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Indonesiska

Liburan semesterku lalu hanya di rumah saja. meski begitu aku tetap senang karena aku bisa menghabiskan waktu liburanku bersama keluarga. bukan hanya itu aku juga bisa lebih sering untuk membantu orang tuaku. karena jika ak sekolah aku jarang membantu orang tuaku. aku membantu mencuci piring,menyiram bunga,menyapu,menyetrika,mencuci pakaian dan menemani ibuku ke pasar.

Engelska

My semester vacation then just at home. even so I'm still happy because I can spend my vacation time with family. not only that I also can more often to help my parents. because if I go to school I rarely help my parents. I helped wash dishes, flush flowers, sweep, iron, wash clothes and accompany my mother to the market.

Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-25
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Indonesiska

Liburan semester 1 telah tiba waktunya untuk melupakan UKBM sejenak. Mungkin setiap orang berlibur dengan caranya sendiri. Tetapi beda denganku aku hanya berdiam diri dirumah ya bersihkan rumah, makan, tidur. Itulah aktivitas yang aku jalani dirumah, tapi aku berifkir kenapa tidak jalan jalan aja di dekat saja seperti di lippo, transmart. Kalian tau sendiri la di Jember ada yang baru yaitu transmart. Orang orang berbondong bondong untuk datang di transmart. Mungkin untuk aku sendiri cuman mau main saja. Selama liburan pun aku berfikir untuk mengerjakan UKBM semester 2 tapi.. Aku ingat ternyata ada tugas yang harus dikerjakan pula selama liburan jadi ya disela sela liburan aku tetap mengerjakan sesuatu, bukan UKBM si tetapi tugas ekskul lain. Itula aktivitas yang aku jalani selama liburan ini bagaimana dengan kalian tentu saja liburannya di luar kota

Engelska

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Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-13
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Indonesiska

pada liburan semester kemarin aku sangat senang karena dapat liburan bersama teman-teman. Liburan itu menurutku sangat menyenangkan.Liburan kami pergi ke Tulungagung dan Trenggalek, kami berangkat kesana naik mini bus dan berangkat saat adzan subuh. Diperjalanan banyak temanku yang mabuk perjalanan termasuk aku sendiri, karena perjalanan kami jauh dan melelahkan. Tetapi untungnya ada temanku yang baik sekali dia yang mengobatiku sampai perjalanan pulang. Disepanjang perjalanan aku hanya tidur karena kepalaku pusing akibat mabuk perjalanan.Saat kami turun dan menuju tempat wisata temanku tadi selalu menjagaku. Disana dia membelikan aku es krim dan rambutan aku sangat senang. Kami tidak lupa menyempatkan diri untuk foto bersama yang dapat dijadikan kenangan-kenangan. Kami selalu tertawa bersama dan banyak bercerita. Tidak terasa hari sudah mulai sore kami semua bersiap-siap untuk pulang. Kami semua tertidur pulas karena sudah sangat capek tapi juga menyenangkan. Liburan kemarin sangat menyenangkan dan akan menjadi momen indah saat kita lulus dari sekolah nanti, akan selalu banyak kenangan yang tertinggal.

Engelska

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Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-14
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Indonesiska

Pengalaman saat liburanSetelah penerimaan laporan hasil ujian semester 1 , seluruh sekolah di indonesia mengadakan liburan semester(libur sekolah) seluruh siswa, murid, dan pelajar merasa senang. Hari libur ini pastilah dimanfaatkan oleh banyak orang untuk menyegarkan diri dengan berlibur ke tempat-tempat indah. Tetapi, tidak dengan saya, saat libur semester ini, inilah yang saya tunggu, tetapi bukan untuk bersenang-senang,tetapi hari dimana saya harus meringankan beban orang tua saya. Dari saya mulai sudah bisa merasakan apa yang dilakukan oleh orang tua saya sehari-hari,setiap liburpun tidak saya gunakan untuk, berlibur, atau menghambur-hamburkan uang tanpa ada manfaatnya sama sekali. Libur semester inipun,tidak jauh beda dengan libur-libur sebelumnya, saya tetap melakukan aktivitas seperti yang dilakukan ayah saya sehari-harinya, seperti bertani. Pengalaman yang paling berkesan saat libur semester ini adalah pada awal libur, hari demi hari yang hanya saya lakukan ialah pergi bertani dengan ayah saya, bahkan dalam satu hari,10-12 jam itulah yang saya gunakan untuk bertani,mulai dari jam 06.00-17.00 atau 07.00-18.00 WIB. Tetapi yang paling spesial adalah saya dapat berkumpul dengan keluarga saya yang lengkap, tepatnya saat kuliah kakak saya libur, iapun pulang dan keluarga saya pun terasa lebih lengkap dan tidak ada perasaan kurang.

