in the study area are varying from 6.69 to 7.84 indicating that the soils are neutral in nature. air environment: existing ambient air quality the baseline ambient air quality status in the study area is characterized using the following sources of data:  ambient air quality monitoring at eight sampling locations within the study area.  meteorological data collected during the study period to evaluate the baseline ambient air quality status, one season data was generated at eight locations in and around the bottling plant including residential & rural area for a period of three months from january’ 2016 to march’ 2016. during the monitoring period the concentration of air pollutants namely pm10, pm2.5, so2, nox, vocs, methane & non-methane hydrocarbon in ambient were measured. the highlights of the results are as below: summary of analysis of ambient air quality in the study area parameter pm10(µg/m3) pm2.5(µg/m3) so2(µg/m3) nox(µg/m3) monitoring station no.of samples maximum minimum mean 98th percentile no.of samples maximum minimum mean 98th percentile no.of samples maximum minimum mean 98th percentile no.of samples maximum minimum mean 98th percentile a1 26 78.4 59.2 67.1 75.4 26 39.8 30.1 34.1 38.3 26 12.0 9.1 10.3 11.6 26 21.1 16.0 18.1 20.3 a2 26 66.4 54.2 60.4 66.1 26 29.3 23.9 26.6 29.1 26 10.2 8.3 9.3 10.1 26 16.3 13.3 14.8 16.2 a3 26 77.1 59.4 67.4 75.1 26 36.9 28.4 32.2 35.9 26 11.9 9.1 10.4 11.6 26 20.6 15.9 18.0 20.1 a4 26 67.1 55.2 60.2 66.7 26 32.6 26.8 29.2 32.4 26 10.3 8.5 9.3 10.3 26 14.8 12.2 13.3 14.7 a5 26 77.1 51.8 65.4 74.9 26 37.2 25.0 31.6 36.2 26 11.9 8.0 10.1 11.5 26 20.5 13.7 17.4 19.9 a6 26 67.5 47.2 58.3 67.4 26 32.6 22.8 28.2 32.6 26 10.4 7.3 9.0 10.4 26 18.1 12.7 15.6 18.1 a7 26 72.3 57.3 63.2 72.2 26 35.6 28.2 31.1 35.6 26 11.1 8.8 9.7 11.1 26 19.6 15.5 17.1 19.6 a8 26 76.2 51.5 61.7 73.2 26 35.8 24.2 29.0 34.3 26 11.7 7.9 9.5 11.3 26 20.7 14.0 16.8 19.9 naaqs 100(µg/m3) 60(µg/m3) 80(µg/m3) 80(µg/m3) note: 1. carbon monoxide values over entire study area ranged between 0.62 mg/m3 to 0.91 mg/m3 with a mean of 0.76 mg/m3 2. hydrocarbons as methane (mg/m3) and non methane hydrocarbons (mg/m3) were monitored & analyzed at all locations and was found having an overall mean of 1.38ppm and 0.49 ppm respectively. from the monitoring results, it may be concluded that the concentration of the air pollutants, as stated above, are well within the limits specified under naaqs for industrial, rural and residential areas. source of air pollution: operation of the bottling plant involves only storage and handling of lpg which does not lead to process specific emission of air pollutants into atmosphere. the entire operation of receipt, storage and filling in cylinders is carried out under closed circuit and leak proof system so as to restrict any emission of hydrocarbon vapours into the atmosphere. however, intermittent sources of air pollutants are limited to dg sets and fire water pumps which are operated only in case of power failure during working hours and during mock fire drills only (once in a month) respectively. hence, installation of proposed mounded bullets shall not impart any adverse impact on existing air environment. noise environment noise monitoring was conducted at 08 locations within the study area, representing industrial, rural and residential areas. it is found that maximum lday and lnight was observed to be 67.3 at n2 and maximum and lnight was 55.0 db(a) at n3. the minimum lday was found to be 48.9 db(a) was measured at n5 and minimum lnight was 41.4 observed at n7. all the results observed where within the specified cpcb standards. the variation in the noise level may be attributed to the movement of vehicles on the surrounding local roads adjacent to the plant. a little increase in the noise level during construction phase has been envisaged. the duration of construction activities shall be restricted 8 to 12 hours only with maximum incremental noise level equivalent to 10 db(a) which will correspond to 3 to 4 db(a) during day and night. there will be no additional