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Engelska

Defence mechanisms

Hindi

प्रतिरोध विधि

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Engelska

Marathi Essay mechanisms Ter Nsti

Hindi

marathi essay-yantra nsti ter

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Engelska

Querying server for a list of supported authentication mechanisms.

Hindi

समर्थित सत्यापन यांत्रिकी के सूची के लिए सर्वर से पूछ रहा है

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SYLLABUS IC38 INSURANCE AGENTS (GENERAL BRANCH) SECTION I CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO INSURANCE: Life insurance – History and evolution - History of insurance - Insurance through the ages - Modern concepts of insurance - History of insurance in India - Life insurance industry - How insurance works - Risk management techniques - Risk avoidance - Risk retention - Risk reduction and control - Risk financing - Insurance vs Assurance - Insurance as a tool for managing risk - Considerations before opting for Insurance - Role of insurance in society - Insurance and Social Security. CHAPTER 2: CUSTOMER SERVICE: General concepts - Why Customer Service - Quality of service - Customer service and insurance - Insurance agent’s role in providing great customer service - The Point of Sale - Best advice - The proposal stage - Acceptance stage - The claim stage - Grievance redressal - Integrated Grievance Management System (IGMS) - The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 - The Insurance Ombudsman - Communication process - Non-verbal communication - Ethical behavior. CHAPTER 3: GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MECHANISM: Consumer courts, Ombudsman - Integrated Grievance Management System (IGMS) - The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 - The Insurance Ombudsman. CHAPTER 4: REGULATORY ASPECTS OF INSURANCE AGENT: DefinitionsAppointment of Insurance Agent by the Insurer- Appointment of Composite Insurance Agent by the insurer- Insurance Agency Examination- Disqualification to act as an Insurance Agent- Code of Conduct- Suspension of Appointment of an Agent- Procedure for Cancellation of Agency- Effect of suspension/cancellation of Agency appointment- Procedure to be followed in respect of resignation/surrender of appointment by an insurance agent- General conditions for appointment of Agents by the insurerCHAPTER 5: LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF AN INSURANCE CONTRACT: Insurance contracts – Legal aspects and special features - Legal aspects of an insurance contract - Elements of a valid contract - Insurance contracts – Special features - Uberrima Fides or Utmost Good Faith - Measures implemented to reduce the risk - Breach of Utmost Good Faith - Insurable interest - Gambling and insurance - Proximate Cause - Contract of Adhesion – Indemnity – Subrogation. SECTION 2 CHAPTER 6: PRINCIPLES OF INSURANCE: Elements of Insurance: – Definition – Exposure to risk - Degree of risk exposure - Basis of risk classification- Hazard - Types of hazards – Mathematical principle of insurance (Risk pooling) - Conditions for insuring a risk – The Insurance Contract – Insurance Contract legal aspects – Special Features –Indemnity – Uberrima Fides or Utmost Good Faith – Insurable interest – Proximate cause CHAPTER 7: DOCUMENTATION: Proposal forms – Roe of Role of intermediary - Duty of an intermediary towards prospect – Acceptance of the proposal – Premium receipt – Cover notes-Certificate of Insurance – Policy Document – Warranties – Endorsements – Interpretation of policies – Renewal notice CHAPTER 8: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PREMIUM RATING: – Underwriting basics – Definition – Rate making basics – Rating factors – Hazard – Moral Hazard – Physical hazard – Addressing physical hazards - Short Period scales – Minimum Premium - Sum Insured – Deciding the sum insured CHAPTER 9: PERSONAL AND RETAIL INSURANCE: HOUSEHOLDER’S INSURANCE: - Retail Insurance Products - Sum Insured and Premium - Shopkeeper’s Insurance - Sum Insured and Premium - Motor Insurance – Its coverages - ‘Third-Party Insurance’ - Exclusions - Sum Insured and Premium. CHAPTER 