Engelska

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Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-17
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Varning: Innehåller osynlig HTML-formatering

Indonesiska

Liburan semester lalu saya diajak Kakak saya ke jakarta

Engelska

Last semester vacation I'm asked my Kaka to jakarta

Senast uppdaterad: 2017-03-21
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Indonesiska

Liburan semester lalu saya diajak Kaka saya ke jakarta

Engelska

Last semester vacation I'm asked my Kaka to jakarta

Senast uppdaterad: 2017-03-21
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Indonesiska

Di liburan akhir semester saya menghabiskan liburan dengan saudara saya

Engelska

At the end of the semester holiday I spent my holidays with my brother

Senast uppdaterad: 2017-01-09
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Indonesiska

2 minggu yang lalu liburan semester telah usai, saya menghabiskan liburan di rumah. Saya membantu kedua orang tua saya seperti menyapu, cuci piring, cari rumput dan kasih makan kelinci dan kambing. Capek itu pasti tapi saya mengerjakannya dengan senang. Dengan demikian liburan saya tidak sia-sia hanya untuk bermain kesana kemari menghabiskan uang. Saya di rumah belajar dan berpikir bahwa mengurus rumah dan cari rumput tidak semudah yang saya bayangkan pada malam tahun baru kemarin saya hanya jalan-jalan sebentar kemudian pulang. Tepat jam 12 malam banyak suara kembang api dimana-mana, kemudian saya sholat malam bersama ibu saya. Saya berdo'a semoga di tahun 2017 ini saya bisa menjadi pribadi yang lebih baik lagi dari tahun lalu dan apa yang saya cita-citakan tercapai. Aminn!!

Engelska

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Senast uppdaterad: 2017-01-04
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Indonesiska

Hundreds of parents thronged the Jakarta Education Agency'€™s office in Kuningan, South Jakarta, to report problems with the online school registration system on Friday. During their visit to the agency'€™s office, the parents expressed their dissatisfaction with the online system, which according to them was disorganized and made it difficult for them to register their children for enrollment in public schools. Riki Setyanto, one of the parents, said that he had registered his daughter for enrollment at state vocational high school SMKN 47 Jakarta but she then got rejected due to the minimum height policy applied by the state-run school. However, he added, his daughter was also turned down after she registered at a different school because her name was still listed for SMKN 47 Jakarta. '€œFirst my daughter was rejected because of her height, and now due to technical issues, she can'€™t register at any school. I just want to get her into a good school,'€ he said, adding that he hoped the agency could solve the problems as soon as possible. Nuraisyah Paransa, another parent, also said that she was unable to register her son at any state-run high school due to similar technical problems. She said that her son was initially accepted at a public East Jakarta school through the public admission phase. However, he did not re-register with that school as he wanted to shoot for a better state-run school through the local admission phase. '€œBut the second school rejected him because it said that he had been accepted through the public admission phase. Since my son did not re-register at the first school, now he isn'€™t registered anywhere,'€ she said. The online registration system has been applied in the capital since 2004. No such problems occurred with the previous registration system. This year'€™s student admission system has three phases: public admission, where students vie for seats with other students throughout the country; local admission, where students compete with others in the same province; and third admission, where students who did not get accepted during first and second admission resubmit their applications. Lasro Marbun, head of the Jakarta Education Agency, said that anyone who did not re-register in the public admission phase and was unable to register during local admission or third admission, could register their children at private schools. '€œThey can then transfer them to a public school in the second semester,'€ he said on Thursday as quoted by kompas.com. However, Rida Afrida, who wanted to register her son at state junior high school SMP 194, did not agree with that idea. According to her, a lot of people have chosen public schools over private schools for financial reasons. '€œI cannot pay for a private school, if he thinks that is a good alternative for us, he should just give us the money to pay for those schools,'€ she said. Meanwhile, acting Jakarta governor Basuki '€œAhok'€ Tjahaja Purnama said that the parents should be patient and not panic.

