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Английский

one of the most important

Тамильский

onee innum thoongalaya

Последнее обновление: 2018-12-17
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

AIR IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT NATURAL RESOURCE

Тамильский

காற்று மிக முக்கியமான இயற்கை வளங்களில் ஒன்றாகும்

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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

tamil is one of the most famous language of ancient culture

Тамильский

Последнее обновление: 2020-08-14
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Английский

Education has become one of the most important thing of any one’s life

Тамильский

frasi composte

Последнее обновление: 2014-11-09
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Английский

Give the first fruit of the day to the lord is one of the most valuable ways to show our love to God. let's God glorify the lord. Almighty through the graceful entry of The Spiritual dance team.

Тамильский

அன்றைய முதல் பழத்தை ஆண்டவருக்குக் கொடுங்கள் எங்கள் அன்பைக் காண்பிப்பதற்கான மிக மதிப்புமிக்க வழிகளில் ஒன்றாகும். ஆன்மீக நடனக் குழுவின் அருமையான நுழைவு மூலம் சர்வவல்லவர்.

Последнее обновление: 2020-01-17
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Английский

The OR() function returns True if at least one of the values is true. Otherwise it returns False (unless any of the values is an error, then it returns an error).

Тамильский

OR () செயல்கூறு, ஒரு மதிப்பாவது மெய்யாக இருந்தால், உண்மை என்று காட்டும் இல்லையென்றால், பொய் என்று காட்டும்.

Последнее обновление: 2011-10-23
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Английский

One of the most powerful tools in Kig are the menus that you can enter by right-clicking on an object, or on some empty space in the document. You can use them to give objects names, change their colors and line styles, and lots of other interesting things.

Тамильский

இது ஒரு கிக்கின் மிக சக்தி வாய்ந்த கருவிகள் அந்த பட்டியல்களை நீங்கள் பொருளின் மீது வலது சொடுக்கி உள்ளிட முடியும், அல்லது சில காலி இடத்தை ஆவணத்தில் விட வேண்டும். நீங்கள் கொடுத்த பொருள் பெயர்களை பயன்படுத்த முடியும், வண்ணங்களை மாற்றுகிறது மற்றும் வடி முறை, மற்றும் மற்ற விருப்பமான பொருள்கள்.

Последнее обновление: 2011-10-23
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Английский

They have sworn by God the most earnest oaths that if a warner came to them, they would be more rightly guided than any one of the nations; but when a warner came to them, it increased them only in aversion,

Тамильский

அவர்களிடம் அச்சமூட்டி எச்சரிப்பவர் எவரும் வருவாராயின் நிச்சயமாகத் தாங்கள் மற்றெந்த ஒரு சமுதாயத்தையும் விட மிக நேரானபாதையில் சென்று கொண்டிருப்பதாக அவர்கள் அல்லாஹ்வின் மீது பலமான பிராமாணங்களைக் கொண்டு சத்தியம் செய்தார்கள்; ஆயினும் அவர்களிடம் அச்சமூட்டி எச்சரிப்பவர் எந்த போது, (அது) அவர்களுக்கு வெறுப்பைத் தவிர (வேறெதையும்) அதிகப்படுத்த வில்லை.

Последнее обновление: 2014-07-03
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Английский

Humanity can be defined as quality of being human; the peculiar nature of man, by which he is distinguished from other beings. Being human does not mean that an individual possesses humanity. If you want to understand the quality of humanity in an individual take note of what he does for people who give noting back in return to the favour they have offered. One of the most outstanding examples of extra ordinary humanity in a human being has been portrayed beautifully by Mother Teresa. Humanity