10: COMMERCIAL INSURANCE: PROPERTY / FIRE INSURANCE: - Variants of fire policy - Market Value or Reinstatement Value Policies - Declaration Policy - Floater Policies - Business Interruption Insurance – Coverages - Burglary Insurance - Risks covered under burglary insurance - Cash cover - Money Insurance - Coverage of Money Insurance - Important exclusions - Fidelity Guarantee Insurance - Bankers Indemnity Insurance - Jewelers’ Block Policy - Engineering Insurance - Types of engineering insurance policies - Marine Insurance - Marine Cargo Insurance - Different types of marine policies - Liability Policies - Statutory liability – Types of Liability Policies. CHAPTER 11: CLAIMS PROCEDURE: Claims Settlement process – Importance of settling claims - -limitations or notice of loss – Investigation and assessment – Surveyors and loss assessors – Claim forms – Loss assessment and claim settlement - Important Aspects in an insurance claims – categories of claim – Discharge vouchers – Post settlement action – Selvage – Recoveries – Disputes related to claims – Other disputes resolution mechanisms SECTION 3 CHAPTER 12: INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH INSURANCE: What is health care – Definition of Health Determinants of Health – Levels of Healthcare – Levels of health care – Types of health care – Factors affecting the health systems in India – Evaluation of health insurance in India – Employees State Insurance Scheme - Central Government health scheme – Commercial health insurance - Health Insurance Market – Infrastructure Public health sector - Private sector providers – Pharmaceutical industry – Insurance Providers – Intermediaries – Insurance selling activities – Insurance Servicing activities – financial product distribution – Other important organizations which form part of the health insurance market. CHAPTER 13: INSURANCE DOCUMENTATION: Proposal forms – Standard form of Declaration – Nature of questions in a proposal form - Elements of Proposal – Medical Questionnaire – Role of intermediary - Duty of an intermediary towards prospect (client) – Acceptance of the Proposal –(Underwriting) – Note on underwriting and processing of proposals – Premium receipts – Definition – Payment of premium in advance - Method of payment of premium – Policy Document - Conditions and warranties – Endorsements - Specimen Endorsements – Interpretation of policies – Renewal Notice – Anti –Money laundering and know your customer guidelines CHAPTER 14: HEALTH INSURANCE PRODUCTS: Classification of health insurance product – Introduction – Definition – Features of health policies – Broad classification of health insurance products – IRDA guidelines on standardization in health insurance – Hospitalization indemnity product – Top up covers or high deductible insurance plans – Senior citizen policy – fixed benefit covers – hospital cash – critical illness – hospital daily cash policy – critical illness policy – long term care insurance – combi-products – Package policies – Micro insurance and health insurance for poor sections – Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana - Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana - Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana – Personal accident and disability cover- overseas travel insurance – Group health cover – Special products – Key terns in health policies CHAPTER 15: HEALTH INSURANCE UNDERWRITING: What is Underwriting – Definition –need - Underwriting basic concepts – File and use guidelines – Other health insurance regulations of IRDAI – Basic Principles of Insurance and tools for underwriting -Underwriting process – Group health insurance – Underwriting of overseas travel insurance - Underwriting of personal accident insurance CHAPTER 16: HEALTH INSURANCE CLAIMS: Claims management in insurance – stakeholders in claim process – Role of claims management in insurance company - Management of health insurance claims – Challenges in health insurance – claims process in health insurance - Documentation of health insurance claims – Claims reserving – Role of third party administrators – Claims management –personal accident – overseas travel insurance

