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僧伽罗语

Lights off!

英语

Lights off!

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

Get off me!

英语

Get off me!

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

Phone was off.

英语

My mistake.

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

you can peel a man's face right off.

英语

I hear if you get too sunburnt, you can peel a man's face right off.

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

හැම යන්ත්‍රයකටම "off" ස්විච් එකක් තියනව.

英语

Every machine has an off switch.

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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警告:包含不可见的HTML格式

僧伽罗语

සම්පීඩන මට්ටම (0=off, 10=max):

英语

Compression Level (0=off, 10=max):

最后更新: 2014-08-20
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僧伽罗语

Whichever part I get hold off, මම ඉරල වෙන්කරනව මස් කිලො 5ක්.

英语

Whichever part I get hold off, I rip off five kilos of flesh.

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

ArroW 3x20 The Fallen විකාශය වූ දිනය April 22, 2015 English Subtitles == sync, corrected by elderman ==

英语

♪ Arrow 3x20 ♪ The Fallen Original Air Date on April 22, 2015

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

If we can get the telegram off now, it will catch them before they leave.

英语

If we can get the telegram off now, it will catch them before they leave.

最后更新: 2016-10-27
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僧伽罗语

1) Rules regarding its Preparation Firstly to decide which team is going to be blessed with the very first strike of the game, a trick is used by umpires. One of the players is asked to hide the piece in one hand while other is given a chance to guess. Whoever wins is given choice to give a start to the game as per his wishes. He may get the first strike and start his mission of pocketing his color pieces or may rest the other player with the first strike. Afterward, the queen is placed in the centremost part of the board which is then surrounded by six more pieces all around. The leftover 12 pieces are then positioned around six pieces placed earlier. The pieces in both the inner and outer circles must have an alternative arrangement of black and white pieces. Both the circles are adjusted in the manner that player playing the first gets white pieces placed in both the circle that lie in a straight line for a player with the first strike. 2) Rules regarding Score In accordance with international carrom rules, a game to win is all about making either 25 points or 6 boards, whichever is accomplished first. The team or player successful in pocketing all their pieces is rewarded with points equal to the number of pieces remaining on the board of the opponent team. The winning team is given 3 more points if it has a queen too. A player loses the board or 3 points if he pockets his last coin before the queen. Similarly, if a player accidentally or even unintentionally coins, the other player’s pieces are imposed a penalty of 3 points. 3) Rules regarding Striking It is mandatory for the players to place the striker in between the baseline or players also have a choice of placing the striker over the two circles at both ends of baseline towards his edge. A striker should touch both, front line and the rear line. The striker should not cut the moon. Rather can share its position partially with baseline and partially with the moon. Striker is to be flicked with one of the fingers and should cross the font baseline. The player can flick only in front. Back or horizontal flick of strikers is not permitted in the game of carrom. While striking, the player’s hand or arm must not surpass the four diagonal lines situated on both sides of the baseline. Carrommen located behind the front baseline shouldn’t be struck by the striker. The player can target the pieces behind the front baseline with a redirected strike. 4) Fouls The player is imposed with a penalty of losing one of his coins pocketed earlier and placing it back on the board. The pieces given back to the game out of foul is to be placed by the opponent team. The opponent team may take advantage of positioning the carrom men as per his benefit. Rules regarding Carrom foul Striker slides into the hole Any piece or striker falls off the board. A player pockets the carrom men of the opponent team. A player pockets the last coin of a challenging team before the queen is covered. In this case, irrespective of the queen, the challenging team is under liability to return the piece along with a penalty apiece. A player commits the breach striking rules. A player touches any piece other than a striker. The first player turns out to be unsuccessful in breaking the counters even in three attempts. A penalty is considered to be owed in the case when a player doesn’t have any piece and the player commits foul. Whenever the piece is pocketed, it is to be returned to the game by the opponent. In case the opponent team forgets to charge the penalty and place it on the board, the owned penalty is nullified further and cannot be charged afterward. 5) Rules regarding Carrom Queen The queen can be pocketed by either of the player posts he nets one of his pieces. To pocket the queen, it is necessary for a player to cover it. The one who succeeds in covering the queen is awarded the queen’s point. Queen holds three points however black and white coins carry 1 point each. The player goes on to win the board on covering the queen successfully. If a player gets all his carrom men pocketed and the other player is still left with some carrom men, the board gets over. Winner procures extra points equal to the value of carrom men left of the losing player. The points of queen go with the player who pockets it, no matter he loses or wins. If a player successfully pockets queen and striker in one strike, the player is then supposed to place the queen and two of his earlier carrom men in the center of the game. Also if the player covers the queen with the striker, then he is supposed to pay a penalty of a queen plus two carrom men back to the game. The player afterward continues to play. The same is the case when a queen and opponent team’s piece is pocketed by the player. The player will be given a penalty to return the queen, and two of his carrom men.  If in a case a player has due without having a single carrom man, then the first carrom man pocketed will be submitted back to the board and the player will go on with the strike. In this case, the player can go on to secure the queen and cover it. Assume if only one piece of each player is remaining on the board with queen and the player having the strike pockets, the queen is succeeded by the opponent’s piece then. The opponent team wins the board and is given points equal to pieces left at the board. In the case when a player gets the queen and the carrom man in a hole in a single strike, the queen is well thought-out to be covered. 