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Results for so many of my smiles begin with you translation from English to Hindi

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English

So many of my smiles begin with you

Hindi

मेरी मुस्कान के इतने आप के साथ शुरू

Last Update: 2016-09-19
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

i cant wait to spend the rest of my life with you

Hindi

You could wait your problems is already process

Last Update: 2018-06-20
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

i cant wait to spend the rest of my life with you

Hindi

मैं आप के साथ अपने जीवन के बाकी खर्च करने के लिए इंतजार नहीं कर सकते

Last Update: 2016-02-01
Usage Frequency: 3
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

i can't wait to spend the rest of my life with you

Hindi

मैं आप के साथ अपने जीवन के बाकी खर्च करने के लिए इंतजार नहीं कर सकता

Last Update: 2016-06-10
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Inamul:-I Want To Spend Every Single Moment Of My Life With You

Hindi

मैं तुम्हारे साथ मेरे जीवन के हर एक पल बिताना चाहते हूँ

Last Update: 2016-03-16
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

every day i spend with you becomes the new best day of my life

Hindi

every day i spend with you become every day i spend with you become

Last Update: 2019-01-22
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

every day i spend with you become the new best day of my life

Hindi

हर दिन मैं तुम्हारे साथ बिताना मेरे जीवन का सबसे अच्छा दिन नए बनने

Last Update: 2016-10-13
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Seeing his father and so many of his countrymen suffer, Bwelle was determined to do something about it.

Hindi

अपने पिता तथा अपने देशवासियों की पीड़ा देखकर, वेल ने इसका कुछ समाधान करने का दृढ़ संकल्प लिया।

Last Update: 2014-10-20
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

I love you not only for what you are but for what i am when i am with you i love you not only for what you have made of yourself but for what you are making of me i love you for the part of my life that you bring out

Hindi

मैं न सिर्फ तुम्हारे लिए क्या कर रहा हूं, बल्कि मैं जो मैं हूं, उसके लिए मैं आपसे प्यार करता हूँ, न केवल आप के लिए जो कि आपने खुद बनाया है, लेकिन जो कि आप मुझसे बना रहे हैं, उसके लिए मैं आपको अपने जीवन के लिए प्यार करता हूं कि आप बाहर निकालो

Last Update: 2017-04-23
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Know that the Messenger of God is with you. Had he yielded to you on many of the matters, you would have been in great trouble. But God has endeared the faith to you and has made it attractive to your hearts. He has made disbelief, evil deeds and disobedience hateful to you. Such people will have the right guidance

Hindi

और जान रखो कि तुम में ख़ुदा के पैग़म्बर (मौजूद) हैं बहुत सी बातें ऐसी हैं कि अगर रसूल उनमें तुम्हारा कहा मान लिया करें तो (उलटे) तुम ही मुश्किल में पड़ जाओ लेकिन ख़ुदा ने तुम्हें ईमान की मोहब्बत दे दी है और उसको तुम्हारे दिलों में उमदा कर दिखाया है और कुफ़्र और बदकारी और नाफ़रमानी से तुमको बेज़ार कर दिया है यही लोग ख़ुदा के फ़ज़ल व एहसान से राहे हिदायत पर हैं

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Know that the Messenger of God is with you. Had he yielded to you on many of the matters, you would have been in great trouble. But God has endeared the faith to you and has made it attractive to your hearts. He has made disbelief, evil deeds and disobedience hateful to you. Such people will have the right guidance

Hindi

जान लो कि तुम्हारे बीच अल्लाह का रसूल मौजूद है। बहुत-से मामलों में यदि वह तुम्हारी बात मान ले तो तुम कठिनाई में पड़ जाओ। किन्तु अल्लाह ने तुम्हारे लिए ईमान को प्रिय बना दिया और उसे तुम्हारे दिलों में सुन्दरता दे दी और इनकार, उल्लंघन और अवज्ञा को तुम्हारे लिए बहुत अप्रिय बना दिया।

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

world with what the almighty God has used in blessing i and my late husband. The vision seems so terrific and i was so bothered that i had a day fasting and prayer over it and someone in my church then interpret the meaning of my dreams to me telling me that i am having something which is in need in the world and he want me to use it to bless the world and the person asked me to think very well because it is the voice of the Lord that has spoken to me and all that.I searched myself very well and i get to remember that i am having the fund which i and my husband had labored for so many years and i contacted the security company as the beneficiary of the funds and i was confirmed the owner of the funds and am asked to come around and get it exactly when am ready to but i should made awareness of when i will be coming so that proper arrangement would be made then but it is a pity i cant go which you know.I had another dream which made me realize that i must not be in possession of the money and i should go into the world and look for someone in the world to distribute the funds in a Godly manner. So i decided to search with the name related to a woman who took very good care of me when i was dump by my runaway parents. i was brought up in a motherless baby home and so i told my nurse to help me get an internet account after that i decided to search i got about 865 profiles and i prayed over it and you know whats funny ? among all the profiles i chose it was yours that the Lord has chosen to distribute this funds as a sacrifice from the lord to the world.It is a means of you been committed to the Lord and this will make you move closer to him as well and i am very sure that he must certainly have a reason why he want you to do this on his behalf please be strong and have faith in yourself and in me and make me realize that you will do it just because i know you can do it and i see you doing it right among everyone else.Hope i read from you soonest and please make sure that you never forget me in your prayers kindly get back to me thanks and God bless you and your household make a prayer over it and you will smell it around you sent me to you.God bless you a........in his riches..................Amen. Show quoted text

Hindi

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Last Update: 2017-07-17
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

I feel that I’ve forgotten you.. I feel that I have moved on, but the moment I see you in front of me.. and the moment you look at me, I feel completely defeated. I forget every thing and believe that you are still the love of my life. I want to erase away our memories of fun ! I want to abandon you in my house of thoughts ! but what am I supposed to do?? You still make my heart beat the way you used to ..! Look into my eyes.. you will still see that mad love in it, You were my first love, you will always be so ! But when you left me.. you killed that loving person within me. even if I move on in life, I’ll never be the way I was ..! I miss being with you, I miss being what I was when I was with you ..! I might fall in Love, but it’ll never be the same again …!!