Hindi

गुोगल हिंद कोर्स योग्य नहीं है! आप पिछले परीक्षा वर्ष में विफल रहे हैं, आप चालू वर्ष में नियमित रूप से नहीं दिखाई दे सकते। कुंजी: संरक्षित

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Engelska

The dictionary meaning of robot is a mechanical man or a more than humanly efficient automation. It is an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost human intelligence. But this defamation does not give a human shape to the robot. The robot does the work of a human being. The Robot Institute of America has given a very interesting definition on an Industrial robot. Industrial robots are usually used at industries. "An Industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or special devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks". So, a robot is capable of being reprogrammed. This characteristic distinguishes it from a fixed automation. A fixed automation is designed to do one and only one specific task. If the specification of task changes even slightly the fixed automation becomes incapable of performing the task. It is designed to perform according to one fixed specification. However, a robot can be reprogrammed to perform even when specifications are changed drastically. The original programme is simply erased and the new programme takes care of the changed tasks. This feature that a robot can be reprogrammed makes the robot a flexible device. Hence, manufacturing systems which use robots are called flexible manufacturing system (FMS) due to this flexibility. Karle Capek was the first person to introduce the word 'robot' and Sir Isaac Asimov coined first time the word 'robotics'. According to Asimov, robotics is the science of dealing with robots. Hence robotics involves a scientific study of robots. The study includes design, selections of materials of proper quality for the components, fabrication, study of various motors required for moving the components, design of electronic circuits, computers and computer programming and control of robots. Since robots and robotics are still in the developing stages, a considerable amount of research is being pursued in this line. Depending on the area in which robots are to be used, robotics includes disciplines such as biology, medical science, psychology, agriculture, mining, outer space engineering etc. Mainly two types of robots are there, i.e. fixed robot and mobile robot. The fixed type robot is fixed to a particular location while doing his work with his hands. A mobile robot moves form place to place. Mobility is given to robots by providing wheels or legs or other crawling mechanisms. Basically robot has five major components such as, (a) The Manipulator, (b) The End effectors (c) The Locomotion Device (d) The Controller and (e) The Sensors. In a robot system, all the above five components are interfaced properly so that each component can work in a co-coordinated fashion for the effective and efficient functioning of the robot. In an industrial robot system, a mini computer is being used as the controller. Sensors are measuring instruments that measure quantities such as position, velocity, force, torque, proximity, temperature etc. Applications of Robots: Though robots are used widely in industries but they are also popular in other fields like agriculture, nuclear energy, fire fighting, mining, undersea exploration, space exploration, medical applications etc. (1) Industries: Use of robots in industries are very common because they can offer reduced cost of production, increase productivity, improve production quality, and can operate hazardous and hostile environment. Robots, at industries are classified according to the type of work they perform like Pick- and place robots, point-to-point robots, assembly robots etc. (2) Agriculture: In agriculture, robots are now successfully utilized for fruit picking, potato digging etc. (3) Nuclear energy: Handling of radioactive substances in a nuclear power station is an important work done by robots. This relieves the human beings from doing such hazardous tasks. (4) Fire fighting and mining: Robots can perform hazardous works like fire fighting to extinguish the fire and in mining operations. (5) Udersea exploration: Robot can go dip into the sea of depth 2 to 6 kilometers attached with submarine for deep sea exploration. SCARAB-such a robot, was used to retrieve the black-box of the ill-fated Air India Jumbo 'Kaminski'. (6) Space exploration: Robots are used widely in space exploration and space research. (7) Medical applications: Robots have been valuable in the areas of artificial replacement of missing parts of human body (Prosthetics) and providing exoskeletons (orthotics) on an invalid arm or leg