6) Rules regarding Scoring In last, the winner gets a 1 point score for each piece of opponent remaining on the board. The winner gets a bonus of 5 points if he has less than 24 points and a well-covered queen. When the winner bags 24 points or more, no points are given to him for covering the queen. The highest score of a game is therefore 14 points and a match is played to the limit of 29 points. d) Aim of players Whether playing with two players or in doubles, every player gets his turn to strike the pieces with the striker. The player who succeeds in putting in the hole all his color pieces actually wins. Add the values of pieces to know who has actually won the game. The game cannot end until the queen is not stroked down to holes but it has to be covered with another coin immediately after being pocketed by the same player. The player who successfully covers the queen can add the queen to his collection. In case of a failure in pocketing a piece after the queen, the player is supposed to return the queen to the board. A player who wins the queen gets a bonus point too. Queens are normally referred to as game-changers. e) Doubles Carrom when played by four with each sitting behind the four edges of the board, the game is said to be doubled. The players sitting opposite are considered as partners. The turn to strike is given in clockwise order. Apart from the number of players, all rules of singles are applicable to doubles. f) Other Carrom Rules Fundamental Rules It is not necessary to pocket queen by the winner; the basic rule is that it can be pocketed by either of the players. The deciding factor of the winner of the game is the one who has a maximum worth of pieces. The player with the first strike is bestowed with three chances to break the arrangement of pieces and take advantage by scattering the pieces near the holes on his opposite side. The player has a choice to strike the striker anyway. A striker is given another chance after pocketing any of the carrom men. Likewise, striker gets another chance after putting queen into the hole, but in this case, he is under compulsion to pocket another piece to enjoy the possession of queen. The turn of the player ends when he doesn’t succeed to get any piece or commits foul. The rules of the International Federation of carrom are different from Indian federation of Carrom. As mentioned earlier, every country has a different set of rules for the game players at a regional and national level.  Here are some of the other rules of carrom other than above which seems to be trifling, but one needs to be aware of before you start the game Carrom man to be returned to the board out of foul or penalty can be positioned on the top of other pieces inside the main circle.  The carrom men are to be left untouched till the striker moves them if two pieces end up overlapping on each other or coins come to rest while being on edge. In the case when striker gets beneath a piece, it is to be pulled out with as little disturbance as possible to the piece over the striker. In the instance of striker gets into any of the holes, the player has to return one of his pocketed carrom men along with forgoing his chance. While playing, players are not allowed to move other than in break. In a case when player pockets striker and piece together in one strike, he is bound to return two of his pocketed carrom men. But he also gets a chance to strike again. If a piece falls out of the board, it is to be placed again at the center. A player can only touch board with his wrist; that too while shooting. Other than that, he cannot touch the board. Sides of the game cannot be altered at the commencement of the game. A player can use the thumb for backward shots or can try to rebound to displace the pieces behind the baselines. If the striker doesn’t move at all, the player gets 3 chances. Similarly for the matches played at the national level, the rules of Indian federation are applied. Have a look at the rules of All India Carrom Federation. Rules followed by the All India Carrom Federation The outcome of the match is decided on the ground of 23 points or three sets of 4 boards, whichever is earlier. The player who procures 23 points first or is ahead with the lead on the conclusion of the 4th board is said to be a winner of the match.   ‘Game’ is termed as a ‘set’. A short break of two minutes is allowed to the players between the sets. Players can consult their coaches during the break. Players cannot leave the playing area until the match is over. After two boards or 3rd set, sides are changed. A player is not allowed time beyond 10 seconds to make a stroke. In a board, a maximum of 11 points can be scored. Queen carries the value of two points. The player is authorized to get his score increased by the value of the queen, only on winning the board. The loser of the board stays deprived of any point even though he has pocketed Queen. Queen is not needed to be covered. A player will get two points for pocketing Queen at all the nick of the set without giving consideration to his score. A player has the right to pocket the Queen provided a c/m of his own has already been pocketed. The player can pocket queen despite pocketing all his carrom men of the color he is allotted for the game. The board is not considered to be over if a player succeeds in bagging all his carrom men with the queen still on the board. The player can pocket queen in the last without a cover. The one, who pockets queen, wins the board. In case he fails, chances are passed to the opponent. The reporting time of the player is usually five minutes before the fixed time of the match. A player may be regarded as on losing side if he reports late to the umpire. Umpire is supposed to accomplish all the formalities within those 5 minutes. In the meantime, players can do a bit of warm-up or start their trial session. Matches are ought to start at the scheduled tick of the clock. If the score of both the players is equal at the end of four boards, the result is determined on the basis of Tie-Breaker.  Each team is entrusted with three chances instead to pocket a piece from their end. The tie-breaker piece is positioned within the outer circle touching the outer circle line in a straight line of the core circle on the reverse side of the player pocketing the piece. The set is decided on sudden death when a player gets tie even in a tiebreaker In the case of sudden death, both the players are given a chance each to bag tie-breaker carrom men without changing their side. The player who fails to pocket carrom men on availing each set is considered to have lost the set. A single toss decides the first stroke of sudden death and tiebreaker. In this case, when a player places the striker on board without having his turn, the umpire has the right to declare it as a foul and the board too should not be awarded in opposition to the player. The written protest must be given within 5 minutes of the end of that particular Board. The information about the tournament should be shared with the parties as soon as possible. Matches for cadets, junior and sub-junior players may last for just 20 minutes for each set with the complete time constraints of 70 minutes for every match.