Hindi

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2017-01-05
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Education in India Search Add your Institute Institutions Courses Entrance Exams Career Options Alerts Coaching Centres Articles Knowledge Date Sheets Languages Home / Articles / Reality Shows - Facts and Effects Report Error Reality Shows - Facts and Effects Reality Shows are genre of television shows or programmes which feature common people and or celebrities or both, in real life or scripted situations/environment or a mix of both real and scripted incidents. Reality Shows are also referred as ‘Reality Television’. Reality shows have become quite a rage of late; these were non-existent until the 1940’s. Reality shows in those times were quite authentic. This was because it was a new concept and as such manipulation was limited to only creating unordinary situations for ordinary citizens. However, the reality shows of today have blurred the reality. The irony of ‘Reality Shows’ is that even though they are known as ‘Reality Based Shows’; most of them are ‘Unreal’. Facts of Reality Shows History of Reality T.V. Popularity Factors Types of Reality Shows Effects of Reality Shows Reality Television Pros and Cons Reality Shows Advantages Reality Shows Disadvantages Curbing or Limiting the Effects of reality Shows Real Life is nothing, what popular Reality Shows depict. The idea of placing people in situations, just to see how they react, became imaginable and almost ‘Passé’. Audiences have seen and known what will happen. As such, previous projections of human behaviour do not hold that much ground as compared to the ones that are being churned out with all the melodrama and unexpected spoofs or stunts. Real Life on day to day basis is not as much Dramatic and entertaining as is depicted in these shows. Life is very much real as we witness it, not what we are made to see. Reality shows edit and manipulate scenes which appear and imitate reality. The situations created or occurred are altered in order to make things interesting. To sustain the interest of the audience, producers of such shows resort to depiction of emotions which incite humans. Thus, conflict, drama, sleaze and humour are added as per the TRP. These may not be scripted but depending upon the response of these audiences, these maybe added as per the requirement. Such shows will create an exciting footage from various clips mixed with each other. Sometimes, the producers of the show will involve a celebrity to create hype for the show. So, a question arises what, when, why, where and how of these shows. There are many reasons behind it. These have been analysed below. Reality Shows – Facts Facts of Reality television have been subdivided into its History, Popularity Factors and their Types. History of Reality T.V. It was during 1948, that Alan Funt, came up with the idea of the first Reality Show in the form of TV series ‘Candid Camera’. It was initially launched as Radio Show, titled – ‘Candid Microphone’ on 28th June, 1947. Later, he shot a series of theatrical film shorts, also titled Candid Microphone. It was his next venture that materialised into the ‘First Reality Show’ which appeared on television (ABC channel) on August 10, 1948. The show featured ordinary people encountering unusual situations, who were being secretly taped with concealed cameras. Sometimes, these would involve trick props, such as a desk with drawers that pop open when closed or a car with a hidden extra gas tank. When the joke was revealed, victims would be told the shows catch phrase, ‘Smile, you're on Candid Camera.’ Peter Funt, his son became the producer and the host of the show from 1998 to 2004. Soon others too conceived similar ideas with different approach. Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts also appeared during 1948. These show started the much famed ‘Talent Shows’ or ‘Talent Search Shows’ which featured amateur competitors and introduced the concept of ‘Audience Voting’. In the 1950s, game shows – ‘Beat the Clock’ and ‘Truth or Consequences’ involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. Then, appeared the ‘Game Show’, known as ‘You Bet’ on NBC-TV in October 1950, which was simultaneously broadcast on the radio and the television. In 1954, ‘Miss America Pageant’, a beauty contest appeared on T.V. whose winner achieved the status of a national celebrity. During 1950-1959, a new type of series ‘You Asked For It’ had some elements of a ‘Audience Participation’ in the sense that viewers were given certain freedom to see what they wished to see on television. The show created and hosted by Art Baker, involved the ‘Real Re-enactment’ of William Tell shooting an apple off his son's head. Many other reality based shows featured on T.V., like series Seven Up! in UK. during 1964 (Granada Television). However, the Shows with the flavour of Modern Reality Shows started to be produced during the 1970’s. PBS series ‘An American Family’ was more or less documentary in purpose and style. It featured the daily lives of the Loud family. The televised decision of the parents to divorce and the on-screen coming out of their gay son shocked audiences. This prompted the sociologist, Margaret Mead to suggest a different genre for this series as it didn’t fit the category of Documentary. This show gave birth to the ‘Reality-soap Genre’ in which compelling story lines through careful writing and editing shaped the real-life subjects into reality-show characters. In 1974, a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Similar such productions were ‘Chuck Barris: The Dating Game’, ‘The Newlywed Game’, and ‘The Gong Show’. These participants shared some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition. Then, there were ‘Camcorder Taped’ reality shows which appeared during 1989. First of such a show was ‘COPS’ which showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals. The Rescue 911 was another such show which featured people in dire situations and their efforts. America’s Funniest Home Videos was also such reality show in terms of recording equipment. It featured unique and funny incidents taped on camcorder. Further themes of reality shows were conceived in the 1990’s. The concept of grouping strangers for a certain period of time in a certain environment and the drama that followed, originated in the form of series ‘Nummer 28’. It aired on Dutch television in 1991. This show was backed by computer-based non-linear editing systems which enabled quick editing of hours of video footage into a usable form. The idea of ‘Competition and Elimination’ was introduced by TV producer Charlie Parsons. He created the TV show ‘Expedition Robinson’, which first aired in 1997 in Sweden. In the show cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained. These shows became popularly known as ‘Elimination Shows’. The end of 90’ and the advent of 2000, saw an unprecedented popularity of the reality based shows. These new generation of Reality shows were more blunt, witty, sensuous, sensational, glamorous and more. These were produced by specialists who created complex and unexpected shows which stirred the emotions of the masses. Their uniqueness and the ‘Awe’ factor made them a huge success. Survivor became such a show. It was originally named ‘Expedition Robinson’ and appeared first on the Swedish public service network SVT in 1997. Then, ‘Big Brother’ first televised in the Netherlands during 1999 on the Veronica TV channel became a world-wide sensation. It was picked up by Brazil, Germany, Argentina, Portugal, USA, UK, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy and Indonesia. It is a hit show in almost 70 countries; further licensing rights for same format program but with regional people. Example, ‘Big Boss’ in India. Another major hit is ‘American Idol’. It is based on the British show Pop Idol, which was in turn inspired by Popstars. The show debuted in 2001 in Britain and soon spread to other parts of the world, with its Indian Version, known as ‘Indian Idol’. Soon more shows followed with different concepts and ideas like the Amazing Race (2001), Fear Factor (June 11, 2001), the America's Next Top Model (May 2003), The Apprentice (2004), Dancing With The Stars (2005) and others. These all became an instant hit all over the world and inspiring licensed version and unlicensed altered shows in dozens of countries. Furthermore, these shows inspired channels totally devoted to reality shows, like Zone Reality (UK) was launched in 2002 and Global Reality Channel (Canada) was launched in 2010. Several cable channels started featuring original reality programming as a mainstay. Thus, today various types of reality shows have got a permanent slot during their telecast. The reality series of modern times borrow a lot from their precedents and differ mostly in scope and locale. Popularity Factors of Reality Shows So what makes Reality Shows Tick? There are multiple factors attributing to the success of these shows. Human Curiosity – There is saying that says ‘Curiosity killed the cat’, here the ‘Curiosity lured the Public’. Though not as deadly as the original saying but alluring, that is to say that the public is always willing to know the unknown or the mysteries. Of all the entertainment series we are aware of, we think that’s the end of it. However, the brainy producers are always up to new tricks, they introduce new formats, new faces and other unexplored or unimaginable acts. Anything new or different is obviously bound to be noticed, the same goes with reality shows. Such shows engross and tease the mind into watching them. This is one important ingredient of a reality show. Entertainment Value – Watching the mundane soap operas and movies causes the