Hindi

हिंदी में रोबोट पर निबंध

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Engelska

google Zaleplon is a hypnotic which is drug that has the ability to cause sleep. It is indicated for use in patients that have difficulty falling asleep and is not indented to treat those who have difficulty staying asleep or who wake too early. It is different in chemical structure from benzodiazepines but acts at the same receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of anxiety, zaleplon and similar drugs are used almost exclusively for the treatment of insomnia. In the United States and many other countries, Zaleplon is marketed as Sonata by King Pharmaceuticals. In Canada, zaleplon was sold under the brand name Starnoc however it was taken from the market; the reasons for this discontinuation are not clear. Zaleplon is available in some countries as Hegon, Zalep, Zaplon, or Zerene. The patent on Sonata began to expire on June 6, 2008 and King Pharmaceuticals does not have exclusivity as listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. More on zaleplon. Sonata is available in 5 mg and 10 mg dosages; however, physicians sometimes prescribe a 20 mg treatment (two 10 mg capsules). Clinical safety studies were conducted using doses as high as 60 mg. Zaleplon is indicated for short term treatment of insomnia, that is, insomnia that is corrected by seven to ten days of treatment. The FDA has approved use of zaleplon for up to 30 days. Zaleplon is known to cause CNS depression and its affects are relatively rapid. Zaleplon causes sedation and sleep within one hour of administration therefore it should only be taken before bed and never before any activity that requires alertness. Like benzodiazepines, alcohol use can potentiate the CNS depressant effects and alcohol should not be consumed while taking zaleplon. Of note, zaleplon is potentially habit forming and dependency may occur. Once the drug is discontinued, one may experience rebound insomnia simply because the medicine has been taken away. Because of its sedative and euphoric effects, zaleplon may be abused i.e. used for non-medical, illegal reasons. NIH Information on Zaleplon Zolpidem Zolpidem is sedative-hypnotic medicine that is used to treat short-term insomnia. Its chemical structure is different than benzodiazepines but exerts its sedative affect by acting on so-called benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Zolpidem does not have the same disruptive effects on sleep as benzodiazepines. Zolpidem is marketed in the United States as Ambien but is known commercially by many other names worldwide. (The Guardian reports that 5.3 million people in England alone take zolpidem.) Ambien is available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and the maximum and usual treatment dose is 10 mg. This medication should not be taken with alcohol as excessive CNS depression can occur. There is also a potential for dependence and abuse with zolpidem. The most common side effects were headache, sleepiness and dizziness. A less common side effect is the "zombie" effect - unusual behavior while asleep. Ambien is sold by Sanofi Aventis although at least 13 companies manufacture and sell a generic version of the rapid-acting form of zolpidem. Sanofi Aventis has extended the commercial viability of this drug by patenting and selling a CR or Controlled Release formulation. The CR formulation combines both a rapid-acting form and a slow-release form in a layered pill. According to the manufacturers, this allows a person suffering from insomnia to achieve sleep, from the rapid-acting component, and stay asleep, from the slow-acting component. Importantly, the chemical structure of the drug is the same in both the fast and slow layers, however the slow release layer contains a proprietary mixture of inactive ingredients that delays absorption and prolongs the hypnotic effect. Ambien CR is available in 6.25 and 12.5 mg strengths. NIH Information on Zolpidem. Triazolam Triazolam is related in structure to benzodiazepines but is of a slightly different class than classic benzodiazepines such as Ativan and Valium. Despite this subtle structural difference, triazolam achieves its biological effect by acting at benzodiazepine receptors in various regions of brain. Triazolam is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia and should not be used for longer than three consecutive weeks. In clinical studies, triazolam was able to decrease sleep latency (you get to sleep faster), increase the duration of sleep and decrease the number of times people with insomnia wake during the night. Triazolam was originally branded as Halcion; however there is no longer patent protection or exclusivity on this brand. It is still manufactured and sold as Halcion by Pharmacia and Upjohn yet generic versions exist. Triazolam is available in 0.125 and 0.25 mg tablets and a single dose of either strength is usually sufficient for uncomplicated insomnia. The maximum dose per day should not exceed 0.5 mg. Caution should be taken in elderly patients and they should receive lower doses. The most common side effects were drowsiness, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, difficulty with coordination and nausea/vomiting. Ramelteon Ramelteon was introduced as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America. Rozerem is indicated for treatment of the type of insomnia that is interferes with sleep onset. Ramelteon is rather unique among commonly prescribed sleep aids in that it is unrelated to benzodiazepines in both its chemical structure and its mechanism of action. Rozerem binds with high affinity (strongly) to two of the three main melatonin receptors in the brain. Melatonin is a hormone that is present naturally in humans. Melatonin is also available without a prescription as an OTC sleep aid. According to Takeda, Rozerem’s affinity and selectivity for specific melatonin receptors make it a more effective sleep aid and less likely to cause side effects than non-prescription melatonin. Because it does not interact with benzodiazepine receptors, ramelteon is essentially without risk of abuse and is therefore not a controlled substance. Clinical studies have shown that ramelteon does not cause physical dependence or rebound insomnia. Ramelteon is available in 8 mg tablets though it occasionally prescribed as two 8 mg tablets to be taken 30 thirty minutes prior to the desired onset of sleep. The most common side effects are drowsiness and dizziness. More on ramelteon. Ramelteon is under patent to Takeda until March 6, 2017. Eszopiclone Eszopiclone is marketed as Lunesta by Sepracor Inc. for the treatment of insomnia. Lunesta is under patent until 2012 with exclusivity until December 15, 2009. Eszopiclone is available in 1, 2 and 3 mg film-coated tablets. The precise mechanism of action of eszopiclone as a hypnotic is unknown, but it most likely interacts with benzodiazepine receptors. Because of this interaction, eszopiclone is a controlled substance and there is potential for abuse of the drug. Unlike zaleplon, zolpidem and triazolam which are only prescribed for up to three to four weeks, Lunesta has been approved by the FDA for long term use (greater than six months). Long-term trials showed that Lunesta did not cause tolerance meaning that patients did not need larger doses to obtain the same effect. Lunesta is touted as superior to competing medications since it not only initiates sleep but also prevents nighttime waking. The most common side effects of Lunesta include an unpleasant taste or dry mouth, dizziness, headache, cold symptoms and drowsiness. Serious side effects of eszopiclone, while rare, include sleep walking/driving, abnormal thoughts, memory loss, anxiety and allergic reactions. These rare and serious side effecttransleter