英语

最后更新: 2020-05-19
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参考: 匿名

僧伽罗语

niyamaiSri Lanka in 1H2013 underwent a real economic growth of 6.5% outpacing most regional economies amidst a general slowdown in world economic activity and becoming one of the fastest growing economies in Asia. The post-war growth in real output since 2010 averaged 7.5% indicating the rapid pace of expansion in real activity levels. In this backdrop, Sri Lanka emerged as a haven for foreign investors providing investment prospects even during times of general global uncertainty. However, these foreign investments were predominantly portfolio investments (government securities and equity) and not FDIs. The FDIs were mainly of a rentier nature (casinos, hotels, etc.,) and do not promote commodity production or transfer of technology to the host economy. In this light, the ability of local producers to benefit from growth in Asian and world markets demands evaluation given that Sri Lanka’s production structure remains to advance technologically and organisationally, to be able to supply world demand for advanced products. A higher level of technical sophistication and application of science in production provides access to world markets that are constantly expanding in contrast to primary product exports. This is so given that technologically intensive production constantly invents entirely new product categories and hence forms new spheres of investment, permeating a self-expanding and an integrated character to economic growth in general. This is in contrast to technologically neutral production processes that characterise Sri Lanka’s exports and investments in general (garments, tea, trade, tourism, construction, etc.) which do not cause multiplication of new product categories over time. Source: Compiled with CBSL data Apart from the self-expansive effect of advanced technology oriented production, the latter further generates positive externalities in the home economy by raising the productivity of resources, which is in contrast to the neutrality of the technological impact on the economy of primary goods and services which dominate Sri Lanka’s exports and investments. The fact that in Sri Lanka services sector labour productivity is significantly higher than that of the industrial sector (by 17% in 2012) is empirically reflective of the necessity for transforming the economy’s backward industrial sector. Hence, it can be said that although growth has been high during the post-war years, the growth composition of the economy has led to a technological and organisational lag, which is more critical than the trade and fiscal deficits continuously highlighted by economists. The former, though of long term or medium term in nature are of fundamental concern. They involve questions of employment creation (qualitatively and quantitatively), income distribution, wage rates, poverty indices, aggregate profits and sustainability of whatever has been achieved. The overall capability to effect improvements in the economy qualitatively and quantitatively in the face of the structural changes that are taking place at the world level should be enhanced by redirecting resources from consumption, infrastructure and trade to manufacturing industry availing of the existing domestic demand. Doing so would at the outset enhance the local knowledge base and transform the structure of investment matrix qualitatively to suit the requirements of world markets for advanced materials. The process will provide the economy with the means to penetrate the world markets for industrial goods and productively benefit from the growth in world economy. Such a turnaround should initially seek to alter the arrangement of the production factors in the economy in a way which enable the domestic economy to integrate with semi advanced and advanced supply chains abroad. The greater multiplier effect of a better integrated and interconnected investment process which is a critical characteristic of industrial advancement as opposed to services or agriculture would yield greater degree of scale advantage to the economy. This in turn tends to multiply the avenues through which locally produced commodities could penetrate world markets indicating the importance of the domestic market in preparing an economy to integrate industrially with world markets. Rise in the Importance of National Economies at the World Level and Positioning Sri Lanka in the General Scenario In the face of failure of conventional monetary and fiscal policy measures to assist economies from making their escape from the world recession now in its fourth consecutive year, key industrial economies have resorted to trade protectionism for boosting the demand for local industries and preventing a further increase in factory closures and unemployment. According to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) the ratio of growth of world trade to world GDP growth which stood at 2:1 historically has currently fallen to 1:1. This indicates that the world output growth is basing itself less on world trade than on domestic demand; growth within home markets doubled in terms of the world’s output growth compared to its historical average. Source: WTO In this backdrop, it is in the interest of Sri Lanka to explore possibilities of greater utilisation of more freely available home demand ahead of attempting to penetrate world markets especially considering the relatively moderate industrial base and competitive power which the local exporters rely on. In the case of several commodities the home market has now grown to sufficient proportions that negate the indivisibilities arising from insufficient market demand. This shifts the comparative advantage in supply price from imports towards domestic production creating a transformation in market conditions that would assist the development of local industrial capabilities. This indicates that potential of the economy to restructure its productive base in response to continuously expanding home demand is yet to be explored through market forces. It would also tend to further expand the space for profitable investments and private capital formation given the self expansive propensities of manufacturing industry compared to other forms of investments. Hence, it would be comparatively advantageous for Sri Lanka to seize initially the opportunities that domestic demand offers where competitive forces are much more manageable as compared to the fierce competition in world markets. Furthermore, currently global demand is being captured by key export economies and entry into it is not entirely free. The more productive utilisation of the home market that is available at the doorstep of local investors should be availed of with the aim of improving the spread and depth of the industrial structure. This was the general development strategy pursued by the newly industrialised economies in East Asia such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. The home market was used as a launching pad to improve the industrial capabilities of the economy before gradually advancing to integrate with world supply chains. However in Sri Lanka currently, investments seem to be absorbed by trade and services led undertakings which affects the rate of productivity change in the economy and may not be ideal given that Sri Lanka is in need of investments that are capable of transforming the economy in line with investment patterns of East Asian NICs. A Discussion on the Academics’ Perspective on Sources of Growth and Export Performance In this connection, the view held by the academics concerning the need to expand exports rests on the belief that the deficits in the trade account and the current account of balance of payments have been high following independence and hence there has to be a shift from borrowing to earning more non-debt driven foreign inflows. The academics are of the view that despite Sri Lanka’s economic growth being one of the highest in Asia the sources of growth have been predominantly nontradables led by construction, trade and government services. The over-reliance of growth on nontradables prevents the generation of foreign exchange required to support the inputs and consumption in real GDP expansion, given that growth dependent on nontradables involves increased imports. It also points to the fact that growth has been foreign exchange consuming rather than foreign exchange generating. Source: CBSL Hence, in order to offset the investments/savings gap created in the growth process, the economy tends to accumulate foreign liabilities exceeding the pace of nominal GNP growth, which leads to short term boom and bust conditions when growth grounded on external debt faces sustainability issues characterised by periodical foreign exchange shortages. This