noise generation during operation phase. hence, impact on the noise quality shall be practically insignificant due to proposed project activities. water environment: to evaluate the existing water quality, 08nos of ground water and 08nos of surface water samples were collected from different locations around the bottling plant and characterized for relevant parameters. surface water quality results are summarized below: • ph of the surface water collected was neutral with ph ranging from 6.85 – 7.36 • tds was found to be 398 - 1265 mg/l. the tolerance limit of 1,500 mg/l as per is:2296 • total hardness was found to be 258 – 558 mg/l. • presence of nitrate was recorded as 3.1 – 7.9 mg/l. • do was observed as 5.9 – 6.2 mg/l . • total coliform in water was 235 - 2045 mpn/100ml. the likely source of bacteriological contamination was due to the proximity to residential area • all the heavy metals were found to be within below detectable limits. summary of groundwater quality: • the ph limit fixed for drinking water samples as per is:10500 is 6.5 to 8.5 beyond this range the water will affect the mucus membrane and or water supply system. during the study period, the ph of the groundwater was found varying between 6.91 and 7.56. the ph values for all the samples collected in the study area during study period were found to be within the desirable limits. • the permissible limit for total dissolved solids as per is:10500 is 2000 milligrams per litre (mg/l), beyond this palatability decreases and may cause gastro-intestinal irritation. in groundwater samples collected from the study area, the total dissolved solids (tds) were found to be varying between 425 mg/l and 814 mg/l. the tds of all the samples were below the desirable limit. • the permissible limit for chloride is 1000 mg/l as per is:10500 beyond this limit taste, corrosion and palatability are affected. the chloride levels in the groundwater samples collected in the study area were ranging from 116 - 238 mg/l. • the permissible limit as per is:10500 for hardness is 600 mg/l beyond this limit encrustation in water supply structure and adverse effects on domestic use will be observed. in the groundwater samples collected from the study area, the hardness was found to be varying from 202 mg/l to 496 mg/l. • fluoride is the other important parameter, which has the permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l. however, the optimum content of fluoride in the drinking water is 0.6 to 1.5 mg/l. if the fluoride content is less than 0.6 mg/l it causes dental caries. if it is above 1.5 mg/l it causes staining of tooth enamel, higher concentration in range of 3-10 mg/l causes fluorosis. in the groundwater samples of study area the fluoride values were found to be within a range of 0.39 mg/l to 0.74 mg/l. all the heavy metals in all samples were found to be below the permissible limits. the characteristics of the samples collected within the study area were found well within the permissible limits of drinking water standards(is 10500). water consumption: the project proposal is only for installation of 3 x 300mt mounded storage vessels. the water consumption due to the proposed project shall be 4.0 kld for domestic purpose and 6.0 kld for process. waste water generation: the quantity of waste water generation under normal operation of the plant is 5.2 kld. sanitary waste water is being disposed off through septic tanks to soak pits and rest of the non-sanitary waste water (due to mock drill, once in a month) will be treated and then discharge into the drains. biological environment: the proposed facilities shall be installed in the vacant land available within the premises of bottling plant. there is no point and non-point source of emission or discharge of pollutants hence, no adverse impact on the biological environment is envisaged due to the proposed project activities and operation. moreover, a considerable area of the plant has already been brought under green belt which provides food and habitat for birds and smaller mammalian species. thus, significant