Engelska

Hundreds of parents thronged the Jakarta Education Agency'€™s office in Kuningan, South Jakarta, to report problems with the online school registration system on Friday. During their visit to the agency'€™s office, the parents expressed their dissatisfaction with the online system, which according to them was disorganized and made it difficult for them to register their children for enrollment in public schools. Riki Setyanto, one of the parents, said that he had registered his daughter for enrollment at state vocational high school SMKN 47 Jakarta but she then got rejected due to the minimum height policy applied by the state-run school. However, he added, his daughter was also turned down after she registered at a different school because her name was still listed for SMKN 47 Jakarta. '€œFirst my daughter was rejected because of her height, and now due to technical issues, she can'€™t register at any school. I just want to get her into a good school,'€ he said, adding that he hoped the agency could solve the problems as soon as possible. Nuraisyah Paransa, another parent, also said that she was unable to register her son at any state-run high school due to similar technical problems. She said that her son was initially accepted at a public East Jakarta school through the public admission phase. However, he did not re-register with that school as he wanted to shoot for a better state-run school through the local admission phase. '€œBut the second school rejected him because it said that he had been accepted through the public admission phase. Since my son did not re-register at the first school, now he isn'€™t registered anywhere,'€ she said. The online registration system has been applied in the capital since 2004. No such problems occurred with the previous registration system. This year'€™s student admission system has three phases: public admission, where students vie for seats with other students throughout the country; local admission, where students compete with others in the same province; and third admission, where students who did not get accepted during first and second admission resubmit their applications. Lasro Marbun, head of the Jakarta Education Agency, said that anyone who did not re-register in the public admission phase and was unable to register during local admission or third admission, could register their children at private schools. '€œThey can then transfer them to a public school in the second semester,'€ he said on Thursday as quoted by kompas.com. However, Rida Afrida, who wanted to register her son at state junior high school SMP 194, did not agree with that idea. According to her, a lot of people have chosen public schools over private schools for financial reasons. '€œI cannot pay for a private school, if he thinks that is a good alternative for us, he should just give us the money to pay for those schools,'€ she said. Meanwhile, acting Jakarta governor Basuki '€œAhok'€ Tjahaja Purnama said that the parents should be patient and not panic. '€œWe had no problems last year. The process might be a little complicated but there'€™s no reason to panic,'€ Ahok told reporters at City Hall

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-10-12
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Indonesiska

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Think Pair Share pada siswa kelas VII H SMP Negeri 20 Bandarlampung semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016 dapat memunculkan disposisi representasi matematis siswa.

Engelska

Based on the research results, the conclusion that the application of the cooperative learning model types Think Pair Share in grade VII H SMP Negeri 20 even-numbered year semester lesson Bandarlampung 2015/2016 could bring a mathematical representation of the disposition of the students.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-02
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Indonesiska

Dengan pertimbangan yang sama, saya bisa saja dipecat dan (atau) dipecat pada setiap akhir semester.

Engelska

Due to the same constraints I'm fired and re hired (or not) at the end of every semester.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

Dan universitas tidak pernah mau peduli terhadap pertimbangan saya: mereka tidak pernah mau peduli jika saya sakit atau ada keperluan mendesak, dan ketika hamil, kontrak saya untuk semester mendatang tidak diperpanjang.

Engelska

But the university doesn't care about my constraints: I'm not entitled to call in sick or any other basic social rights for that matter, and when I was pregnant the university refused to renew my contract for the next semester.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

Dan mereka akan mengabarkan tentang kepastian program berjalan hanya satu minggu sebelum semester baru dimulai dan sebelum itu saya tetap tidak mendapat kepastian apakah saya akan mendapatkan gaji untuk bulan mendatang.

Engelska

Due to these constraints I often get notified about my course's opening only a week before the semester starts, and until than I am left wondering if I will have a salary for the next few months.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

Lembaga tersebut menghapus hukuman fisik di tiap sekolah mulai semester musim gugur ini dan tengah mempertimbangkan untuk mendirikan ‘Peraturan Hak Azasi Murid’ guna melindungi hak dasar para murid yang sering diacuhkan.

Engelska

It declared a full-out abolition of corporal punishment in every school starting from this coming fall semester and is considering enacting a ‘Student’s Human Rights Regulation’ to protect student's basic rights which customarily ignored.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

Saya juga bisa merekomendasikan dosen-dosen kepada teman-teman agar mengikuti kelas mereka, agar para dosen tersebut bisa mendapatkan pekerjaan tetap di semester mendatang.

