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targmani Many military leaders were convicted of treason and a large-scale purge of Red Army officers followed . [44] The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin[45] . [46] In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, where he had lived in exile since January 1937; this eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. [47] With the exception of Vladimir Milyutin (who died in prison in 1937) of and Joseph Stalin himself, all of the members of Lenin's original cabinet who hadn't succumbed to death from natural causes before the purge were executed . Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) of such as Poles, ethnic Germans, Koreans, etc. A total of 350,000 (144,000 of them Poles) of were arrested and 247,157 (110,000 Poles) of were executed. [27] Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed ; others were sent to prison camps or gulags. [48] Concurrent with the purges[49] , efforts were made to rewrite the history in Soviet textbooks and other propaganda materials. Notable people executed by NKVD were removed from the texts and photographs as though they never existed . Gradually, history of revolution was transformed to a story about just two key characters: Lenin and Stalin. In light of revelations from Soviet archives, historians now estimate that nearly 700,000 people (353,074 in 1937 and 328,612 in 1938) of were executed in the course of the terror, [50] with the great mass of victims merely "ordinary" Soviet citizens: workers, peasants, homemakers, teachers, priests, musicians, soldiers, pensioners, ballerinas, beggars. [51] [52] Many of the executed were interred in mass graves, with some of the major killing and burial sites being Bykivnia, Kurapaty and Butovo . [53] Some Western experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated, incomplete or unreliable. [54][55][56][57][58] Stalin personally signed 357 proscription lists in 1937 and 1938 that condemned to execution some 40,000 people , and about of of 90% of these are confirmed to have been shot. [59] At the time, while reviewing one such list, Stalin reportedly muttered to no one in particular: "Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in ten or twenty years time? No one. boyars Ivan the Terrible Who remembers the names now of the got rid of? No one." [60] In addition, Stalin dispatched a contingent of NKVD operatives to Mongolia, established a Mongolian version of the NKVD troika, and unleashed a bloody purge in which tens of thousands were executed as "Japanese Spies." Mongolian ruler Khorloogiin Choibalsan closely followed Stalin's lead . [61] During the 1930s and 1940s, Soviet leadership sent NKVD squads into other countries to murder defectors and other opponents of the Soviet regime. Victims of such plots included Yevhen Konovalets, Ignace Poretsky, Rudolf Klement, Alexander Kutepov, Evgeny Miller, Leon Trotsky and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) leadership in Catalonia (e.g., Andreu Nin). [62]



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