mind to get bored. It is here that reality shows score over other programs. They are filled with drama, shock value, original stunts, talent, celebrities, laughter, sleaze and violence. It fills the void of human mind bored with conventionally formatted programs. Some series featuring original acts are applauded because here someone with the best talent gets acknowledged, appreciated and paid. Here, they see what they haven’t realised or imagined, especially the one’s which are dramatic. Even if the audience is aware of the manipulations, they don’t mind it as it adds spice and zing to their lives, which is otherwise dull and dreary. Also, they like to be acknowledged for their prediction of the outcome or can gossip about it with their friends and so on. Aggressive Marketing – One of the major factors of the popularity of reality television is the aggressive marketing. This marketing is clearly visible in Television promos, large hoardings, cover story in magazines and other media. It grabs the attention of even a an uninterested person and that is what the advertisers want and that is what influences us in to watching these programs. Belief in Reality Shows – Though the public is smart but it can be fooled. Reality shows are an example of this occurrence. There are certain sections of viewers who still believe that what is being shown is ‘Reality’ as it matches the normal daily life routines. This notion becomes a permanent fact in their minds and they find it hard to dismiss it as fake. Then there are young minds which do not have the wider scope of thought as to ‘What is real?’ and ‘What is not?’. They perceive the fake acts as real and the shows become their favourite ones. Favourites and Non Favourites – Whilst watching certain such shows we tend to have our ‘Favourites’ and ‘Non-Favourites’. We like our favourite ones for variety of reasons; some are cute, some appear honest, some are form their own region or religion and some are sympathised. On the opposite side we hate certain participants for variety of reasons; some are ugly, some appear fake, some don’t belong to their region or religion and some we simply love hate. Our emotional attachment with these characters is the source of popularity of these shows. Thirst for Power – The concept of voting for favourite ones is sort of quencher of thirst for power hungry people. They think that their vote is a contributing factor in the victory of their chosen one. It makes them feel important, related to whom they are voting and self satisfaction of having some power or certain portion of power. Pleasure in other’s Sufferings – There are some demented minds who like to see other people in pain and gore. It gives them certain euphoria which they get addicted to. The causes can be many; some can relate to the pain which they have suffered or the pain which they want to deliver to their oppressors but haven’t been able to do so. It provides them a certain outlet of emotions. Peer Influence – Some people just watch these shows just to stay in tune with the current flow of trend. They stay in touch with these shows so they have something to talk about whenever a conversation occurs or whenever they are socialising. It is embarrassing for certain people to be unaware of what’s hip and what’s not. Types of Reality Shows Reality shows cater to different age groups and tastes because of the wide range of themes available. These shows can be classified into: 1. Reality T.V. Talent Shows – A reality based talent show is ‘Made for Television’ program which is televised live or deferred live featuring a number of participants who present their talent or talents in front of a panel of judges. These talents can be in the conventional forms like singing, dancing and or other unique forms of talents. Most of these shows have a format where certain performers are selected and judged. Based on the quality of their performance, these are either eliminated out of the competition by judges or by the public through voting. Each week or each episode one or more contestants are eliminated until a winner emerges. Reality based talent shows are the most popular reality television shows. These are the most popular as these present a much authentic presentation as compared to others which can be easily pointed out as fake. Some of the most popular reality shows of this type are American Idol, America's Got Talent, Dancing with the Stars, Celebrity Duets etc. These maybe licensed to other countries which work on the same format to produce a local show like ‘India’s Got Talent’ is the Indian version of AGT. 2. Fly on the Wall Shows – Fly on the Wall Shows are those shows which are styled in a documentary format but maybe scripted partially or wholly to create sensationalism; camera shooting and footage editing gives the viewer the impression that they are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities. These are known as ‘Fly on the Wall Shows’ as events are seen candidly, as a fly on a wall might see them. These shows are also known as factual television shows as they do show some actual happenings. Some of these types of shows are: Environment Confined – These are live or deferred live televised shows, where a number of familiar or unfamiliar participants have to live along with each other and perform tasks in an artificial living environment surrounded by cameras at strategic spots. Every day they are given a task to perform and their behaviour is recorded. Every week or every episode voting is conducted wherein the members nominate each other depending upon their preferences or task performance. These nominated members are further put to vote by public until a winner emerges. The winner is awarded a large sum of amount. Participants are often interviewed, often by an off-camera voice. The ancestor of these types of shows is MTV’s ‘The Real World’. The most popular amongst these shows is ‘Big Brother’ with different versions produced in many countries around the word. Some other shows in this category are ‘Road Rules’, ‘The 1900 House’, ‘Temptation Island’, ‘U8TV: The Lofters’ etc. Celebrity Shows – Reality based Celebrity Shows are the ones which show daily routine of celebrities or show celebrities in a certain environment with other celebrities performing task or tasks. These show some scripted, unscripted, kinky or unknown aspect of celebrities. Some routine based shows are Keeping Up With the Kardashians, Kathy Griffin: Life on the D List, The Anna Nicole Show, The Osbournes, Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica and Hogan Knows Best etc. Some of the Environment Confined shows are Celebrity Big Brother, The Simple Life, Tommy Lee Goes to College, The Surreal Life, and I'm a Celebrity... Get Me out of Here! Based on Professional Lives - Professional Lives is type of a reality based show which shows professionals either going about day-to-day business or performing an entire project over the course of a series. These shows unseen footage of a professional on day to day basis, thereby providing an insight into the life of professionals engaged in different occupations. The first of its kind series is COPS which premiered in 1989. Other examples of this type of reality show include the American shows Miami Ink, The First 48, Dog the Bounty Hunter, American Chopper, Deadliest Catch etc. 3. Game Shows – Reality based Game Shows are televised events which involve members of the public and or celebrities competing as a team or as individual against each other in as series competitive games which can physical challenging and or mentally challenging usually for money and/or a variety of prizes. The prize can be cash, a spouse, a date, a contract, trips, goods and services etc. Game shows are also referred as ‘Competition Shows’. Games shows can be categorised as: Mentally Challenging Games – These are quiz or information based game shows where the host of the show or panel of judges asks the contestant general knowledge questions divided into various levels. The contestants have to answer these in a certain period of time and gather points and or cash for every correct answer. In the process they may get evicted or gain certain advantages which are useful in the later stage of the game. Some of this type of games are Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, American Gladiators, Dog Eat Dog, Deal or No Deal, Weakest Link etc. These are usually shot in an enclosed environment or TV studio over a short period of time. Physically Challenging Games - These are mostly stunt based or adventure based game shows which involves members of the public and or celebrities performing weird, dangerous or tricky physical tasks better and/or quicker than all the other contestants or simply completing the task given. The game is divided into several zones and stages with each round getting tougher and tougher. These usually take place outdoors with specially created structures and or equipments. Some of these are Minute to Win It, Who Dares Wins, Fear Factor, Total Wipeout, Takeshi's Castle etc. Self-improvement / Makeover Shows – Reality based Self-improvement / Makeover Shows cover the attempts and success of a person or group of people (afflicted celebrities or common people) improving their lives with the help of an expert along with a celebrity as a host. The improvements in life can be related to problems like obesity, lack of fashion sense, bad behaviour, psychological issues etc. Thus we have Charm School and From G's to Gents focussing on self-improvement and manners, Biggest Loser and Fat March which focus on weight loss, How Do I Look? focusing on fashion makeover, ‘Queer Eye’ and ‘What Not to Wear’ which focus on style and grooming, ‘Made’ focusing on attaining difficult goals, ‘Supernanny’ focuss