Engelska

I might also be able to recommend my teachers to other students knowing that they have a steady job and will be there for sure the next semester.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

Kami sudah 5 minggu tidak menerima bayaran, dan tidak ada kepastian soal semester depan, tapi kami tetap mengharapkan tempat ini menjadi tempat bekerja yang bisa diandalkan.

Engelska

We're not getting paid for 5 weeks now, the future of this semester is unclear but we look into the future hoping for a secure and rewarding workplace.

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-02-24
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Indonesiska

simple past pada liburan sekolah semester 1, saat minggu pertama saya berlibur dirumah dengan kegiatan keseharian saya membersihkan kamar, lalu membantu pekerjaan ibu dirumah bersama adik saya. Saya yang mencuci piring dan adik yang menyapu lantai. Walaupun terkadang saya lupa untuk mencuci piring . Lalu setelah minggu kedua saya berlibur kerumah bibi saya,disana saya dapat berlibur ke pantai,kebun binatang dan yang paling berkesan di cagar Alam karena dapat melihat serta melakukan cara menanam berbagai buah-buahan. Setelah itu karena liburan akan segera berakhir, saya pulang dan mempersiapkan peralatan sekolah.

Engelska

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Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-11
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Indonesiska

Liburan semester ganjil kali ini saya tidak berliburkemana-mana, Mungkin kegiatan yang saya lakukan padasaat liburan hampir sama dengan kegiatan saya sehari-hari. Misalnya membantu orang tua, nonton tv, chatting,dan jika ada waktu senggang saya luangkanwaktu untuk belajar, meskipun hanya sebentar,Saya biasanya `Chatting` dengan teman-teman ataudengan salah satu guru disekolah,tetapo Saya jarang`Chatting` dengan teman-teman saya,Selain `Chatting`saya juga mempunyai aktivitas lainnya seperti membantuibu saya memasak, selain membantu memasak disitusaya juga bisa belajar cara memasak

Engelska

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-10
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Referens: Anonym
Varning: Innehåller osynlig HTML-formatering

Indonesiska

simple past tNama saya adalah pinky faradila.. Teman-teman saya biasanya memanggil saya kiki. Saya dilahirkan di mataram baru pada tanggal 10 september 1996. Saya anak kedua dari tiga bersaudara.. Dulu saya bersekolah di Tk Xaverius srimenanti setelah saya lulus dari tk ,saya melanjutkan ke SD Kristen no 4 srimenanti waktu SD saya termasuk anak pintar ,saya mengikuti banyak perlombaan dalam bidang matematika hingga memenangkan ke tingkat provinsi, setelah saya lulus dari sd saya melanjutkan ke SMP negri 1 bandar srbhawono masa sekolah saya ,aku lalui dengan menyenangkan,kemudia setelah saya lulus smp saya melanjutkan Sma ke Sman 9 bandar lampung akan tetapi hanya setahun saya bersekolah di sman 9 saya harus pindah ke batam karena orang tua saya pindah kerja ke Batam,sehinggga saya melanjutkan sma kelas 2 saya di sma kartini batam . Masa sma saya adalah masa yang menurut saya paling indah karena dulu saya sring melakukan hal hal yang menyenangkan,dan mempunyai teman yang sangat asik. Setelah saya lulus dari Sma saya melanjutkan kuliah di Jurusan Farmasi Univeristas Surabaya akan tetapi ,saya hanya menjalani pendidikan saya selama 1 semester,kemudian saya memutuskan untuk mengundurkan diri karena saya merasa bahwa kuliah di farmasi bukanlah passion saya jadi dari pada melanjutkan hal yang salah ,saya memutuskan untuk berhenti dan kembali kebatam Di batam saya bekerja,kemudian di tahun 2015 saya memutuskan untuk kembali kuliah dengan mengambil jurusan lain yaitu jurusan manajemen di universitas Riau kepulauan, Sekarang disibukan dengan kuliah sambal bekerja,demikian ]

Engelska

simple past tense

Senast uppdaterad: 2015-11-07
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Indonesiska