Тамильский

மனிதநேயத்தை மனிதனாகக் கருதலாம்; மனிதனின் விசித்திரமான தன்மை, இதன் மூலம் அவர் மற்ற உயிரினங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபடுகிறார். மனிதனாக இருப்பது என்பது ஒரு மனிதனுக்கு மனிதநேயம் உண்டு என்று அர்த்தமல்ல. ஒரு தனிநபரில் மனிதகுலத்தின் தரத்தை நீங்கள் புரிந்து கொள்ள விரும்பினால், அவர்கள் வழங்கிய தயவுக்கு ஈடாக குறிப்பைக் கொடுக்கும் நபர்களுக்காக அவர் என்ன செய்கிறார் என்பதைக் கவனியுங்கள். ஒரு மனிதனில் கூடுதல் சாதாரண மனிதகுலத்தின் மிகச் சிறந்த எடுத்துக்காட்டுகளில் ஒன்று அன்னை தெரசா அழகாக சித்தரிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. மனித நேயம்

Последнее обновление: 2020-01-24
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Английский

FIRST AND BEST QUALITY.Budget Beauty Effective Hair Removal Powder Natural Depilation Easy Hair Removal Powder - Removes Hair Safely And Gently.Natural and permanent solution for unwanted hair. Natural and permanent solution for unwanted hair. PONNATHARAM is the best for removing unwanted hair in our body. A PERFECT HAIR REMOVAL PRODUCT – Budget Beauty hair removal powder is one of the most effective and high-quality hair removal products that have no side effects and skin irritation.NO IRRITATION AND PAIN - Known as a premium women's hair removal powder, Budget Beauty is an ideal depilatory product that leaves your skin smooth and silky. It allows you to have hair removal at home without burning a hole in your pocket.Hair removing powder removes even smallest hair from roots without giving any pain. It is a product that is worth investing in! It removes hair safely and gently. 100% satisfaction assured. Removing hair has become a growing concern for plenty of women around the globe! It helps them to stay clean and have a smooth and super soft skin for a longer period of time. Regardless of this fact, there are boatloads of girls out there who are scared and hesitated to use depilatory products for an array of reasons. If you are someone who is seeking an ideal product that can take all the hassles out of your hair removal concern, then this is a perfect pick. Budget Beauty is an effective and premium quality powder for hair removal that removes hair safely and gently!

Тамильский

ponnatharam

Последнее обновление: 2019-10-10
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

google translaWhat is Taekwondo? Tae Kwon Do (also known as Taekwondo) is the art of self defense that originated in Korea. It is recognized as one of the oldest forms of martial arts in the world, reaching back over 2,000 years. The name was selected for its appropriate description of the art: Tae (foot), Kwon (hand), Do (art). Tae Kwon Do in the United States The introduction of Tae Kwon Do in the United States began during the 1950’s when a handful of pioneering master instructors travelled to America to spread the art. Throughout the next few decades Tae Kwon Do grew in popularity, not only as a martial art, but as an international sport. In 1973, Korea hosted the first Tae Kwon Do World Championships. In that same year, the World Tae Kwon Do Federation was established as the international governing body for the sport aspects of Tae Kwon Do. Today the WTF counts 120 separate countries as its members, representing 20 million practitioners. These numbers earn Tae Kwon Do the distinction of being the most practiced martial art in the world. Tae Kwon Do first gained acceptance as an Olympic sport when it appeared as a demonstration event in the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. Tae Kwon Do became a full medal sport competition beginning in 2000 at the Sydney Olympics. History of Tae Kwon Do One of the earliest clues of Tae Kwon Do’s existence is a mural painted on the wall of a tomb that was built in the Korean kingdom of Koguryo, between 37 BC and 66 AD. The drawing shows two unarmed figures facing each other in a Tae Kwon Do style stance. Additional drawings in the tomb show figures performing blocks and wearing uniforms similar to those used in modern day Tae Kwon Do training. The advancement of Tae Kwon Do and its techniques developed as the country of Korea developed. There are examples and history of Tae Kwon Do training in virtually all the records of the different kingdoms that existed within the country throughout the centuries. The highest form of the ancient art was achieved in the kingdom of Silla. This tiny kingdom constantly faced attacks and opposition from larger and stronger areas. As a result the ruler of the kingdom, King Jin Heung, established an elite group of warriors called the “Hwarang” or “Flower of Youth”. The Hwarang consisted of the sons of nobles within the kingdom. They were carefully selected and formally trained in all aspects of military skills including unarmed combat, which at the time was known as Tae Kyon. It is significant that the Hwarang were taught not only the importance of developing their bodies, but their minds and spirits as well. In addition to fighting techniques, the young warriors were instructed in history, poetry, and philosophy. The entire body of study was known as Hwarang Do. The Hwarang gained skills not only for battle, but for daily life. This relates directly to modern Tae Kwon Do training, which provides self defense skills as well as improved character, self-discipline, and confidence that can be applied to any task. Following the Silla dynasty came the Koryo dynasty (935 AD - 1352 AD) from which Korea takes its name. Martial arts practice, known as Subak Do, became popular as an organized sport with detailed rules. The royal family sponsored competitions and demonstrations, and martial arts became deeply rooted in Korean culture.ter