Hindi

फायदे और रियलिटी शो का नुकसान

Last Update: 2016-11-04
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

I am a blackboard on the wall of Class VI of Nirmala Convent School , Siliguri. I am twenty years old. In my short life I have seen so many girls grow in front of me. They studied and learnt Maths, Science and English and moved on to a class ahead. My elder brother in class VII shouts at me from next door and tells me that now he is taking care of my students. I like it very much when the teacher call the girls to the blackboard to solve maths problem. I keep wishing they will be able to do it. Sometimes the girls scribble on me , behind the teacher’s back. They draw cartoons and write slogans on me. I am cleaned once a day with a wet cloth by the caretaker. During school hours, I am always with my friends the white chalk and the duster. I have to tell you that I am made of a type of stone called slate. I was excavated in Madhya pradesh, carved and polished, then sent to a shop selling school supplies. I was brought from Kolkata by the authorities and installed when the classroom was completed. Then came the chairs and desks. I am the most important teaching equipment in the classroom. One day the class teacher entered the classroom excitedly and announced that they were turning the classrooms into smart classrooms. The new electronic boards would be connected with internet. The chalk would be replaced with a stylus and the duster was a delete button. It meant that I would be of no use. I would be taken off the walls and maybe given away to schools for poor children. My end was near. I looked lovingly at the children. They were cheering hard. I was happy for them.blackboard

Hindi

I am a blackboard on the wall of Class VI of Nirmala Convent School , Siliguri. I am twenty years old. In my short life I have seen so many girls grow in front of me. They studied and learnt Maths, Science and English and moved on to a class ahead. My elder brother in class VII shouts at me from next door and tells me that now he is taking care of my students. I like it very much when the teacher call the girls to the blackboard to solve maths problem. I keep wishing they will be able to do it. Sometimes the girls scribble on me , behind the teacher’s back. They draw cartoons and write slogans on me. I am cleaned once a day with a wet cloth by the caretaker. During school hours, I am always with my friends the white chalk and the duster. I have to tell you that I am made of a type of stone called slate. I was excavated in Madhya pradesh, carved and polished, then sent to a shop selling school supplies. I was brought from Kolkata by the authorities and installed when the classroom was completed. Then came the chairs and desks. I am the most important teaching equipment in the classroom. One day the class teacher entered the classroom excitedly and announced that they were turning the classrooms into smart classrooms. The new electronic boards would be connected with internet. The chalk would be replaced with a stylus and the duster was a delete button. It meant that I would be of no use. I would be taken off the walls and maybe given away to schools for poor children. My end was near. I looked lovingly at the children. They were cheering hard. I was happy for them.

Last Update: 2016-09-11
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

google transleterThanks for your response to my email, I want you to know that my reason for contacting you is very important and very legitimate. Please take this seriously. All I want is an honest business transaction with you. I will start by introducing myself. I am Ms. Ella Golan Executive Vice President Banking Division FIBI BANK ISRAEL, Tel Aviv branch, Israel. I have been working with the FIRST INTERNATIONAL BANK OF ISRAEL LTD (FIBI) for the past 10 years. I am getting in touch with you regarding the estate of a deceased client who had an investment placed under our bank’s management. I would respectfully request that you keep the content of this mail confidential and respect the integrity of the information you come by as a result of this mail. I contact you independently and no one is informed of this communication. In late 2006, the subject matter of late Engineer who came to our bank to engage in business discussions with our private banking division. He informed us that he had a financial portfolio of $13M (Thirteen Million US Dollars), which he wished to have us invest on his behalf after being paid for his several concluded contract with Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) Israel. He used to work with the Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) here in Israel, as foreign Expatriate. Based on my advice, we spun the money around various opportunities and made attractive interest margins for our first 2 years of operation, the accrued profit and interest stood at this point at $609K (Six Hundred and Nine Thousand US Dollars) in late 2009. He instructed us that the principal sum and the accrued interest, Thirteen Million, Six Hundred and Nine Thousand Dollars ($13.609M) be liquidated because he needed to make an urgent investment. He directed that I liquidate the funds and had it deposited with a security consultancy firm based in London, United Kingdom. The firm is an especially private firm that accepts deposit from high net worth individuals and blue chip corporations that handle valuable products or undertake transactions that need immediate access to cash. Unfortunately, on the 21st April 2011, my client/customer was involved in a car accident along Yehuda Halevy St, Tel Aviv, Israel. All occupants of the vehicle unfortunately lost their lives. He neither mentioned a next of kin or beneficiary in our records as well as the records of the security firm. As his personal account manager and financial adviser, the security firm as well as management of my bank has been on me since last year till date to provide a next of kin or beneficiary to his estate. Unfortunately, he died intestate, because he neither had a wife nor child while he was alive. I feel he didn’t make a mistake about this; he purposely wanted this money to go to Charity after he died. However, he failed to know that when one who has no next of kin or beneficiary dies, the State takes over his estate and all he ever worked for. What I propose is, since i have exclusive access to his file, you will be made the beneficiary of these funds and sole executor to his estate. No one is aware of his money apart from me and with proper documentation; we can establish that you are the sole authorized beneficiary. I am prepared to instruct the security firm to release the deposit to you as his beneficiary. A beneficiary can be legally assigned to any person who does not nominate a next of kin to an estate. I know this might be heavy for you but please trust me on this. In the banking sector, this happens daily, we see so much cash and funds being re-assigned daily. The other option is that the money will revert back to the State to some corrupt top government officials as I mentioned earlier. Do not betray my confidence; all I require is your honest cooperation to enable us seeing this deal through. I guarantee you that this will be executed under a legitimate arrangement that I will protect you and from any breach of law. Please know that am a Hebrew Woman and will not lie because of my religion and I would expect the same from you. So kindly handle this as privileged information. Please get back to me immediately and provide your full details (Full Name, Residential Address, Office Address, Contact Number, Occupation, Age etc). If you are positive we can do this together. Thanks for your anticipated cooperation. Regards