is empirically reflected by contractionary monetary and fiscal policy measures adopted in 1Q2012 and in 2008 which curbed the rate of real growth to 5.6% in 2H2012 and 3.4% in 2009. The growth in foreign debt both in public and private sector relative to growth in nominal GNP is indicated by Net Foreign Assets of the economy recording LKR -126.8 billion in 1H2013 from a five year average of LKR 169.4 billion. In this light, the academics explain that Sri Lanka now considered a middle income economy by international donor agencies has limited access to concessional foreign financing. This has led to expensive foreign commercial borrowings which increase external debt financing costs, intensifying the frequency of foreign exchange shortages. In this light, they point out that it is not possible to attain 8% growth on a sustainable basis without export expansion; hence it is imperative for Sri Lanka to expand exports to achieve growth sustainability in the long run. This general conceptual position on the Sri Lankan economy held by the academics implies that the current need to revive the export sector of the economy spans from the need to earn foreign exchange and thereby offset the deficit in the trade account of the balance of payments. In contrast, concepts on international trade resting on Smith’s conceptual dictums are closely interwoven with the theory of domestic economic development and do not depend on its utility in offsetting balance of trade deficits. This is so because the trade account can be balanced by many means other than raising exports receipts, such as the growth in inward labour remittances, tourism, foreign inflows to capital markets or else a reduction in imports of which the direct impact on factor productivity of the domestic economy is neutral. In contrast, the theory of international trade studies the long run mutual interaction between foreign trade and domestic economic development essentially involving a rise in the productivity of domestic economic resources (capital and human) (see for example Myint, H. (Aug., 1977) ‘Adam Smith’s Theory of International Trade in the Perspective of Economic Development’, Economica). Trade theory is not based on the belief that the purpose of international trade is to offset the trade gap of an economy. If trade account deficit is taken as a yard stick of development, it would mean that in the colonial period Sri Lanka had well balanced trade accounts and was economically developed than most advanced economies in the world. Source: World Bank It is further pointed out that export receipts have declined from 33% of GDP in 2000 to 16% in 2012 and that Sri Lanka’s share of global exports has also dipped sharply. This is to say that the exports sector of Sri Lanka performed better in 2000 given the fact that its share of the GDP in 2000 was over twice the current figure. In the same line of argument, it could further point out that export performance of Sri Lanka during the colonial period was even better given that the share of exports to GDP would have been higher than the 33% in 2000 (Professor S. B. D. De Silva). In fact Sri Lanka during the period of colonialism was an export economy par excellence while currently the growth in the economy has been mainly led by infrastructure and construction activity coupled with the continuous growth in inward labour remittances. The problem in gauging export performance as a share of the GDP is that it’s not reflective of the technological composition of exports which has remained unchanged over the years and export volumes have increased without a qualitative effect on its production structure (i.e capital to labour ratio and depth of industrial linkages) and on the economy in general. International trade theory incorporates into its analysis the impact of international trade on capital accumulation, division of labour, long run factor supply and factor productivity of the domestic economy. Further, Smith’s theory of international trade rests on the dictum that ‘the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market’. That is to say that the extent of the division of labour in the economy determines the extent of specialisation of knowledge employed in the process of production. Increasing complexity of division of labour and hence specialisation is availed by access to wider markets. Therefore, one of the key objectives of entering international trade is to improve the general level of specialisation and technological complexity of the economy rather than as a means of offsetting the deficit in the trade account. The transformative effect of international trade on the domestic economy pointed out by Smith however, would not materialise if the economy continues to supply primary goods to world market which do not depend for their success on scale economies and specialisation. The Real Exchange Rate Model and Growth in Industrial Output The drop in exports income as a share of the GDP over time in Sri Lanka is attributed to the current incentive structure in the economy, which is such that resources are being directed to nontradable sectors. It is held that though growth has been buoyant the source of growth has been nontradables: construction, mining and quarrying, retail/wholesale trade and public administration. This has been attributed mainly to the overvalued real exchange rate and the tariff regime. Source: World Bank However, it should be mentioned in this regard that the resources in the economy are utilised within a framework of primary technique. The framework is not disturbed by an improvement of relative prices of production factors in favour of capital against labour nor the improvement of relative prices of the output of advanced product categories by the depreciation of the real effective exchange rate (REER). The REER determines the sectoral relative price of nontradables and tradables and hence governs the flow of resources within the two sectors with other conditions remaining the same. However, the effect of REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors within the tradable sector; i.e., the flow of resources from primary products to semi advanced and advanced industrial products. Also the REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors from nontradables to advanced industrial investments. This is evident from the depreciation of the domestic currency by as much as 225% over the past 23 years (from LKR 40.00/USD to circa LKR 133.00/USD since 1990) but exports continuing to preserve its primary goods character and is a decreasing share of the GDP. Further, the REER shows a depreciation of circa 32% over the past ten years as shown in the accompanying graph, indicating that there is little connection between the REER and growth in nontradables and other more critical factors are at work. In spite of the depreciation of the REER the growth in nontradables has been phenomenal and is continuing. The preceding discussion points out that rather than the overvaluation of the REER, it is the regional disparity in factor productivity and factor organisation which prevents the flow of resources from nonindustrial to industrial products; an advanced production structure is required from the outset for industrial investments to expand. The technological and organisational gap at the regional level prevents the allocation of resources in the domestic economy from responding to favourable relative prices in industrial products (excluding construction, mining & quarrying, infrastructure and power generation). Relative prices determine the flow of resources only within the low technological and nonindustrial framework, i.e., from one sphere of investment to another within the nonindustrial structure. This is to say the production factors are not developed sufficiently to exploit the full range of investment spheres offered by relative prices and comparative costs in the economy. Hence, although relative prices of industrial production being favourable, investments may not breach its traditional organisational structure for the reason that production factors are insufficiently developed and organised to exploit the full range of avenues offered by relative prices. Therefore, the problem in the economy does not lie with the flow of resources from tradables to nontradables as suggested by academics but the absence of resource flow from primary product categories to semi advanced and advanced industrial investments, and this is not a function of the REER as shown earlier. The state in this regard has a crucial role in designing a proper stream of nonmarket interventions replicating the experience of East Asian NICs to restructure the economy in favour of industrial development from its current over reliance on construction, leisure and labour remittances led development.