Тамильский

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Последнее обновление: 2016-09-12
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters Introduction Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’. He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father. The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform. Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore, Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to Christianity in Bengal. Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from 63 64 very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for himself in the field of art and poetry. The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man. There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new vision of the poet about life. i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of nature which is full of human significance. ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for his definition of beauty. iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality that its real significance is discovered. Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in the west which makes a brute of a man. After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life, Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by 65 the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent Moon and Chitra. Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility proved to be the theme. 2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of ‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition. In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such 66 thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established – even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage. Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral, in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison – house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of union. India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man, man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had 67 become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in undisturbed union with God. We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense. 2.3 Soul consciousness The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man – it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle of unity that there is in every man. All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that 68 transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great ‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition. Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God and gives rise to the earnest prayer, ‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69 expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as the supreme one. 2.4 The problem of Evil The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is. We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach, whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to distinguish between what we immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments, purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being, that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great; very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all. Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain 70 appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable. The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy. NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays ,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’ (1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now (1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ; thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the 71 extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and exact . In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings ,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and at the same time ,his travel narrative

Тамильский

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

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How Cyclone Hudhud got its name Soutik Biswas Delhi correspondent • 11 October 2014 • From the section India Image caption Hudhud in Arabic refers to the hoopoe bird Did you know Cyclone Hudhud, expected to hit India's south-eastern coast on Sunday afternoon, was "born" in Oman? We are talking about the name of the cyclone, not the storm itself. The cyclone itself originated in the north Andaman sea in the Bay of Bengal and is now hurtling towards Andhra Pradesh and Orissa states. The name Hudhud in Arabic refers to the Hoopoe bird. Hurricanes and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic have had their own names since 1953, a convention begun by Miami's National Hurricane Centre and maintained and updated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a Geneva-based agency of the United Nations. But naming came to South Asia and the Middle East only recently. It was just too controversial to do the same around the North Indian Ocean For years cyclones that originated in the north Indian ocean were anonymous affairs. Image caption In the days before 2004, cyclones in the North Indian ocean were nameless One of the reasons, according to Dr M Mahapatra, who heads India's cyclone warning centre, was that in an "ethnically diverse region we needed to be very careful and neutral in picking up the names so that it did not hurt the sentiments of people". But finally in 2004 they clubbed together and agreed on their favourite names That was when an international panel on tropical cyclones led by the WMO sat down and decided to name their cyclones as a committee in the spirit of co-operation and consensus. Eight countries - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Sri Lanka and Thailand - took part. They came up with a list of 64 names - eight names from each country - for upcoming cyclones. Image caption Cyclone Phailin is described as the biggest storm in the region for 14 years The list goes alphabetically, according to each country. The last cyclone in the region was Nanauk in June, a name contributed by Myanmar. Names can be suggested by the general public in the member country or by the government. India, for example, welcomes suggestions on the condition that the name must be "short and readily understood when broadcast, not culturally sensitive and not convey some unintended and potentially inflammatory meaning". "A storm causes so much death and destruction that its name is considered for retirement and hence is not used repeatedly," a statement by India's weather office says. So this time, following the alphabetical order, it is Oman's turn Last year, Phailin, the name for a massive cyclone which battered India's south-eastern coast and led to the evacuation of more than 500,000 people, was provided by Thailand. Some of the Indian names in the queue are the more prosaic Megh (Cloud), Sagar (Ocean) and Vayu (Wind). Image caption A cyclone approaching Muscat in Oman, several years ago - but not named by Oman The Hudhud, or hoopoe bird, is an exotic creature noticed for its distinctive crown of feathers and is widespread in Europe, Asia and North Africa. Next time a cyclone hits the region, it's Pakistan's turn to give it a name It will be called Nilofar. Last time Pakistan named a cyclone was Nilam in November 2012. The names will not dry up anytime soon. Dr Mahapatra says Hudhud is possibly the 34th name of the list, which means there are 30 more in the queue. The panel of cyclone experts meets every year, and they will be replenishing the list whenever the need arises. It's not that the list of 64 names has been without controversy Cyclone Mahasen, which hit in 2013 and was named by Sri Lanka, was changed to Viyaru after protests by nationalists and officials in Sri Lanka. They said Mahasen was a king who had brought peace and prosperity to the island, and it was wrong to name a calamity after him. Nevertheless, it is important to name cyclones, say experts Image caption The Hudhud in flight - Oman's choice for a cyclone name A name helps people and the media to identify each cyclone and become more aware of its implications. It also does not confuse people if there is more than one tropical cyclone brewing in the region. And these cyclones often prove to be deadly - their names resonate for a very long time.