10 easy ways to fail a Ph.D. [article index] [email me] [@mattmight] [+mattmight] [rss] The attrition rate in Ph.D. school is high. Anywhere from a third to half will fail. In fact, there's a disturbing consistency to grad school failure. I'm supervising a lot of new grad students this semester, so for their sake, I'm cataloging the common reasons for failure. Read on for the top ten reasons students fail out of Ph.D. school. Focus on grades or coursework No one cares about grades in grad school. There's a simple formula for the optimal GPA in grad school: Optimal GPA = Minimum Required GPA + ε Anything higher implies time that could have been spent on research was wasted on classes. Advisors might even raise an eyebrow at a 4.0 During the first two years, students need to find an advisor, pick a research area, read a lot of papers and try small, exploratory research projects. Spending too much time on coursework distracts from these objectives. Learn too much Some students go to Ph.D. school because they want to learn. Let there be no mistake: Ph.D. school involves a lot of learning. But, it requires focused learning directed toward an eventual thesis. Taking (or sitting in on) non-required classes outside one's focus is almost always a waste of time, and it's always unnecessary. By the end of the third year, a typical Ph.D. student needs to have read about 50 to 150 papers to defend the novelty of a proposed thesis. Of course, some students go too far with the related work search, reading so much about their intended area of research that they never start that research. Advisors will lose patience with "eternal" students that aren't focused on the goal--making a small but significant contribution to human knowledge. In the interest of personal disclosure, I suffered from the "want to learn everything" bug when I got to Ph.D. school. I took classes all over campus for my first two years: Arabic, linguistics, economics, physics, math and even philosophy. In computer science, I took lots of classes in areas that had nothing to do with my research. The price of all this "enlightenment" was an extra year on my Ph.D. I only got away with this detour because while I was doing all that, I was a TA, which meant I wasn't wasting my advisor's grant funding. Expect perfection Perfectionism is a tragic affliction in academia, since it tends to hit the brightest the hardest. Perfection cannot be attained. It is approached in the limit. Students that polish a research paper well past the point of diminishing returns, expecting to hit perfection, will never stop polishing. Students that can't begin to write until they have the perfect structure of the paper mapped out will never get started. For students with problems starting on a paper or dissertation, my advice is that writing a paper should be an iterative process: start with an outline and some rough notes; take a pass over the paper and improve it a little; rinse; repeat. When the paper changes little with each pass, it's at diminishing returns. One or two more passes over the paper are all it needs at that point. "Good enough" is better than "perfect." Procrastinate Chronic perfectionists also tend to be procrastinators. So do eternal students with a drive to learn instead of research. Ph.D. school seems to be a magnet for every kind of procrastinator. Unfortunately, it is also a sieve that weeds out the unproductive. Procrastinators should check out my tips for boosting productivity. Go rogue too soon/too late The advisor-advisee dynamic needs to shift over the course of a degree. Early on, the advisor should be hands on, doling out specific topics and helping to craft early papers. Toward the end, the student should know more than the advisor about her topic. Once the inversion happens, she needs to "go rogue" and start choosing the topics to investigate and initiating the paper write-ups. She needs to do so even if her advisor is insisting she do something else. The trick is getting the timing right. Going rogue before the student knows how to choose good topics and write well will end in wasted paper submissions and a grumpy advisor. On the other hand, continuing to act only when ordered to act past a certain point will strain an advisor that expects to start seeing a "return" on an investment of time and hard-won grant money. Advisors expect near-terminal Ph.D. students to be proto-professors with intimate knowledge of the challenges in their field. They should be capable of selecting and attacking research problems of appropriate size and scope. Treat Ph.D. school like school or work Ph.D. school is neither school nor work. Ph.D. school is a monastic experience. And, a jealous hobby. Solving problems and writing up papers well enough to pass peer review demands contemplative labor on days, nights and weekends. Reading through all of the related work takes biblical levels of devotion. Ph.D. school even comes with built-in vows of poverty and obedience. The end brings an ecclesiastical robe and a clerical hood. Students that treat Ph.D. school like a 9-5 endeavor are the ones that take 7+ years to finish, or end up ABD. Ignore the committee Some Ph.D. students forget that a committee has to sign off on their Ph.D. It's important for students to maintain contact with committee members in the latter years of a Ph.D. They need to know what a student is doing. It's also easy to forget advice from a committee member since they're not an everyday presence like an advisor. Committee members, however, rarely forget the advice they give. It doesn't usually happen, but I've seen a shouting match between a committee member and a defender