Hindi

गूगल transleterThanks for your response to my email, I want you to know that my reason for contacting you is very important and very legitimate. Please take this seriously. All I want is an honest business transaction with you. I will start by introducing myself. I am Ms. Ella Golan Executive Vice President Banking Division FIBI BANK ISRAEL, Tel Aviv branch, Israel. I have been working with the FIRST INTERNATIONAL BANK OF ISRAEL LTD (FIBI) for the past 10 years. I am getting in touch with you regarding the estate of a deceased client who had an investment placed under our bank’s management. I would respectfully request that you keep the content of this mail confidential and respect the integrity of the information you come by as a result of this mail. I contact you independently and no one is informed of this communication. In late 2006, the subject matter of late Engineer who came to our bank to engage in business discussions with our private banking division. He informed us that he had a financial portfolio of $13M (Thirteen Million US Dollars), which he wished to have us invest on his behalf after being paid for his several concluded contract with Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) Israel. He used to work with the Oil Refineries LTD (ORL) here in Israel, as foreign Expatriate. Based on my advice, we spun the money around various opportunities and made attractive interest margins for our first 2 years of operation, the accrued profit and interest stood at this point at $609K (Six Hundred and Nine Thousand US Dollars) in late 2009. He instructed us that the principal sum and the accrued interest, Thirteen Million, Six Hundred and Nine Thousand Dollars ($13.609M) be liquidated because he needed to make an urgent investment. He directed that I liquidate the funds and had it deposited with a security consultancy firm based in London, United Kingdom. The firm is an especially private firm that accepts deposit from high net worth individuals and blue chip corporations that handle valuable products or undertake transactions that need immediate access to cash. Unfortunately, on the 21st April 2011, my client/customer was involved in a car accident along Yehuda Halevy St, Tel Aviv, Israel. All occupants of the vehicle unfortunately lost their lives. He neither mentioned a next of kin or beneficiary in our records as well as the records of the security firm. As his personal account manager and financial adviser, the security firm as well as management of my bank has been on me since last year till date to provide a next of kin or beneficiary to his estate. Unfortunately, he died intestate, because he neither had a wife nor child while he was alive. I feel he didn’t make a mistake about this; he purposely wanted this money to go to Charity after he died. However, he failed to know that when one who has no next of kin or beneficiary dies, the State takes over his estate and all he ever worked for. What I propose is, since i have exclusive access to his file, you will be made the beneficiary of these funds and sole executor to his estate. No one is aware of his money apart from me and with proper documentation; we can establish that you are the sole authorized beneficiary. I am prepared to instruct the security firm to release the deposit to you as his beneficiary. A beneficiary can be legally assigned to any person who does not nominate a next of kin to an estate. I know this might be heavy for you but please trust me on this. In the banking sector, this happens daily, we see so much cash and funds being re-assigned daily. The other option is that the money will revert back to the State to some corrupt top government officials as I mentioned earlier. Do not betray my confidence; all I require is your honest cooperation to enable us seeing this deal through. I guarantee you that this will be executed under a legitimate arrangement that I will protect you and from any breach of law. Please know that am a Hebrew Woman and will not lie because of my religion and I would expect the same from you. So kindly handle this as privileged information. Please get back to me immediately and provide your full details (Full Name, Residential Address, Office Address, Contact Number, Occupation, Age etc). If you are positive we can do this together. Thanks for your anticipated cooperation. Regards

Last Update: 2015-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footergoogle translet

Hindi

Dear Tarvinder, You and I spent two hours together yesterday evening ! In any case this is the impression I had, because I couldn't resist : I began drafting your Grand Psychic Study. I know I shouldn't have without your agreement… But for several weeks now I have KNOWN that Destiny is your friend, and opens all the doors of Fortune for you. It is destiny which has placed me in charge of guiding you on your Happiness Route. I simply don't feel I have the right to abandon you, to leave you to sink deeper into disappointment and failure. Without help, you won't find the keys to read into your future and retake the right direction ! You know this, because you wouldn't experience all these difficulties you're facing at the moment if you could help it. And yet you are so close to happiness, you are letting so many signs pass you by which show benevolence from the Heavens for you, that I could very quickly help you to reverse these negative tendencies which are « weighing you down ». With the incredibly beneficial chart which you could benefit from to transform your future, it's such a waste Tarvinder ! Every day that goes by is another day lost, and God knows you don't need this. And what if I immediately told you what I saw in your Grand Study? Of course I haven't finished, but I will lift part of the veil for you in a moment ! Because you absolutely must understand that the Grand Psychic Study I want to do for you is the start of a complete revival of your existence. To a point you probably can't even imagine! This reading will contain precise and concrete revelations on all the events that the future holds for you. These predictions are important to me, because I know that they are exactly what you're expecting. The medium advice that I will give you to help you make the right choices will be numerous and very clear. And with this Grand Psychic Reading, I could trigger all the power of my beneficial occult protection. A promise is a promise... Here is : Your 1 st personal revelation I have examined all the aspects of your life and your personality. I saw that you are benefitting from a totally extraordinary phenomenon: your birth astral configuration has offered you only the best! Finances, professional and love life... I tackle absolutely everything that is important to you, in detail. If you were not subjected to these dramatic harmful influences purposely directed at you, you would be the luckiest person I have met for years... In your Grand Study, I will tell you how to lift these barriers ! I will speak to you straight, Tarvinder : my Occult Powers go as far as using White Magic, and I will use it for you. Your 2 nd personal revelation Your Luckiest area ? The financial area ! I must especially speak to you about your astral configuration regarding games of chance... In your Grand Study, I will give you all the necessary advice to take advantage of what is destined for you without taking any risks... Our objective is your durable material security. Your 3 rd personal revelation Numerology is my passion: the science of numbers is an ancestral knowledge, the Elders taught us that numbers regulate the Cosmos, and our lives... So, I will add to your Grand Study as a gift : your lucky numbers, for all the different circumstances of your life, and also all the beneficial dates in your life From now on. You are going to be someone IN THE KNOW. (how do you think the richest and most famous people have so much success...?) I am always ready to help you, Tarvinder, For as long as you need it I have already spent hours working on your case, and I have sent you the first important revelations for you. In you I have discovered personal abilities, exceptional gifts from destiny, and the paradox of these occult and dark actions against you which contribute to your sticky situation… But do you think I would spend so much time on your case, working to give you the help you need and at the right time so that you take the right direction, if I wasn't certain of what I sense right now? You cannot fight alone against an evil intervention which spoils your life, and when you have been feeling so bad for such a long time. Faced with the importance of what is at stake, it is more than time to learn more about yourself and your future. This is not a coincidence Tarvinder, Destiny has united us at the right time ! Please request your Grand Psychic Study immediately, it is the first very easy step towards your new life. A life where you are finally going to take advantage of all pleasures and all satisfactions. This is not the time to hesitate, my hand is that of a friend who is bringing you Fortune. Grab it without the slightest hesitation. You are taking no risks, except that of being happy, satisfied, safe and recognized for your true worth. I fully commit myself to you, Tarvinder Your gift of confidence is still 100% guaranteed: you don't risk losing a cent! If you are not totally satisfied after reading your Grand Psychic Study, simply return it to me by email and I will fully reimburse you, no questions asked. It is my greatest pleasure to do everything within my power for you. Finally, I am not asking for any fees, just a modest participation towards my costs : 577.00 INR only, instead of my usual fees of 1154 INR. Making a 57% saving for you. And this is really not something I can do very often, because drafting your Grand Psychic Study is very long and very intense work. My greatest reward would be an email from you announcing your success, and almost certainly your surprise at all the happy changes ! You know, you cannot chose to be in the Medium Consultant business without loving your neighbor, and having a profound desire to make others happy. This is our mission on earth, us people who have received the Gift. Tarvinder, please give me your agreement now, and I will be by your side to assist in the evolution of your life with all my power. I REQUEST MY GRAND PSYCHIC STUDY Signature Psychic-Spiritualist PS : Your Grand Psychic Study is a document containing many pages, because I want to provide you with all the revelations, and I don't want to hold anything back. Please, take the time to read it thoroughly, it contains information only about your future. Get ready to make some truly astonishing discoveries ! Footer