英语

Sri Lanka in 1H2013 underwent a real economic growth of 6.5% outpacing most regional economies amidst a general slowdown in world economic activity and becoming one of the fastest growing economies in Asia. The post-war growth in real output since 2010 averaged 7.5% indicating the rapid pace of expansion in real activity levels. In this backdrop, Sri Lanka emerged as a haven for foreign investors providing investment prospects even during times of general global uncertainty. However, these foreign investments were predominantly portfolio investments (government securities and equity) and not FDIs. The FDIs were mainly of a rentier nature (casinos, hotels, etc.,) and do not promote commodity production or transfer of technology to the host economy. In this light, the ability of local producers to benefit from growth in Asian and world markets demands evaluation given that Sri Lanka’s production structure remains to advance technologically and organisationally, to be able to supply world demand for advanced products. A higher level of technical sophistication and application of science in production provides access to world markets that are constantly expanding in contrast to primary product exports. This is so given that technologically intensive production constantly invents entirely new product categories and hence forms new spheres of investment, permeating a self-expanding and an integrated character to economic growth in general. This is in contrast to technologically neutral production processes that characterise Sri Lanka’s exports and investments in general (garments, tea, trade, tourism, construction, etc.) which do not cause multiplication of new product categories over time. Source: Compiled with CBSL data Apart from the self-expansive effect of advanced technology oriented production, the latter further generates positive externalities in the home economy by raising the productivity of resources, which is in contrast to the neutrality of the technological impact on the economy of primary goods and services which dominate Sri Lanka’s exports and investments. The fact that in Sri Lanka services sector labour productivity is significantly higher than that of the industrial sector (by 17% in 2012) is empirically reflective of the necessity for transforming the economy’s backward industrial sector. Hence, it can be said that although growth has been high during the post-war years, the growth composition of the economy has led to a technological and organisational lag, which is more critical than the trade and fiscal deficits continuously highlighted by economists. The former, though of long term or medium term in nature are of fundamental concern. They involve questions of employment creation (qualitatively and quantitatively), income distribution, wage rates, poverty indices, aggregate profits and sustainability of whatever has been achieved. The overall capability to effect improvements in the economy qualitatively and quantitatively in the face of the structural changes that are taking place at the world level should be enhanced by redirecting resources from consumption, infrastructure and trade to manufacturing industry availing of the existing domestic demand. Doing so would at the outset enhance the local knowledge base and transform the structure of investment matrix qualitatively to suit the requirements of world markets for advanced materials. The process will provide the economy with the means to penetrate the world markets for industrial goods and productively benefit from the growth in world economy. Such a turnaround should initially seek to alter the arrangement of the production factors in the economy in a way which enable the domestic economy to integrate with semi advanced and advanced supply chains abroad. The greater multiplier effect of a better integrated and interconnected investment process which is a critical characteristic of industrial advancement as opposed to services or agriculture would yield greater degree of scale advantage to the economy. This in turn tends to multiply the avenues through which locally produced commodities could penetrate world markets indicating the importance of the domestic market in preparing an economy to integrate industrially with world markets. Rise in the Importance of National Economies at the World Level and Positioning Sri Lanka in the General Scenario In the face of failure of conventional monetary and fiscal policy measures to assist economies from making their escape from the world recession now in its fourth consecutive year, key industrial economies have resorted to trade protectionism for boosting the demand for local industries and preventing a further increase in factory closures and unemployment. According to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) the ratio of growth of world trade to world GDP growth which stood at 2:1 historically has currently fallen to 1:1. This indicates that the world output growth is basing itself less on world trade than on domestic demand; growth within home markets doubled in terms of the world’s output growth compared to its historical average. Source: WTO In this backdrop, it is in the interest of Sri Lanka to explore possibilities of greater utilisation of more freely available home demand ahead of attempting to penetrate world markets especially considering the relatively moderate industrial base and competitive power which the local exporters rely on. In the case of several commodities the home market has now grown to sufficient proportions that negate the indivisibilities arising from insufficient market demand. This shifts the comparative advantage in supply price from imports towards domestic production creating a transformation in market conditions that would assist the development of local industrial capabilities. This indicates that potential of the economy to restructure its productive base in response to continuously expanding home demand is yet to be explored through market forces. It would also tend to further expand the space for profitable investments and private capital formation given the self expansive propensities of manufacturing industry compared to other forms of investments. Hence, it would be comparatively advantageous for Sri Lanka to seize initially the opportunities that domestic demand offers where competitive forces are much more manageable as compared to the fierce competition in world markets. Furthermore, currently global demand is being captured by key export economies and entry into it is not entirely free. The more productive utilisation of the home market that is available at the doorstep of local investors should be availed of with the aim of improving the spread and depth of the industrial structure. This was the general development strategy pursued by the newly industrialised economies in East Asia such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. The home market was used as a launching pad to improve the industrial capabilities of the economy before gradually advancing to integrate with world supply chains. However in Sri Lanka currently, investments seem to be absorbed by trade and services led undertakings which affects the rate of productivity change in the economy and may not be ideal given that Sri Lanka is in need of investments that are capable of transforming the economy in line with investment patterns of East Asian NICs. A Discussion on the Academics’ Perspective on Sources of Growth and Export Performance In this connection, the view held by the academics concerning the need to expand exports rests on the belief that the deficits in the trade account and the current account of balance of payments have been high following independence and hence there has to be a shift from borrowing to earning more non-debt driven foreign inflows. The academics are of the view that despite Sri Lanka’s economic growth being one of the highest in Asia the sources of growth have been predominantly nontradables led by construction, trade and government services. The over-reliance of growth on nontradables prevents the generation of foreign exchange required to support the inputs and consumption in real GDP expansion, given that growth dependent on nontradables involves increased imports. It also points to the fact that growth has been foreign exchange consuming rather than foreign exchange generating. Source: CBSL Hence, in order to offset the investments/savings gap created in the growth process, the economy tends to accumulate foreign liabilities exceeding the pace of nominal GNP growth, which leads to short term boom and bust conditions when growth grounded on external debt faces sustainability issues characterised by periodical foreign exchange shortages. This is empirically reflected by contractionary