positive impact on fauna is foreseen. socio-economic environment: the development due to proposed project will have temporary impacts on local socio-economic condition of the people residing in the area. the construction of mounded bullets would provide temporary employment, which may consist of locals too. this would improve the socio-economic condition of the local population. the operation of the proposed project would result in positive impacts such as industrial and economic development and generation of indirect employment opportunity 2.3 analysis of alternative (technology & site) hpcl has mastered the art and technology for installation of mounded storage vessels. the lpg department of marketing division of hpcl has earned a good credential of mounded storage vessels. the technology adopted by hpcl for installation of mounded storage vessel for storage of lpg is a fail-safe technology and as such no alternative technology was considered for providing such facilities. since, the proposed bullets will be within available site hence, alternate site selection is not relevant. 2.4 environmental monitoring programme a monitoring schedule with respect to ambient air quality, waste water quality, noise quality prepared in consultation with telangana pollution control board (tpcb), shall be maintained. 2.5 additional studies no additional study is required for the proposed project. salient features of the studies are as under: impact on local infrastructure such as road network etc transport requirements will arise during the construction phase due to the movement of both the personnel and materials. the proposed site is well connected to the roads. compensation package for the people affected by the proposed project: the installation of 03 nos. of mounded storage vessels for storage of bulk lpg shall be carried out at haldia. the nearest village to the proposed site is pangidipalli village. the major occupations of population are industrial labor activities. the proposed facility does not envisage any displacement of population and no resettlement of population. hence, the proposed project does not involve any issue with respect to resettlement & rehabilitation and does not come under purview of rr policy. proposed plan to handle the socio-economic influence on local community: for installation of 03nos of mounded storage vessels, about 200 construction workers would be required. for unskilled jobs, it would be ensured that only local workers are engaged for carrying out construction jobs. this would impart positive impact on the socio-economic condition of the local area. for skilled jobs, only marginal number of workers is likely to be engaged. in view of the size of population residing within 5 km radius, no additional study is required to assess the impact of marginal number of workers coming from outside area. 2.6 risk analysis risk assessment for the proposed project has also been carried out and necessary safeguard measures have been discussed in chapter -7. the proposal is for installation of 3 x 300 mt mounded storage vessels which is considered to be intrinsically safe. the installation of the mounded storage vessels will not enhance the risk profile of the plant. 2.7 significance & project benefits of the project this project proposed to construct 3x300 mt mounded storage vessels, bottling capacity of 60 tmtpa lpg cylinders in an area of 26.69acres. hpcl has only one lpg plant in state of telangana at cherlapally in an industrial area located in telangana – bottling capacity of 50000 cylinders per day. hpcl is meeting the demand through sharing filling capacity from other lpg bottling plants/private bottlers. as per vision of govt. of india lpg penetration has to be increased to 75% by addition of 5.5 crore new connections. hpcl shall release 1.37 crore lpg connections. it has approximately 33% of lpg connections and to meet the increasing demand hpcl proposes to construct new lpg bottling plant at 744/1/2, 744/1/4, 744/1/3, 744/14 & 744, kamalapur (v & m), karimanagar district, telangana it is n