Last Update: 2015-10-21
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

I am a tree, tall and imposing, standing all alone near the campus of a temple. My life is ever so interesting as, I see a huge spectrum of society, funny gestures of people, and hear all kinds of conversation of the devotees who pass by me. I was not always so huge. As is true of all living beings I was also a long time back, a young sapling with this huge tree within me. At that time I looked fresh and beautiful as all other beings who are young, but, at that time I was of course not so imposing. This is what I have seen about life that, every stage has something good about it. I understand that, I am a peepal tree which just grows anywhere and everywhere. Ever since I was young, I remember several people coming to my root and worshipping me. They would light an earthenware lamp, and put it near my root, say their prayers and go away. This was a daily ritual which scores of people followed at my root ever since I can remember. As I started growing up bigger and bigger, the temple authorities put a two feet wall like boundary around my trunk. This was done to protect me from being destroyed by crowds who thronged to me. Since I am near a temple, I have always had the pleasure of a lot of company daily and, the great honour of being worshipped by scores of believers every day. Now, I am a full grown tree, and that two feet wall has been converted into a broad platform all around me, with my root out of sight, and the trunk also somewhat covered from vision. Here on the platform people sit and say their prayers and relax. At times they also consume their temple prasad while sitting on this platform. Oh, what a wonderful feeling it is to be so loved and cared for and, above all, being so honoured and respected. This honour is given to me as, I understand now that, a section of the Indian society considered me a holy tree to be worshipped. This is why there is so much hype about me and my kin. As I stand here, near a temple, I never ever feel lonely I get all sorts of company throughout the day, so, where is the scope of feeling lonely. Early in the morning the temple is opened at 6 a.m. It is cleaned and washed so, I get the company of people who clean the premises. They come to me also and broom the area around me, wash the platform and I am trim and neat to welcome my guests for the day. After the temple is cleaned there is a pooja, and from 7 a.m. devotees start pouring in, and the temple bells start ringing and breaking the silence of the night. Devotees continue pouring in the temple right from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m., when the temple closes. These long hours of the day, there is no chance of my getting bored as, I have the company of so many people moving around the area. Even though I am alone, a lonely tree but, my life is full of thrill and excitement, as I get lots of, and variety of company. This in turn is an added honour for me that, while my friends have the company of trees only, I have the company of human beings who talk and walk and discuss matters to make my life more lively and enjoyable. I often wondered to myself as to why there is so much of greatness thrust upon me, though I am just a tree like any other. Yes, here is the catch, I believe I am so revered because I am considered by the Hindus, a religious sect as a holy tree, an incarnation of their God. Aha! this makes me feel proud of myself and I am prone to thank God for this birth in which I get honour, respect, love and care. What else could any living being aspire for. I and my honour are further enhanced as, I stand near a temple of God. Now, all my anxiety is put to rest as, I have learnt that I am also here to be worshipped just as God himself. I stand here alone yet in great company of human beings. My life is just wonderful, I pray to God that HE grant such a wonderful and eventful life to all humans. One thing I forgot to tell you all, about my life. When people come and sit on the platform around me, I also get a lot of information about man’s world. I hear scandals, I hear about murders, thefts and what all evils that exist in this man’s world. At times I also get to hear small children saying lovely words to their mothers and, seeing the mothers cajoling them, I feel what a beautiful life men have. Thus to add to my experience of life, I have come to know a lot about human beings and their lives. Their lives are also full of pleasures and disappointments. It is not that men only enjoy as, most of us lesser beings seem to feel. Men also have their own problems. So, to add up I’d say my life is a pleasure and a rich experience.

