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sontha vakyaluchrqgani. mudra

Телугу

sontha vakyaluchrqgani. ముద్ర

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Источник: Анонимно

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Kathak From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Kathak dancer Arushi Nishank performing at Lucknow Kathak Sansthan. Kathak is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance.[1] The origin of Kathak is traditionally attributed to the traveling bards of ancient northern India known as Kathakars or storytellers.[2] The term Kathak is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Katha which means "story", and Kathakar which means "the one who tells a story", or "to do with stories".[2][3] Wandering Kathakars communicated stories from the great epics and ancient mythology through dance, songs and music in a manner similar to early Greek theatre.[3] Kathak dancers tell various stories through their hand movements and extensive footwork, but most importantly through their facial expressions. Kathak evolved during the Bhakti movement, particularly by incorporating the childhood and stories of the Hindu god Krishna, as well as independently in the courts of north Indian kingdoms.[2][4] Kathak is found in three distinct forms, called "gharanas", named after the cities where the Kathak dance tradition evolved – Jaipur, Banaras and Lucknow.[5] While the Jaipur gharana focuses more on the foot movements, the Banaras and Lucknow gharanas focus more on facial expressions and graceful hand movements. Stylistically, the Kathak dance form emphasizes rhythmic foot movements, adorned with small bells (Ghungroo), and the movement harmonized to the music.[4][6] The legs and torso are generally straight, and the story is told through a developed vocabulary based on the gestures of arms and upper body movement, facial expressions, stage movements, bends and turns. The main focus of the dance becomes the eyes and the foot movements. The eyes work as a medium of communication of the story the dancer is trying to communicate. With the eyebrows the dancer gives various facial expressions.[4][7] The difference between the sub-traditions is the relative emphasis between acting versus footwork, with Lucknow style emphasizing acting and Jaipur style famed for its spectacular footwork.[4] Kathak as a performance art has survived and thrived as an oral tradition, innovated and taught and from one generation to another verbally and through practice.[8] It transitioned, adapted and integrated the tastes of the Mughal courts[9] in the 16th and 17th century particularly Akbar, was ridiculed and declined in the colonial British era,[10] then was reborn as India gained independence and sought to rediscover its ancient roots and a sense of national identity through the arts.[11][8] Part of a series on the Culture of India Ashoka Chakra.svg History People Languages[show] Mythology and folklore[show] Cuisine Religion Art[show] Literature[show] Music and performing arts[show] Media[show] Sport Monuments[show] Symbols[show] Flag of India.svg India portal vte Part of a series on Hinduism 1 Om.svg HindusHistory Origins[show] Main traditions[show] Deities[show] Concepts[show] Practices[show] Philosophical schools[show] Gurus, saints, philosophers[show] Texts[show] Society[show] Other topics[show] Glossary of Hinduism terms Aum Om red.svg Hinduism portal HinduSwastika.svg vte Contents 1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 History 2.1 Bhakti movement era 2.2 Mughal era 2.3 British Raj era 2.4 Post colonial era 3 Repertoire 3.1 Pure dance (Nritta) 3.2 Expressive dance (Nritya) 3.3 Costumes 4 Instruments 5 Music 6 Gharanas 7 Relationship with other art forms 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 11.1 Bibliography 12 External links Etymology and nomenclature The term Kathak is rooted in the Vedic term Katha (Sanskrit: कथा) which means "story, conversation, traditional tale".[2][4] Kathak refers to one of the major classical dance form primarily found in northern India, with a historical influence similar to Bharatanatyam in south India, Odissi in east India and other major classical dances found in South Asia.[4][12] It differs from the numerous folk dance forms found in north and other parts of the Indian subcontinent.[12] The Kathak dancers, in the ancient India, were traveling bards and were known as. Kathakas,[2] or Kathakar.[13][14] Kathak has inspired simplified regional variants, such as the Bhavai – a form of rural theatre focussing on the tales of Hindu goddesses (Shakti), and one which emerged in the medieval era, is presently found in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.[15] Another variant that emerged from ancient Kathak is Thumri.[16] History Performance arts and culture Let Nātya (drama and dance) be the fifth vedic scripture. Combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture and forward every art. — Nātyaśāstra 1.14–15[17][18] According to Mary Snodgrass, the Kathak tradition of India is traceable to 400 BCE.[19] The earliest surviving text with Kathak roots is the Natya Shastra,[19] attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[20][21] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[22] Kathak performance by Sharmila Sharma and Rajendra Kumar Gangani at the Guimet Museum (November 2007) The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[20][23] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathak.[20][24][25] Dance and performance arts, states this ancient Hindu text,[26] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[18][27] The 2nd century BC panels found in Bharhut show the dancers in a vertical stance with their arms' positions already suggesting today's Kathak movements. Most of the dancers have one arm near the ear in a ''pataka hasta'' (Mudra). In subsequent years, the hasta was lowered to the bust level.[28] The term Kathakas in the sense of "storytellers" appears in ancient Hindu texts, such as the Mahabharata:[2

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కుచిపుడి పదార్థం

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