where they disagreed over the metrics used for evaluation of an experiment. This committee member warned the student at his proposal about his choice of metrics. He ignored that warning. He was lucky: it added only one more semester to his Ph.D. Another student I knew in grad school was told not to defend, based on the draft of his dissertation. He overruled his committee's advice, and failed his defense. He was told to scrap his entire dissertaton and start over. It took him over ten years to finish his Ph.D. Aim too low Some students look at the weakest student to get a Ph.D. in their department and aim for that. This attitude guarantees that no professorship will be waiting for them. And, it all but promises failure. The weakest Ph.D. to escape was probably repeatedly unlucky with research topics, and had to settle for a contingency plan. Aiming low leaves no room for uncertainty. And, research is always uncertain. Aim too high A Ph.D. seems like a major undertaking from the perspective of the student. It is. But, it is not the final undertaking. It's the start of a scientific career. A Ph.D. does not have to cure cancer or enable cold fusion. At best a handful of chemists remember what Einstein's Ph.D. was in. Einstein's Ph.D. dissertation was a principled calculation meant to estimate Avogadro's number. He got it wrong. By a factor of 3. He still got a Ph.D. A Ph.D. is a small but significant contribution to human knowledge. Impact is something students should aim for over a lifetime of research. Making a big impact with a Ph.D. is about as likely as hitting a bullseye the very first time you've fired a gun. Once you know how to shoot, you can keep shooting until you hit it. Plus, with a Ph.D., you get a lifetime supply of ammo. Some advisors can give you a list of potential research topics. If they can, pick the topic that's easiest to do but which still retains your interest. It does not matter at all what you get your Ph.D. in. All that matters is that you get one. It's the training that counts--not the topic. Miss the real milestones Most schools require coursework, qualifiers, thesis proposal, thesis defense and dissertation. These are the requirements on paper. In practice, the real milestones are three good publications connected by a (perhaps loosely) unified theme. Coursework and qualifiers are meant to undo admissions mistakes. A student that has published by the time she takes her qualifiers is not a mistake. Once a student has two good publications, if she convinces her committee that she can extrapolate a third, she has a thesis proposal. Once a student has three publications, she has defended, with reasonable confidence, that she can repeatedly conduct research of sufficient quality to meet the standards of peer review. If she draws a unifying theme, she has a thesis, and if she staples her publications together, she has a dissertation. I fantasize about buying an industrial-grade stapler capable of punching through three journal papers and calling it The Dissertator. Of course, three publications is nowhere near enough to get a professorship--even at a crappy school. But, it's about enough to get a Ph.D. Related posts • Recommended reading for grad students. • The illustrated guide to a Ph.D. • How to get into grad school. • Advice for thesis proposals. • Productivity tips for academics. • Academic job hunt advice. • Successful Ph.D. students: Perseverance, tenacity and cogency. • The CRAPL: An open source license for academics. 3 qualities of successful Ph.D. students: Perseverance, tenacity and cogency [article index] [email me] [@mattmight] [+mattmight] [rss] Every fall, a fresh crop of Ph.D. students arrives. Since I'm actively looking for Ph.D. students, I get the same question a dozen times every year: "How long does it take to get a Ph.D.?" This isn't the right question. "Ph.D. school takes as long as you want it to," I tell them. There's no speed limit on how fast you can jump through all the hoops. A better question to ask is, "What makes a Ph.D. student successful?" Having watched Ph.D. students succeed and fail at four universities, I infer that success in graduate school hinges on three qualities: perseverance, tenacity and cogency. If you're in Ph.D. school or you're thinking about it, read on. What doesn't matter There's a ruinous misconception that a Ph.D. must be smart. This can't be true. A smart person would know better than to get a Ph.D. "Smart" qualities like brilliance and quick-thinking are irrelevant in Ph.D. school. Students that have made it through so far on brilliance and quick-thinking alone wash out of Ph.D. programs with nagging predictability. Let there be no doubt: brilliance and quick-thinking are valuable in other pursuits. But, they're neither sufficient nor necessary in science. Certainly, being smart helps. But, it won't get the job done. Moreover, as anyone going through Ph.D. school can tell you: people of less than first-class intelligence make it across the finish line and leave, Ph.D. in hand. As my advisor used to tell me, "Whenever I felt depressed in grad school--when I worried I wasn't going to finish my Ph.D.