Hindi

गूगल transleter

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Engelska

visthapan ke symasya Infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. This Article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. The authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. It reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions. Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities. Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. It is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under Article 21. The founding fathers of the Constitution, under Article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. However, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement. Also, the Article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects. In the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of NPRR, 2007. Introduction "Being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1. Development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.Natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. One common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. It is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." However, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. Pt. J.L. Nehru said 'If you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2. Indigenous People and Tribal Disproportionately Affected Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. The Scheduled Tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. Development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3 Impact of Displacement Forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .Some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. Landlessness 2. Joblessness 3. Homelessness 4. Marginalization. 5. Food Insecurity. 6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality 7. Loss of Access to Common Property. 8. Social Disintegration.5 Development- Displacement and Environment In achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. Various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. The large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. Big Dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. The pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. No wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. It is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late. Human Rights Challenges That Arise in Relation to Development-Induced Displacement There is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. Human rights thus have to be considered independently. In 1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development7. The heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. The Human rights that are affected : Right To Life The right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. The right to life is protected in the UDHR (Article 3) and the ICCPR (Article 6)8. In Indian context, The Supreme Court in Ollega Tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of Article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. Right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9. Moreover, Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."And so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment. Right to own Property The rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. The right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the UDHR Articles 17 as well as in Article 6 of the ICESCR. Rights To Residence The eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. Article 19(e) of the Indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right. All these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. Indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12. Defects in Compensation, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy For the Government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. It's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? Moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. The limited provisions in the Land Acquisition Act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. Even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the Land Acquisition took their cases to court. The value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. The LAA thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession. The ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. However, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. What is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the Project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment. The Ethics of Development Induced Displacement and Rehabilitation (Didr) In dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? Under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? Is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? If so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees? According to Peter Penz,13 Three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. The public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. The self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. In its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. The egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. Theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group. As Penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. He concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. They include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. Unfortunately, in most cases of DIDR, these conditions have been violated. International and National Organisation and Policies Over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. Some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are: • The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. • The OECD's Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects, 1992. • World Bank's Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement. • United Nations and Other International Organizations- Different agencies of UN work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement. a. The Representative of the Secretary-General on IDPs The report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the Guiding Principles on protection against displacement. b. Internal Displacement Unit Using the Guiding Principles as an overall framework, the Unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement c. World Food Program The essential condition for the provision of WFP food is the food insecurity of displaced people. d. UN Development Programme UNDP in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations. e. UN-Habitat The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world. Recommendations Ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. Following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development : 1. States should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities. 2. States should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction. 3. Sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all State projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site. 4. The State must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property. 5. Resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law. 6. States should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16. 7. To make new Law on rehabilitation and change the LAA (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. Rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the LAA (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition. 8. The very basis of the Land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Special Provisions for the Scheduled Castes / Tribes and weaker sections. The effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. The issue of Displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. To conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.