monetary and fiscal policy measures adopted in 1Q2012 and in 2008 which curbed the rate of real growth to 5.6% in 2H2012 and 3.4% in 2009. The growth in foreign debt both in public and private sector relative to growth in nominal GNP is indicated by Net Foreign Assets of the economy recording LKR -126.8 billion in 1H2013 from a five year average of LKR 169.4 billion. In this light, the academics explain that Sri Lanka now considered a middle income economy by international donor agencies has limited access to concessional foreign financing. This has led to expensive foreign commercial borrowings which increase external debt financing costs, intensifying the frequency of foreign exchange shortages. In this light, they point out that it is not possible to attain 8% growth on a sustainable basis without export expansion; hence it is imperative for Sri Lanka to expand exports to achieve growth sustainability in the long run. This general conceptual position on the Sri Lankan economy held by the academics implies that the current need to revive the export sector of the economy spans from the need to earn foreign exchange and thereby offset the deficit in the trade account of the balance of payments. In contrast, concepts on international trade resting on Smith’s conceptual dictums are closely interwoven with the theory of domestic economic development and do not depend on its utility in offsetting balance of trade deficits. This is so because the trade account can be balanced by many means other than raising exports receipts, such as the growth in inward labour remittances, tourism, foreign inflows to capital markets or else a reduction in imports of which the direct impact on factor productivity of the domestic economy is neutral. In contrast, the theory of international trade studies the long run mutual interaction between foreign trade and domestic economic development essentially involving a rise in the productivity of domestic economic resources (capital and human) (see for example Myint, H. (Aug., 1977) ‘Adam Smith’s Theory of International Trade in the Perspective of Economic Development’, Economica). Trade theory is not based on the belief that the purpose of international trade is to offset the trade gap of an economy. If trade account deficit is taken as a yard stick of development, it would mean that in the colonial period Sri Lanka had well balanced trade accounts and was economically developed than most advanced economies in the world. Source: World Bank It is further pointed out that export receipts have declined from 33% of GDP in 2000 to 16% in 2012 and that Sri Lanka’s share of global exports has also dipped sharply. This is to say that the exports sector of Sri Lanka performed better in 2000 given the fact that its share of the GDP in 2000 was over twice the current figure. In the same line of argument, it could further point out that export performance of Sri Lanka during the colonial period was even better given that the share of exports to GDP would have been higher than the 33% in 2000 (Professor S. B. D. De Silva). In fact Sri Lanka during the period of colonialism was an export economy par excellence while currently the growth in the economy has been mainly led by infrastructure and construction activity coupled with the continuous growth in inward labour remittances. The problem in gauging export performance as a share of the GDP is that it’s not reflective of the technological composition of exports which has remained unchanged over the years and export volumes have increased without a qualitative effect on its production structure (i.e capital to labour ratio and depth of industrial linkages) and on the economy in general. International trade theory incorporates into its analysis the impact of international trade on capital accumulation, division of labour, long run factor supply and factor productivity of the domestic economy. Further, Smith’s theory of international trade rests on the dictum that ‘the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market’. That is to say that the extent of the division of labour in the economy determines the extent of specialisation of knowledge employed in the process of production. Increasing complexity of division of labour and hence specialisation is availed by access to wider markets. Therefore, one of the key objectives of entering international trade is to improve the general level of specialisation and technological complexity of the economy rather than as a means of offsetting the deficit in the trade account. The transformative effect of international trade on the domestic economy pointed out by Smith however, would not materialise if the economy continues to supply primary goods to world market which do not depend for their success on scale economies and specialisation. The Real Exchange Rate Model and Growth in Industrial Output The drop in exports income as a share of the GDP over time in Sri Lanka is attributed to the current incentive structure in the economy, which is such that resources are being directed to nontradable sectors. It is held that though growth has been buoyant the source of growth has been nontradables: construction, mining and quarrying, retail/wholesale trade and public administration. This has been attributed mainly to the overvalued real exchange rate and the tariff regime. Source: World Bank However, it should be mentioned in this regard that the resources in the economy are utilised within a framework of primary technique. The framework is not disturbed by an improvement of relative prices of production factors in favour of capital against labour nor the improvement of relative prices of the output of advanced product categories by the depreciation of the real effective exchange rate (REER). The REER determines the sectoral relative price of nontradables and tradables and hence governs the flow of resources within the two sectors with other conditions remaining the same. However, the effect of REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors within the tradable sector; i.e., the flow of resources from primary products to semi advanced and advanced industrial products. Also the REER is neutral in deciding the flow of production factors from nontradables to advanced industrial investments. This is evident from the depreciation of the domestic currency by as much as 225% over the past 23 years (from LKR 40.00/USD to circa LKR 133.00/USD since 1990) but exports continuing to preserve its primary goods character and is a decreasing share of the GDP. Further, the REER shows a depreciation of circa 32% over the past ten years as shown in the accompanying graph, indicating that there is little connection between the REER and growth in nontradables and other more critical factors are at work. In spite of the depreciation of the REER the growth in nontradables has been phenomenal and is continuing. The preceding discussion points out that rather than the overvaluation of the REER, it is the regional disparity in factor productivity and factor organisation which prevents the flow of resources from nonindustrial to industrial products; an advanced production structure is required from the outset for industrial investments to expand. The technological and organisational gap at the regional level prevents the allocation of resources in the domestic economy from responding to favourable relative prices in industrial products (excluding construction, mining & quarrying, infrastructure and power generation). Relative prices determine the flow of resources only within the low technological and nonindustrial framework, i.e., from one sphere of investment to another within the nonindustrial structure. This is to say the production factors are not developed sufficiently to exploit the full range of investment spheres offered by relative prices and comparative costs in the economy. Hence, although relative prices of industrial production being favourable, investments may not breach its traditional organisational structure for the reason that production factors are insufficiently developed and organised to exploit the full range of avenues offered by relative prices. Therefore, the problem in the economy does not lie with the flow of resources from tradables to nontradables as suggested by academics but the absence of resource flow from primary product categories to semi advanced and advanced industrial investments, and this is not a function of the REER as shown earlier. The state in this regard has a crucial role in designing a proper stream of nonmarket interventions replicating the experience of East Asian NICs to restructure the economy in favour of industrial development from its current over reliance on construction, leisure and labour remittances led development.