Тамильский

காடை, பறவை

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Английский

Television is one of the latest inventions of our age. The word “television” is a combination of two words: “tele” (distance) and “vision” (to see) thus it means to see from a distance. In fact it is an improved form of radio. It was invented by John logie Baird in 1920s, at that time; only pictures from a low distance were showed on television. But gradually different modifications were made with time. And now television is in its most advanced form. Now we can also use television as computer and can use internet on it.

Тамильский

நன்மைகள் மற்றும் தொலைக்காட்சி கட்டுரை, தீமைகள்

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Английский

The Banyan tree is one of the most magical trees – not only in the way its aerial roots create an astounding structure, but also in the properties that each and every part of the tree holds. It is one of the few elements in nature which is useful in every single aspect. This is the reason that the Banyan tree is the National tree of India. One of the largest trees named the Great Banyan can be found Kolkata in India. It is said to be over two hundred and fifty years old. Another such tree can be found in Bangalore and has a spread of over 2 acres. Here’s an interesting fact about this tree: Originally from India, this tree received its name from the Banias or Indian traders who sat below the tree shades. Village meetings and other useful gatherings would also take place in its shade, thereby giving it its name. In Indian culture, the Banyan tree is considered to be sacred and leaves of the tree is considered to be the resting place of god Krishna. In fact, it is also believed that Buddha achieved enlightenment while sitting under a Banyan tree. There are various uses of the Banyan tree. From medicinal to recreational – there’s no part of life in which this tree doesn’t aid humanity. Medical uses of banyan leaves Let’s have a look at some of the multiple uses the Banyan tree has… The Banyan tree is still used as a source of shade in many villages. Each and every part of this tree has its own unique medical uses. The bark and seeds can be used as a tonic to maintain body temperature and treat diabetes. The roots can be used to strengthen your teeth and gums by brushing with them. The sap treats external skin bruising and inflammation. Skin disease treatment is also possible with some properties of Banyan tree. Shellac has a large number of roles in making adhesive and surface finishes. Using the bark of the tree, paper can be created. Fiber can also be made from the bark of the tree in order to create ropes. Women from the Indo-Nepal region crush the prop root to paste and apply it to their hair. This keeps hair healthy and shiny The wood is soft and often used as firewood. Even the leaves are useful and are used as natural biodegradable plates to serve food on. - See more at: http://blog.janoindia.com/the-many-uses-of-the-banyan-tree/#sthash.FjeZxejJ.dpuf