Hindi

पेड़ आत्मकथा पर हिंदी निबंध

Last Update: 2015-08-25
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

googal translate engBy Daniel A. Rosenblum 2013, Vol. 5 No. 10 | pg. 2/4 | « » Cite References Print 5 Before the Streets: Livelihoods in Rural Bihar The children of rural Bihar are connected with the rest of India unlike any other time in history. In the district town of Sitamarhi, a place that sits some twenty miles from the Nepal border, the skyline is littered with cell phone towers. On the streets below, walkways are filled with mud, trash, and cow dung. Passersby trough through the mess to buy flee-bitten mitahi (sweets) and the sweltering fruits at nearby stands. For the children of Sitamarhi, they live in this contrast—the severe juxtaposition of “modernity”3 and urbanization with the dilapidated infrastructure surrounding them. The villages within five miles of the district town scarcely receive electricity, prompting me to wonder how anyone with a cell phone was able to recharge their phones.4 The villages I spent the majority of my time in, Amritpur and Baksampur5, gave insight into the livelihoods of children in rural Bihar. In Amritpur, every corner and passageway of the village had more and more children. At times, it would seem the ratio of children to adults was ten to one. Many of these children had prominent signs of malnutrition: kwashiorkor, stunned growth, and slowly healing infections (Bhutta, Black, Cousens, & Ahmed, 2008; Som, Pal, & Bharati, 2007). One boy of about twelve, Deepak, had a nasty infection on his lower leg that continued to worsen over the week I visited. However, there was no formal doctor in the village, only someone trained in basic medical practices. He would have to go to Sitamarhi town to be given medicine, which would cost too much money for Deepak’s mother. This was a problem all too common for children of rural Bihar. School quality and attendance throughout Sitamarhi district was quite mixed. A government school I visited in Amritpur was highly understaffed, lacking proper materials and facilities, and seemed more of a social gathering point for youth. Children would sit along the walls with other classmates drawing, talking, and laughing while the teachers and administrators sat near the entrance splitting their time between socializing and supervising. When we arrived, the teachers began to complain of uneven wage scales and low salaries, providing this as a link for chaos at the school. However, another school we visited in Baksampur, which was run entirely by women, had sufficient materials, was properly staffed, and seemed to be extremely beneficial for the students. In both cases, there were noticeably tensions between attending school and working at home. Especially for older children, many would work in the mornings, helping to transplant rice, and then check into school for the second half of the day. In some cases, children would stop attending school entirely in order to help at home, such as with the case of a lower caste girl in Baksampur, Hoja.6 Pressure to earn began to outweigh the importance of schooling as the children grew older, leading to the abandonment of education in order to help the family. The livelihoods of Bihari youth were rapidly transforming, surrounded by new “modern” pursuits and desires within a rural structure and community. Lunch at an Amritpur government school Lunch Photo Credit: Khushboo Jain Tracking Agricultural Transformations Bihar’s agricultural history is extremely complex, wrapped among transforming government policy, development, and increasing mechanization of the agrarian system. Prior to the Green Revolution taking hold in Bihari agriculture, there was a structure of landholding: the Zamindar system, established under the British Raj. The system’s abolishment, however, is what I wish to focus on, in terms of the uneven effects it had on rural villages, landholdings, and landlessness. The zamindari was a system of landholding that consolidated fields in the hands of powerful village elites. For Bihar, this meant most of the land fell in the hands of upper caste Hindus (Chaudhry, 1988). Peasants were then typically tied to the land, working for the grain they produced, while remaining landless themselves. In the late 19th century, however, Bihar began to feel the effects of commercialism, beginning a process of out-migration from both the zamindar and lower class populations. In the Chapra region at the beginning of this century, upper castes had to resort to occupations other than agriculture. Rajputs, an upper caste group, went out for ‘service’ along with lower class individuals, becoming “peons and durwans in estates of larger zamindars” (de Haan 2002:120). Out-migration existed in high numbers during the zamindari system for both landowners and lower caste laborers, yet the economic gaps between landowners and lower class, as well as the frequency of migration seemed to increase after the foundation of India and the subsequent abolishment of the colonial landholding system.lish to hindi

Hindi

By Daniel A. Rosenblum 2013, Vol. 5 No. 10 | pg. 2/4 | « » Cite References Print 5 Before the Streets: Livelihoods in Rural Bihar The children of rural Bihar are connected with the rest of India unlike any other time in history. In the district town of Sitamarhi, a place that sits some twenty miles from the Nepal border, the skyline is littered with cell phone towers. On the streets below, walkways are filled with mud, trash, and cow dung. Passersby trough through the mess to buy flee-bitten mitahi (sweets) and the sweltering fruits at nearby stands. For the children of Sitamarhi, they live in this contrast—the severe juxtaposition of “modernity”3 and urbanization with the dilapidated infrastructure surrounding them. The villages within five miles of the district town scarcely receive electricity, prompting me to wonder how anyone with a cell phone was able to recharge their phones.4 The villages I spent the majority of my time in, Amritpur and Baksampur5, gave insight into the livelihoods of children in rural Bihar. In Amritpur, every corner and passageway of the village had more and more children. At times, it would seem the ratio of children to adults was ten to one. Many of these children had prominent signs of malnutrition: kwashiorkor, stunned growth, and slowly healing infections (Bhutta, Black, Cousens, & Ahmed, 2008; Som, Pal, & Bharati, 2007). One boy of about twelve, Deepak, had a nasty infection on his lower leg that continued to worsen over the week I visited. However, there was no formal doctor in the village, only someone trained in basic medical practices. He would have to go to Sitamarhi town to be given medicine, which would cost too much money for Deepak’s mother. This was a problem all too common for children of rural Bihar. School quality and attendance throughout Sitamarhi district was quite mixed. A government school I visited in Amritpur was highly understaffed, lacking proper materials and facilities, and seemed more of a social gathering point for youth. Children would sit along the walls with other classmates drawing, talking, and laughing while the teachers and administrators sat near the entrance splitting their time between socializing and supervising. When we arrived, the teachers began to complain of uneven wage scales and low salaries, providing this as a link for chaos at the school. However, another school we visited in Baksampur, which was run entirely by women, had sufficient materials, was properly staffed, and seemed to be extremely beneficial for the students. In both cases, there were noticeably tensions between attending school and working at home. Especially for older children, many would work in the mornings, helping to transplant rice, and then check into school for the second half of the day. In some cases, children would stop attending school entirely in order to help at home, such as with the case of a lower caste girl in Baksampur, Hoja.6 Pressure to earn began to outweigh the importance of schooling as the children grew older, leading to the abandonment of education in order to help the family. The livelihoods of Bihari youth were rapidly transforming, surrounded by new “modern” pursuits and desires within a rural structure and community. Lunch at an Amritpur government school Lunch Photo Credit: Khushboo Jain Tracking Agricultural Transformations Bihar’s agricultural history is extremely complex, wrapped among transforming government policy, development, and increasing mechanization of the agrarian system. Prior to the Green Revolution taking hold in Bihari agriculture, there was a structure of landholding: the Zamindar system, established under the British Raj. The system’s abolishment, however, is what I wish to focus on, in terms of the uneven effects it had on rural villages, landholdings, and landlessness. The zamindari was a system of landholding that consolidated fields in the hands of powerful village elites. For Bihar, this meant most of the land fell in the hands of upper caste Hindus (Chaudhry, 1988). Peasants were then typically tied to the land, working for the grain they produced, while remaining landless themselves. In the late 19th century, however, Bihar began to feel the effects of commercialism, beginning a process of out-migration from both the zamindar and lower class populations. In the Chapra region at the beginning of this century, upper castes had to resort to occupations other than agriculture. Rajputs, an upper caste group, went out for ‘service’ along with lower class individuals, becoming “peons and durwans in estates of larger zamindars” (de Haan 2002:120). Out-migration existed in high numbers during the zamindari system for both landowners and lower caste laborers, yet the economic gaps between landowners and lower class, as well as the frequency of migration seemed to increase after the foundation of India and the subsequent abolishment of the colonial landholding system.