Telugu

adutha varillo nachidi

Última atualização: 2016-05-31
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Inglês

mahatma gandhi had rightly said, “sanitation is more important than independence”. he was aware of the pathetic situation of indian rural people at that time and he dreamt of a clean india where he emphasised on cleanliness and sanitation as an integral part of living. unfortunately, we have completed 67 years of independence and we have only about 30%[error] of the rural households with access to toilets. president pranab mukherjee in his address to parliament in june 2014, said, “for ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a “swachh bharat mission” will be launched. this will be our tribute to mahatma gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019”. the narendra modi government will soon launch the “swachh bharat” movement to solve the sanitation problem in india, to solve the problem of waste management and make india a clean country, ensuring hygiene all across the country. emphasising “clean india” on august 15, 2014 in his independence day speech, the prime minister said that this movement is associated with the economic activity of the country. this mission for creating a clean india will be launched on october 2, 2014, the birth anniversary of mahatma gandhi with the target of completing the mission in 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of the father of the nation. the basic objective behind swachh bharat mission is to create sanitation facilities for all and eliminate completely the unhealthy practice of responding to the nature’s call in the open. it aims to provide every rural family with a toilet by 2019. first cleanliness drive starts on september 25 according to a statement by the pmo, all offices up to panchayat level will participate in a cleanliness drive that shall be carried out from september 25 till diwali on october 23. as a part of the awareness campaign, the delhi government plans to cover more than 8 lakh ration card holders by sending sms to their mobile numbers. what is modi’s opinion? modi has directly linked the clean india movement with the economic activity of the nation. this mission, according to him, can contribute to gdp growth, provide a source of employment and reduce health costs, thereby connecting to an economic activity. cleanliness is no doubt connected to the tourism and global interests of the country as a whole. india is already a known hub in the world tourist map. it is high time now that india’s top 50 tourist destinations display high class levels of hygiene and cleanliness so as to change the nation’s global perception. clean india can bring in more tourists, thereby increasing the revenue. he has appealed to the people to devote 100 hours every year to cleanliness. not only the sanitation programme, modi also laid emphasis on solid waste management and waste water management. nitin gadkari, union minister of rural development, drinking water & sanitation, said that solid and liquid waste management activities using scientifically proved advanced techniques will be launched in each gram panchayat. narendra modi has also directed that separate toilets for boys and girls should be provided in every school in the country by august 15, 2015. objectives of swachh bharat abhiyan the details of the swachh bharat abhiyan is under development presently. but the following principles will be included: construction of individual, cluster and community toilets. to eliminate or reduce open defecation. open defecation is one of the main causes of deaths of thousands of children each year. not only latrine construction, the swachh bharat mission will also make an initiative of establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use. public awareness will also be provided about the drawbacks of open defecation and promotion of latrine use. proper, dedicated ground staff will be recruited to bring about behavioural change and promotion of latrine use. for proper sanitation use, the mission will aim at changing people’s attitudes, mindsets and behaviours. to keep villages clean. solid and liquid waste management through gram panchayats. to lay water pipelines in all villages, ensuring water supply to all households by 2019. let’s make swachh bharat abhiyan a success the pm has rightly asserted that swachh bharat abhiyan should be a combined effort of both the government as well as the people. we hope that the swachh bharat mission does not become another nirmal bharat abhiyan started by the previous government in 1999 with the same mission but was not a success. swachh bharat abhiyan should not be a mere re-branding exercise. there is no doubt about the fact that change begins at home. every citizen of the country should be clean and have hygiene and think of progress rather than waiting for the government to make this plan successful. let us also hope that we can change the minds of the people and focus on the real issues and not just constructing toilets. let us all pledge to make this mission a success…