Тамильский

The Banyan tree is one of the most magical trees – not only in the way its aerial roots create an astounding structure, but also in the properties that each and every part of the tree holds. It is one of the few elements in nature which is useful in every single aspect. This is the reason that the Banyan tree is the National tree of India. One of the largest trees named the Great Banyan can be found Kolkata in India. It is said to be over two hundred and fifty years old. Another such tree can be found in Bangalore and has a spread of over 2 acres. Here’s an interesting fact about this tree: Originally from India, this tree received its name from the Banias or Indian traders who sat below the tree shades. Village meetings and other useful gatherings would also take place in its shade, thereby giving it its name. In Indian culture, the Banyan tree is considered to be sacred and leaves of the tree is considered to be the resting place of god Krishna. In fact, it is also believed that Buddha achieved enlightenment while sitting under a Banyan tree. There are various uses of the Banyan tree. From medicinal to recreational – there’s no part of life in which this tree doesn’t aid humanity. Medical uses of banyan leaves Let’s have a look at some of the multiple uses the Banyan tree has… The Banyan tree is still used as a source of shade in many villages. Each and every part of this tree has its own unique medical uses. The bark and seeds can be used as a tonic to maintain body temperature and treat diabetes. The roots can be used to strengthen your teeth and gums by brushing with them. The sap treats external skin bruising and inflammation. Skin disease treatment is also possible with some properties of Banyan tree. Shellac has a large number of roles in making adhesive and surface finishes. Using the bark of the tree, paper can be created. Fiber can also be made from the bark of the tree in order to create ropes. Women from the Indo-Nepal region crush the prop root to paste and apply it to their hair. This keeps hair healthy and shiny The wood is soft and often used as firewood. Even the leaves are useful and are used as natural biodegradable plates to serve food on. - See more at: http://blog.janoindia.com/the-many-uses-of-the-banyan-

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Английский

My favourite sports personality is Mahendra Singh Dhoni . He is an Indian Cricketer and the current captain of India's National Cricket Team . He has lead his Team to many wins . Mahendra Singh Dhoni was born in Ranchi, Bihar to Pan Singh and Devaki Devi . Dhoni is a right-handed Batsman and Wicket-keeper . Dhoni is one of the number of wicket-keepers who have come through the ranks of junior and India A cricket teams to represent the national team . M.S.Dhoni was contracted by the Chennai Super Kings for 1.5 Million USD. This made him the most expensive player in the IPL for the first season Auctions which was closely followed by Andrew Symonds Dhoni is the present captain of the Chennai Super Kings team. India scored 328 in 50 overs with Dhoni contributing 68 in their first match of 2006 against Pakistan . Dhoni was named the captain of India Twenty 20 squad for the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 held in South Africa in September 2007.India were crowned champions as Dhoni led the team to victory against Pakistan in a thrilling contest . He, then went on to become the ODI captain of the Indian team for the seven-match ODI series against Australia in September 2007.He made his debut as full-time Test captain of India during the fourth and final test against Australia at Nagpur in November 2008 replacing Anil Kumble who retired from cricket after the third test . India eventually won that Test thus clinching the series 2–0 and retained the Border-Gavasker Trophy . Dhoni had previously captained India on a stand-in basis against South Africa and Australia in 2008 and 2009 respectively. It was under his captaincy that India climbed to No. 1 in the ICC Test Rankings in December 2009. After that he managed to lead India in a series leveling world championship of Test against the South Africans in Feb 2010. As a result India managed No. 1 spot in the ICC Test Rankings . Dhoni was handed a 2 match ban from playing in the ODI series against Sri Lanka for the team's slow over-rate during the second one-dayer in Nagpur (18 December 2009) by ICC match referee Jeff Crowe .