Hindi

visthapan Ke symasya

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Engelska

On some of the trucks, the front seats may have a defect in the reclining mechanism.

Hindi

कुछ ट्रकों में फ्रंट सीट घुमाने की प्रणाली में एक कमी हो सकती है।

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Engelska

Authentication mechanism is too weak

Hindi

सत्यापन यांत्रिकी काफी कमजोर है

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

Encryption required for requested authentication mechanism

Hindi

निवेदित सत्यापन यांत्रिकी के लिये गोपन की आवश्यकता है

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

Mechanism

Hindi

यांत्रिकी

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

No SASL mechanism was specified

Hindi

कोई SASL व्यवस्था निर्दिष्ट नहीं किया गया

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

The specified mechanism is not supported by the provided credential, or is unrecognized by the implementation.

Hindi

दिये गये श्रेय के द्वारा निर्दिष्ट यांत्रिकी समर्थित नहीं है, या कार्यान्वयन के द्वारा अपरिचित है.

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

Unable to connect to POP server %s: No support for requested authentication mechanism.

Hindi

POP सर्वर %s से जोड़ने में विफल: निवेदित सत्यापन यांत्रिकी के लिए कोई समर्थन नहीं.

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-20
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Engelska

"Health effects of smoking" redirects here. For health effects of smoking cannabis, see Effects of cannabis#Smoked. For health effects of smoking crack cocaine, see Crack cocaine#Health issues. The health effects of smoking are the circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human health. Epidemiological research has been focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking,[1] which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption.[2] Tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally.[3] Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart, liver and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis), and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancer). It also causes peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. The effects depend on the number of years that a person smokes and on how much the person smokes. Starting smoking earlier in life and smoking cigarettes higher in tar increases the risk of these diseases. Also, environmental tobacco smoke, or secondhand smoke, has been shown to cause adverse health effects in people of all ages.[4] Cigarettes sold in underdeveloped countries tend to have higher tar content, and are less likely to be filtered, potentially increasing vulnerability to tobacco-related disease in these regions.[5] The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[6] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[7] Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[8] Several countries have taken measures to control the consumption of tobacco with usage and sales restrictions as well as warning messages printed on packaging. Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause many genetic mutations. There are more than 45 known or suspected chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke.[9] Tobacco also contains nicotine, which is a highly addictive psychoactive drug. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine causes physical and psychological dependency. Tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus such as premature births and low birth weight and increases by 1.4 to 3 times the chance for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).[10] The result of scientific studies done in neonatal rats seems to indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke in the womb may reduce the fetal brain's ability to recognize hypoxic conditions, thus increasing the chance of accidental asphyxiation.[11] Incidence of impotence is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers,[12] and is a key factor causing erectile dysfunction (ED).

Hindi

धूम्रपान स्वास्थ्य के लिए और अपने परिवार के लिए हानिकारक है

Senast uppdaterad: 2014-06-03
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