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僧伽罗语

If a holiday's what you're after, you'd be better off further inland.

英语

If a holiday's what you're after, you'd be better off further inland.

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僧伽罗语

above: about: according: across: actually: adj: after: afterwards: again: against: all: almost: alone: along: already: also: although: always: among: amongst: and: another: any: anyhow: anyone: anything: anywhere: are: aren: arent: around: became: because: become: becomes: becoming: been: before: beforehand: begin: beginning: behind: being: below: beside: besides: between: beyond: billion: both: but: can: cant: cannot: caption: could: couldnt: did: didnt: does: doesnt: dont: down: during: each: eight: eighty: either: else: elsewhere: end: ending: enough: etc: even: ever: every: everyone: everything: everywhere: except: few: fifty: first: five: for: former: formerly: forty: found: four: from: further: had: has: hasnt: have: havent: hence: her: here: hereafter: hereby: herein: heres: hereupon: hers: herself: hes: him: himself: his: how: however: hundred: inc: indeed: instead: into: isnt: its: itself: last: later: latter: latterly: least: less: let: like: likely: ltd: made: make: makes: many: may: maybe: meantime: meanwhile: might: million: miss: more: moreover: most: mostly: mrs: much: must: myself: namely: neither: never: nevertheless: next: nine: ninety: nobody: none: nonetheless: noone: nor: not: nothing: now: nowhere: off: often: once: one: only: onto: others: otherwise: our: ours: ourselves: out: over: overall: own: page: per: perhaps: rather: recent: recently: same: seem: seemed: seeming: seems: seven: seventy: several: she: shes: should: shouldnt: since: six: sixty: some: somehow: someone: something: sometime: sometimes: somewhere: still: stop: such: taking: ten: than: that: the: their: them: themselves: then: thence: there: thereafter: thereby: therefore: therein: thereupon: these: they: thirty: this: those: though: thousand: three: through: throughout: thru: thus: tips: together: too: toward: towards: trillion: twenty: two: under: unless: unlike: unlikely: until: update: updated: updates: upon: used: using: very: via: want: wanted: wants: was: wasnt: way: ways: wed: well: were: werent: what: whats: whatever: when: whence: whenever: where: whereafter: whereas: whereby: wherein: whereupon: wherever: wheres: whether: which: while: whither: who: whoever: whole: whom: whomever: whose: why: will: with: within: without: wont: work: worked: works: working: would: wouldnt: yes: yet: you: youd: youll: your: youre: yours: yourself: yourselves: youve