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Inglês

nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

Telugu

nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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the most important thing that you need to realize in this fastest way to lose weight is to not stay hungry at all. this will do the opposite and instead of your plans to lose weight you might end up gaining a few extra kilograms. this plan suggests you the right amount and the right quantity of food that you can intake in order to make you feel you are full always. you might be curious thinking of how a diet plan will work when you are allowed to eat and that too at a specified amount. also, many people who took this lose weight diet program from gm were puzzled on how a diet program that does not ask you to fast will help in effective weight loss. but, there is nothing to worry about in this diet plan as it is a sure shot procedure that will help you to reduce your overall body weight by 5 to 8 kilos in about a week. day one the first day is the most important day in your gm diet plan program. you are just stepping into the world of knowing how you can reduce your body weight and that too in 7 days time. the gm diet plan says that the first day of the diet must be a complete fruit diet day. you have the option of eating all the fruits that you possibly can and also take in whatever fruit that you like. but, it is important for you to make sure that you avoid bananas from your fruit list on day one. some of the suggested fruits that you can take on the gm’s weight loss diet plan are watermelons and cantaloupe. you are also supposed to drink about 8 to 12 glasses of water on day one and make sure that you do not even touch any other food items, not even raw or boiled vegetables. if you need this plan to work effectively in your body, then you should only consume various kinds of assorted fruits throughout the day. if you feel hungry, try to eat more fruits and of course drink water. day two if day one was a day that gave you the opportunity to binge on your favorite fruits, then day two provides you an opportunity to eat only vegetables throughout the day. you can take in the vegetables that you like both in the raw state and in cooked state. but, it is important for you to make sure that you do not use any sort of oil while cooking vegetables. consuming boiled vegetables are also a good option. you can take any vegetable that you like including potatoes. but, it would be safe for you to try out the boiled potatoes early in the morning itself so that the carbohydrates get burnt during the course of the day. some of the common vegetables that are good to be consumed on day 2 of the lose weight diet regime are: cooked beans, raw and cooked carrot, broccoli, cucumber, boiled bottle and ridge gourd, lettuce, boiled cabbage and so on. there is no doubt that your digestive system will completely undergo an overhaul by the evening and you also would need to visit the toilet more times than before. make sure that you do not miss out on your daily dose of 8 to 12 glasses of water along with a strict veggie diet on day two. day three the third dray of your gm weight lose plan will allow you to take both vegetables and fruits for the entire day. make sure that you do not touch potatoes in the veggie section and also make sure that you do not consume bananas from the fruit section. you have the option of going for a fruit diet in the morning followed by a veggie diet in the afternoon and a fruit diet in the evening followed by a veggie and fruit diet at night. the options and the permutations and combinations of consuming the fruit and vegetable diet or combination of both the diets is totally left to your disposal. you can decide on what you would like to have provided it is fruits and vegetables. never miss the option of drinking 8 to 12 glasses of water even on day three as well. day four day four would interest dieters looking for the fastest way to lose weight as it is filled with a banana and milk diet. yes, you need to take at least a minimum of 8 to 10 bananas throughout the day and are allowed three glasses of milk. you might be a bit worried if this diet will make you feel hungry. but, on the contrary, you will feel quite full with this diet plan at the end of the day. you need to divide the bananas and the glasses of milk properly so that you do not feel any kind of starvation on the fourth day of gm diet plan regime. consuming a banana and a glass of milk in the morning followed by a couple of bananas during the midday will be an ideal start to day four. you can take a glass of milk and two bananas for lunch on day four. you can also take a couple of bananas in the evening or even three bananas and then take a couple of bananas and a glass of milk at night. there will be no sign of hunger at all throughout the entire day if you follow this simple day four regime. day five if you love having a feast, then day 5 of the gm’s lose weight diet plan offers you the opportunity to a feast on day five. it is the day when you can have a cup of rice for lunch and take about six to seven tomatoes throughout the day. as there is every chance of producing a lot of uric acid in your body, it is ideal for you to increase the water level from 12 glasses to 15 glasses on day five. day six you are in for another feast day on day six of the gm’s diet plan. here too, you will be allowed to take a cup of rice in the afternoon for lunch and you also need to stick on to a vegetable diet for the rest of the day. it is also important for you to make sure that you take at least 8 to 12 glasses of water on day six as well. this is the penultimate day of your seven day gm diet plan regime and you are sure to feel quite lighter than before by the sixth day. there is no doubt that you will also be improving your digestive system completely with this seven day diet plan from general motors. day seven this is the last day of the lose weight diet plan from gm. here, you are allowed to take a cup of rice and all the veggies that you would love to eat along with the fruit juice of your choice. this is considered to be the best day of your entire diet regime as you have the option to eat all the vegetables that you like and to flush it off by consuming the fruit juices of your choice. [also read: simple vegetarian diet plan for quick weight loss] there is no doubt that you will see a considerable amount of weight loss in your body and you have done nothing other than following a strict fruit and vegetable and drinking water diet plan. there are also quite a lot of benefits that you gain from the gm diet plan. you will see your face to glow even better than before and also will improve your digestive system. the best advantage though would be that you would see a reduction in your body weight by about 4 to 5 kilos or even more. so, for all the overweight people who are starving their stomach away to lose excess weight, try the healthier and fastest way to lose weight by following the simple gm diet plan.

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