--I looked at the people dumber than me finishing theirs, and I would think to myself, if that idiot can get a Ph.D., dammit, so can I." Since becoming a professor, I finding myself repeating a corollary of this observation, but I replace "getting a Ph.D." with "obtaining grant funding." Update: Within a month of writing that last line, I was awarded my first three grants. Perseverance To escape with a Ph.D., you must meaningfully extend the boundary of human knowledge. More exactly, you must convince a panel of experts guarding the boundary that you have done so. You can take classes and read papers to figure out where the boundary lies. That's easy. But, when it comes time to actually extend that boundary, you have to get into your bunker and prepare for the onslaught of failure. A lot of Ph.D. students get depressed when they reach the boundary, because there's no longer a test to cram for or a procedure to follow. This is the point (2-3 years in) where attrition peaks. Finding a problem to solve is rarely a problem itself. Every field is brimming with open problems. If finding a problem is hard, you're in the wrong field. The real hard part, of course, is solving an open problem. After all, if someone could tell you how to solve it, it wouldn't be open. To survive this period, you have to be willing to fail from the moment you wake to the moment your head hits the pillow. You must be willing to fail for days on end, for months on end and maybe even for years on end. The skill you accrete during this trauma is the ability to imagine plausible solutions, and to estimate the likelihood that an approach will work. If you persevere to the end of this phase, your mind will intuit solutions to problems in ways that it didn't and couldn't before. You won't know how your mind does this. (I don't know how mine does it.) It just will. As you acquire this skill, you'll be launching fledgling papers at peer reviewers, checking to see if others think what you're doing qualifies as research yet. Since acceptance rates at good venues range between 8% and 25%, most or all of your papers will be rejected. You just have to hope that you'll eventually figure out how to get your work published. If you stick with it long enough and work at it hard enough, you will. For students that excelled as undergraduates, the sudden and constant barrage of rejection and failure is jarring. If you have an ego problem, Ph.D. school will fix it. With a vengeance. (Some egos seem to recover afterward.) This phase of the Ph.D. demands perseverance--in the face of uncertainty, in the face of rejection and in the face of frustration. Tenacity To get a tenure-track professorship after Ph.D. school, you need an additional quality: tenacity. Since there are few tenure-track faculty positions available, there is a fierce (yet civil) competition to get them. In computer science, a competitive faculty candidate will have about 10 publications, and 3-5 of those will be at "selective" or "Tier 1" venues (crudely, less than 33% acceptance rate). A Ph.D. by itself won't even get you a job interview anymore. There are few good reasons to get a Ph.D. "Because you want to become a professor" might be the only good one. Ironically, there's a good chance you won't realize that you want to be a professor until the end of grad school. So, if you're going to do Ph.D. school at all, do it right, for your own sake. To become professor, you can't have just one discovery or solve just one open problem. You have to solve several, and get each solution published. As you exit graduate school, an arc connecting your results should emerge, proving to faculties that your research has a profitable path forward. You will also need to actively, even aggressively, forge relationships with scholars in your field. Researchers in your field need to know who you are and what you're doing. They need to be interested in what you're doing too. None of that is going to happen by itself. Cogency Finally, a good Ph.D. student must have the ability to clearly and forcefully articulate their ideas--in person and in writing. Science is as much an act of persuasion as it is an act of discovery. Once you've made a discovery, you have to persuade experts that you've made a legitimate, meaningful contribution. This is harder to do than it seems. Simply showing experts "the data" isn't going to work. (Yes, in a perfect world, this would be sufficient.) Instead, you have to spoon-feed the experts. As you write, you have to consciously minimize the amount of time and cognitive pain it takes for them to realize you've made a discovery. You may have to go "on tour" and give engaging presentations to get people excited about your research. When you give conference talks, you want them eagerly awaiting the next episode. You will have to write compelling abstracts and introductions that hook the reader and make her feel like investing time in your work. You will have to learn how to balance clarity and precision, so that your ideas come across without either ambiguity or stifling formality. Generally, grad students don't arrive with the ability to communicate well. This is a skill that they forge in grad school. The sooner acquired, the better. Unfortunately, the only way to get better at writing is to do a lot of it. 10,000 hours is the magical number folks throw around to become an expert at something. You'll never even get close to 10,000 hours of writing by writing papers. Assuming negligible practice writing for public consumption before graduate school, if you take six years to get through grad school, you can hit 10,000 hours by writing about 5 hours a day. (Toward the end of a Ph.D., it's not uncommon to break 12 hours of writing in a day.) That's why I recommend that new students start a blog. Even if no one else reads it, start one. You don't even have to write about your research. Practicing the act of writing is all that matters. Translations • Portuguese. Related posts • How to get into grad school. • Productivity tips for academics. • Recommended reading for grad students. • Academic job hunt advice.

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