英语

above: about: according: across: actually: adj: after: afterwards: again: against: all: almost: alone: along: already: also: although: always: among: amongst: and: another: any: anyhow: anyone: anything: anywhere: are: aren: arent: around: became: because: become: becomes: becoming: been: before: beforehand: begin: beginning: behind: being: below: beside: besides: between: beyond: billion: both: but: can: cant: cannot: caption: could: couldnt: did: didnt: does: doesnt: dont: down: during: each: eight: eighty: either: else: elsewhere: end: ending: enough: etc: even: ever: every: everyone: everything: everywhere: except: few: fifty: first: five: for: former: formerly: forty: found: four: from: further: had: has: hasnt: have: havent: hence: her: here: hereafter: hereby: herein: heres: hereupon: hers: herself: hes: him: himself: his: how: however: hundred: inc: indeed: instead: into: isnt: its: itself: last: later: latter: latterly: least: less: let: like: likely: ltd: made: make: makes: many: may: maybe: meantime: meanwhile: might: million: miss: more: moreover: most: mostly: mrs: much: must: myself: namely: neither: never: nevertheless: next: nine: ninety: nobody: none: nonetheless: noone: nor: not: nothing: now: nowhere: off: often: once: one: only: onto: others: otherwise: our: ours: ourselves: out: over: overall: own: page: per: perhaps: rather: recent: recently: same: seem: seemed: seeming: seems: seven: seventy: several: she: shes: should: shouldnt: since: six: sixty: some: somehow: someone: something: sometime: sometimes: somewhere: still: stop: such: taking: ten: than: that: the: their: them: themselves: then: thence: there: thereafter: thereby: therefore: therein: thereupon: these: they: thirty: this: those: though: thousand: three: through: throughout: thru: thus: tips: together: too: toward: towards: trillion: twenty: two: under: unless: unlike: unlikely: until: update: updated: updates: upon: used: using: very: via: want: wanted: wants: was: wasnt: way: ways: wed: well: were: werent: what: whats: whatever: when: whence: whenever: where: whereafter: whereas: whereby: wherein: whereupon: wherever: wheres: whether: which: while: whither: who: whoever: whole: whom: whomever: whose: why: will: with: within: without: wont: work: worked: works: working: would: wouldnt: yes: yet: you: youd: youll: your: youre: yours: yourself: yourselves: youve

最后更新: 2011-10-23
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僧伽罗语

Tuning Tip: If you want the Konqueror web browser to start faster, you can turn off this information screen by clicking here. You can re- enable it by choosing the Help - > Konqueror Introduction menu option, and then pressing Settings - > Save View Profile "Web Browsing".

英语

Tuning Tip: If you want the Konqueror web browser to start faster, you can turn off this information screen by clicking here. You can re-enable it by choosing the Help - > Konqueror Introduction menu option, and then pressing Settings - > Save View Profile As... - > "Web Browsing".

最后更新: 2011-10-23
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僧伽罗语

This option specifies how much KWin will try to prevent unwanted focus stealing caused by unexpected activation of new windows. (Note: This feature does not work with the Focus Under Mouse or Focus Strictly Under Mouse focus policies.) None: Prevention is turned off and new windows always become activated. Low: Prevention is enabled; when some window does not have support for the underlying mechanism and KWin cannot reliably decide whether to activate the window or not, it will be activated. This setting may have both worse and better results than normal level, depending on the applications. Normal: Prevention is enabled. High: New windows get activated only if no window is currently active or if they belong to the currently active application. This setting is probably not really usable when not using mouse focus policy. Extreme: All windows must be explicitly activated by the user. Windows that are prevented from stealing focus are marked as demanding attention, which by default means their taskbar entry will be highlighted. This can be changed in the Notifications control module.

英语

This option specifies how much KWin will try to prevent unwanted focus stealing caused by unexpected activation of new windows. (Note: This feature does not work with the Focus Under Mouse or Focus Strictly Under Mouse focus policies.) None: Prevention is turned off and new windows always become activated. Low: Prevention is enabled; when some window does not have support for the underlying mechanism and KWin cannot reliably decide whether to activate the window or not, it will be activated. This setting may have both worse and better results than the medium level, depending on the applications. Medium: Prevention is enabled. High: New windows get activated only if no window is currently active or if they belong to the currently active application. This setting is probably not really usable when not using mouse focus policy. Extreme: All windows must be explicitly activated by the user. Windows that are prevented from stealing focus are marked as demanding attention, which by default means their taskbar entry will be highlighted. This can be changed in the Notifications control module.

最后更新: 2011-10-23
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僧伽罗语

When turned on, utility windows (tool windows, torn- off menus,...) of inactive applications will be hidden and will be shown only when the application becomes active. Note that applications have to mark the windows with the proper window type for this feature to work.

英语

When turned on, utility windows (tool windows, torn-off menus,...) of inactive applications will be hidden and will be shown only when the application becomes active. Note that applications have to mark the windows with the proper window type for this feature to work.

最后更新: 2011-10-23
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