Тамильский

கிரிக்கெட் எனக்கு பிடித்த வீரர் தோனி ஆகிறது

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Английский

Telugu (English pronunciation: /ˈtɛlʉɡuː/;[5] తెలుగు telugu, IPA: [t̪el̪uɡu]) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state,[citation needed] being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language. It is also spoken by significant minorities in the Andaman and Nicobar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry, and by the Sri Lankan Gypsy people. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India.[6][7] Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in India (74 million) (2001 Census),[8] thirteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide[9] and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[10] In loans from Sanskrit, Telugu retains some of its features that have subsequently been lost in some of its daughter languages such as Hindi and Bengali, especially in the pronunciation of some vowels and consonants.[11]

Тамильский

Telugu (English pronunciation: /ˈtɛlʉɡuː/;[5] తెలుగు telugu, IPA: [t̪el̪uɡu]) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state,[citation needed] being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language. It is also spoken by significant minorities in the Andaman and Nicobar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry, and by the Sri Lankan Gypsy people. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India.[6][7] Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in India (74 million) (2001 Census),[8] thirteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide[9] and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[10] In loans from Sanskrit, Telugu retains some of its features that have subsequently been lost in some of its daughter languages such as Hindi and Bengali, especially in the pronunciation of some vowels and consonants.[11]

Последнее обновление: 2015-06-28
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Английский

