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他加禄语

lithosphereThe word lithosphere is derived from the word sphere, combined with the Greek word lithos, meaning rock . The lithosphere is the solid outer section of Earth, which includes Earth's crust (the "skin" of rock on the outer layer of planet Earth), as well as the underlying cool, dense, and rigid upper part of the upper mantle. The lithosphere extends from the surface of Earth to a depth of about 44–62 mi (70–100 km). This relatively cool and rigid section of Earth is believed to "float" on top of the warmer, non-rigid, and partially melted material directly below. Earth is made up of several layers. The outermost layer is called Earth's crust. The thickness of the crust varies. Under the oceans , the crust is only about 3–5 mi (5–10 km) thick. Under the continents, however, the crust thickens to about 22 mi (35 km) and reaches depths of up to 37 mi (60 km) under some mountain ranges. Beneath the crust is a layer of rock material that is also solid, rigid, and relatively cool, but is assumed to be made up of denser material. This layer is called the upper part of the upper mantle, and varies in depth from about 31–62 mi (50–100 km) below Earth's surface. The combination of the crust and this upper part of the upper mantle, which are both comprised of relatively cool and rigid rock material, is called the lithosphere. Below the lithosphere, the temperature is believed to reach 1,832°F (1,000°C), which is warm enough to allow rock material to flow if pressurized. Seismic evidence suggests that there is also some molten material at this depth (perhaps about 10%). This zone which lies directly below the lithosphere is called the asthenosphere , from the Greek word asthenes, meaning weak. The lithosphere, including both the solid portion of the upper mantle and Earth's crust, is carried "piggyback" on top of the weaker, less rigid asthenosphere, which seems to be in continual motion. This motion creates stress in the rigid rock layers above it, forcing the slabs or plates of the lithosphere to jostle against each other, much like ice cubes floating in a bowl of swirling water . This motion of the lithospheric plates is known as plate tectonics , and is responsible for many of the movements seen on Earth's surface today including earthquakes, certain types of volcanic activity, and continental drift.

英语

lithosphereThe word lithosphere is derived from the word sphere, combined with the Greek word lithos, meaning rock . The lithosphere is the solid outer section of Earth, which includes Earth's crust (the "skin" of rock on the outer layer of planet Earth), as well as the underlying cool, dense, and rigid upper part of the upper mantle. The lithosphere extends from the surface of Earth to a depth of about 44–62 mi (70–100 km). This relatively cool and rigid section of Earth is believed to "float" on top of the warmer, non-rigid, and partially melted material directly below. Earth is made up of several layers. The outermost layer is called Earth's crust. The thickness of the crust varies. Under the oceans , the crust is only about 3–5 mi (5–10 km) thick. Under the continents, however, the crust thickens to about 22 mi (35 km) and reaches depths of up to 37 mi (60 km) under some mountain ranges. Beneath the crust is a layer of rock material that is also solid, rigid, and relatively cool, but is assumed to be made up of denser material. This layer is called the upper part of the upper mantle, and varies in depth from about 31–62 mi (50–100 km) below Earth's surface. The combination of the crust and this upper part of the upper mantle, which are both comprised of relatively cool and rigid rock material, is called the lithosphere. Below the lithosphere, the temperature is believed to reach 1,832°F (1,000°C), which is warm enough to allow rock material to flow if pressurized. Seismic evidence suggests that there is also some molten material at this depth (perhaps about 10%). This zone which lies directly below the lithosphere is called the asthenosphere , from the Greek word asthenes, meaning weak. The lithosphere, including both the solid portion of the upper mantle and Earth's crust, is carried "piggyback" on top of the weaker, less rigid asthenosphere, which seems to be in continual motion. This motion creates stress in the rigid rock layers above it, forcing the slabs or plates of the lithosphere to jostle against each other, much like ice cubes floating in a bowl of swirling water . This motion of the lithospheric plates is known as plate tectonics , and is responsible for many of the movements seen on Earth's surface today including earthquakes, certain types of volcanic activity, and continental drift. Last Update:2016-02-21 Subject: Science Quality: Excellent

最后更新: 2016-02-21
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他加禄语

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (/ˈrʌdjərd ˈkɪplɪŋ/ RUD-yəd KIP-ling; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)[1] was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and stories for children. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old.[2] Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888).[3] His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story;[4] his children's books are enduring classics of children's literature; and one critic described his work as exhibiting "a versatile and luminous narrative gift".[5][6] Kipling was one of the most popular writers in England, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[4] Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius (as distinct from fine intelligence) that I have ever known."[4] In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize, and its youngest recipient to date.[7] Among other honours, he was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, all of which he declined.[8] Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age[9][10] and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.[11][12] George Orwell called him a "prophet of British imperialism".[13] Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: "He [Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with."[14]pamatnubay

英语

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (/ˈrʌdjərd ˈkɪplɪŋ/ RUD-yəd KIP-ling; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)[1] was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and stories for children. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old.[2] Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888).[3] His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story;[4] his children's books are enduring classics of children's literature; and one critic described his work as exhibiting "a versatile and luminous narrative gift".[5][6] Kipling was one of the most popular writers in England, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[4] Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius (as distinct from fine intelligence) that I have ever known."[4] In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize, and its youngest recipient to date.[7] Among other honours, he was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, all of which he declined.[8] Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age[9][10] and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.[11][12] George Orwell called him a "prophet of British imperialism".[13] Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: "He [Kipling] is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with."[14]

最后更新: 2015-01-08
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