In the state capital of Johor Bahru, known as the southern gateway to Peninsular Malaysia, are attractions suck as the beautiful Istana Besar (Grand Palace); the Royal Abu Bakar Living Royal Museum; and the ornate 100-year old Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque with its sweeping view of the Straits of Johor; City Square; and the Orchid Valley. Visitors often flock to Johor Bahru for its food and varied shopping in the malls and the duty-free outlet. Johor is home to the famous Endau Rompin Park, an ancient rainforest rich in flora and fauna. Beautiful beaches can be found in Desaru, Teluk Ramunia, Tanjung Balau, and near th fishing town of Mersing, and at the Kota Tinggi waterfalls is a protected marine park, attract keen scuba divers, smokeless and natures lovers. Island hopping is fun among the islands, some of which are still untouched. Accommodation on the islands of Sibu, Rawa, Besar, Tengah and Tinggi range from resort to basic chalets. Near the border with Malacca lies the picturesque river town of Muar, known for beautiful sunsets and fresh seafood, and the legendary Gunung Ledang (Mt.Ophir), a centre for nature-based activities. Johor Buhru Johor Bahru is the State Capital, built in 1855 by the late sultanate after the tall of Malacca till the final destruction of the fort in 1587. The earth mount fort has since been restored. Royal Abu Bakar Museum (The Grand Palace Johor) This beautiful palace was commissioned by Sultan Abu Bakar who laid the foundation stone in 1864. One of the oldest buildings in Johor Bahru, The Grand Place has a cosmopolitan architecture with clear Anglo-Malay influence. Today the palace assumes an additional role as the Royal Abu Baker Museum, displaying treasures of the royal collection. MAWAR (Majlis Wanita Johor-Johor Ladies Council) The existing Mawar house was stored at a great cost to preserve the rich architectural design cum heritage of Johor. The completed building is a stunning yet functional structure blending well with the new majectic Mawar Building. The Royal Mausoleum The Royal Mausoleum has been the final resting place for Royalty of Johor. The Mausoleum is situated along Jalan Mahmoodiah. An area where one can't help but appreciate the serene and tranquil atmosphere befitting a resting place for eternity. The Mausoleum's architecture is one of a fine, unique and aesthetic design of yesteryears. Sultan Abu Bakar Monument This Monument, created in the seafront opposite the courthouse commemorates Sultan Abu Bakar, as the modern architect of Johor. Kota Tinggi Waterfalls The waterfalls are a favorite spot for picnics and relaxation. The water cascades 34 m down into a pool deep enough for swimming. Fully furnished chalets complete with cooking facilities are available for booking. Johor Lama Johor Lama (Old Johor) is a quiet village 19 kilometers from Kota Tinggi on the banks of the Johor River. However, after the fall of Melaka it became the royal capital of the Sultans of Johor until the final destruction of the town fort by the Portuguese in 1587. Mersing Mersing is a pleasant town known for its large bustling fishing fleet. It is also the setting-off point for a large number of islands in the South China Sea, including the well-known Pulau Tioman in the state of Pahang. The Mersing Boat Hire Association provides boats for inter-island travel or fishing. Pontian The Johor countryside is well cultivated with pineapples. Just an hour's drive from Johor Bahru city, the fishing village has a settlement of fisherman living on stilts by shore. The town is also the staging point for visitors going to Gunung Pulai for waterfall picnics, jungle trekking or mountain climbing. Muar This picturesque town is well-known for its delicious and inexpensive footstalls and restaurants. the tree-lined Tanjung is ideal for evening strolls. The waterfalls at the foot of Mount Ophir (Gunung Ledang) is accessible from Muar. JOTIC (Johor Tourist Information Center) JOTIC is a one-stop center for visitors to get a better understanding of Johor. Besides, the availability of informative print materials like brochures on Johor, there are shops selling various types of handicrafts, which are mostly Johor's very own. Occasionally, visitors are entertained with live cultural performances. Traditional food can also be savoured at the center's food court. Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque Officially opened by the late Sultan Ibrahim in 1890, this mosque is considered one of the finest in Malaysia. It took 8 years to complete at a cost of RM400,000. Its architectural design and setting atop a hill with sweeping view of the Straits of Johor makes this mosque a famed landmark. Sultan Ibrahim Building The massive building on Bukit Timbalan dominates the skyline of Johor Bahru. The Saracenic character and fine mosaic detail particularly of the Grand Hall make this one of the most interesting buildings in Johor Bahru. Istana Bukit Serene His Majesty The Sultan of Johor resides in this palace. Perched on high ground with a 350 m tower, the palace is a landmark to travelers coming from the north. It contains one of the most beautiful gardens in Johor and a private zoo. Lido Beach This sun-drenched beach of Johor Bahru, stretching over 7 km provides city tourists a variety of water adventures from canoeing, sailing to cruising. Pasir Gudang The Federation International Motorcycle (FIM) has given the honor to his circuit to host one of the legs of the World Motorcycle Championship in 1998.It is one of the only two legs to be held in Asia. Despite its international status, this circuit is open to any motorsport enthusiasts to sample the thrill and spill of the speed adventure. Desaru Desaru is Johor's most famous beach with its white sands and clear blue waters. Located near Singapore (About 1hr 15 min drive from Johor Bahru). Imagine fabulous resort filled with exhilarating experiences 365 days a year ! It's all here at Desaru Impian Resort. The first all-suite beachfront theme resort in Malaysia. A fully integrated lifestyle destination of international standards. 25 acres of fun, excitement and adventure; lush landscaping and recreational facilities Air Papan The beach is a popular picnic area. The annual "Pesta Air Papan" celebrated on 1st May draws thousands of people. Th

Тамильский

njuik

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Английский

The advent of Cloud computing as a new model of service provisioning in distributed systems, encourages researchers to investigate its benefits and drawbacks in executing scientific applications such as workflows. One of the most challenging problems in Clouds is workflow scheduling, i.e., the problem of satisfying the QoS of the user like deadline as well as minimizing the cost of workflow execution. An existing work QoS-based workflow scheduling algorithm based on a novel concept called Partial Critical Paths (PCP), which tries to minimize the cost of workflow execution while meeting a user-defined deadline. Today cloud provider’s mainly concentrate about the increasing their revenue. This will lead to the selfish behavior which may cause the QOS violation of cloud users. In the existing work, fault tolerance is not considered when the resources are failed to process the submitted tasks. The fault tolerance is achieved in the proposed by migrating the VM’s. The experimental results proves that the proposed work provides better result than the existing methodology.

Тамильский

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Последнее обновление: 2015-05-28
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Английский

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

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