Last Update: 2015-07-28
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Emerson said, toward the end of his writing career, "I have taught one doctrine, namely, the infinitude of the private man." That's why we begin our study of American transcendentalism with this essay. His basic philosophical faith (one shared by many Americans) is that the ultimate source of truth is within ourselves. We recognize truth outside ourselves, in nature or in others, and the key word here is "recognize," even if only very dimly. We are often not "in touch" with ourselves or trust ourselves enough to find these truths and so must often depend on others, books, etc. to express it for us, but it is somehow within us. Now, there's no particular empirical evidence for this; Emerson is making a great intuitive leap of faith, and you either believe (because you've experienced it to some degree) or you don't. It is this concept of what some critics call the "imperial self" which lies at the heart of romanticism, both positively and negatively. However, this is not necessarily self-centered, because the truth which lies within is universal, shared and recognized by all (if they only knew it) and generated by Self (God, Over-soul, whatever). All we can really know is within us, but we must assume that other people have the same potential as we do--and assume that they do, in fact, exist (although you really can't prove it!) Presumably, trusting oneself means much more than that; it means trusting that somehow or other we have an innate wisdom which is a projection of the god within, and that every person has that wisdom, although few have much access to it. Those few we often call poets and prophets (but never politicians!) and we cherish the insights into our own truths that we glimpse through them. Theoretically, then, to believe in our selves and our deep capacity to understand and recognize truths is to believe in every self, though we have no access to any other self besides us. Practically it may be another matter, but Emerson is a bit of an idealist and not terribly practical (we can't all be everything!) One characteristic of Emerson's essays is the gaps he leaves the reader to fill (or to flounder in); it is probably their greatest strength (because you may personalize what you read) and greatest weakness (it can be confusing). For example, at the beginning of the essay he speaks of verses he has read which are original, but he does not tell you what those verses are. You have to imagine what "original" might be. His emphasis is not on these particular verses, or even the definition of originality in poetry, but a discussion on originality and recognizing your own ability to be original and not imitative. After all, he can't say what would be original for you, could he? But he wants you to imagine what that might be. This will happen repeatedly through the essay. Try your best to fill those blanks in ways that make sense to you and your experience, and if you can't, ignore them and keep going. One problem you may find with this essay is that you feel that he is hitting you over the head with the same idea over and over, like a big hammer labeled "believe in yourself." I'm sure you wished to cry out, "ok Ralphie, I've got it, I've got it!" He makes sure that you consider the implications of this idea in every way possible. It doesn't matter if there are gaps in what you understand; he'll catch up with you somewhere or other in the essay. A little overkill, perhaps. Why? Whom is he trying to convince? Perhaps himself as well as his reader. But the message seems to be one that we all need, especially today when the ever-present media assaults us with ideas and images of how we should live and what we should believe. Remember that we are reading this 150 years later or so. What seemed like a rather novel idea then has deteriorated into a cliche, embedded in just about every self-help "psychology" book in the local mall bookstore that you can find. It is hard for us to see the original force of this in 1838, when people felt far less secure about themselves, as individuals and as Americans (whatever that was). In many ways, this is as much a cultural/intellectual declaration of independence as it is an exhortation to believe in yourself. Its major power today is probably directed toward the younger reader, struggling with the very powerful forces toward conformity that seem endemic in American high schools. However, it also works in a class like this, where I am, in a sense, forcing you to express your ideas and not giving you such an easy way out as taking notes on what wisdom I might have to impart. Emerson had his own personal reasons for writing this. He was deeply insecure in many ways (aren't we all?), and a rather revolutionary speech about religion that he delivered at the Harvard Divinity School about this time (asserting the doctrine of the God within) caused a tremendous uproar and criticism from people he respected. There would be no job for him at Harvard! He had left the ministry a few years earlier and had lost his young wife to tuberculosis after 18 months of marriage. He didn't really have a career at that point; he just had the ideas he believed passionately and thought needed to be heard. He was involved in a very deep career crisis (which many of us can relate to). There simply was no way to earn a living doing what his heart told him that he must do--to write and to speak. Except, as it turned out, there were ways to realize his dream, as long as he didn't lose his faith in himself. The rhetoric of this essay shows signs of his years in the pulpit; it's like he's demanding you to listen and to go out and act. But he may well be exhorting himself just as much as, if not more than, his readers. What he wanted to do--to establish himself a place as a writer and thinker--was extraordinarily difficult to do outside of an institution like the church or the university (so what else has changed!), and it would take all the nerve he could summon. And after all, he was no kid; he was 35 years old and counting. It all sounds so simple: just make up your mind to trust your deepest instincts and go for it! I know it isn't that simple--and in fact, so did Emerson, and seeing the problems inherent in such a personally energizing idea kept him busy writing for some time. If you look carefully, you can see some awareness of this conflict in the essay, but it doesn't really blossom forth for a while. For one thing, he gives a lot of credit to innate goodness, and almost totally ignores the very crucial environmental shaping factors. He and his readers were raised in an extremely "moral" environment, and though they might rebel against church doctrine, they were deeply "indoctrinated" with those moral codes. This is not necessarily the case in the "murder capital of the world"! Another problem is the extreme "masculinity" of the essay--one of his favorite words is "manliness." I can just visualize this very assertive and muscular male as an underlying ideal (was Emerson insecure about that too? Probably, since writers/thinkers/preachers were considered rather feminized by his society, unlike those competitive, money-making businessmen so idealized by his compatriots.) I don't believe that self-trust is a male-marked trait, although I suspect that he does believe it (though, bless his heart, he doesn't really know it!). I know, I'm reading this from my own perspective, but as Emerson would say, isn't that the only way you can read? Actually, I think you can try to place yourself in another context, but that must be a work of imagination to some degree (I can try, anyhow; I'll just substitute woman for man and you can do whatever you like!) Emerson doesn't just keep preaching the same doctrine though, you may be relieved to hear, or at least not with the same simplistic fervour. There is a flip side to this: as exciting and energizing it may be to follow your deepest instincts and do/say what you think is right, it's also depressing to think that maybe all we can know is what is within us. In a sense, we may be imprisoned within our own perceptions and experiences, and can never really know what might be true. We can't even be sure if anyone or anything else exists, because all we can know is what's in our little individual heads. Emerson will come to see this, as well as the many limitations on our power that are imposed by circumstances and environment, which he calls Fate. He gets a lot more interesting when he confronts these conflicting forces. Wouldn't it be nice if all we had to do is "trust ourselves" and follow our own stars? Actually, it's rather amazing what people can accomplish if they do just that. However, that's not the whole story, and Emerson knew it, especially after life dealt him a few more tough blows--like his beloved 5 year old son dying of scarlet fever. Self-reliance can look like a pretty puny doctrine in light of a tragedy like that, but it did sustain him (although perhaps in a modified form).. So the important thing is not whether Emerson is right or wrong here. He's both--and we are to draw from the essay what means the most to us. That's one reason it's written as it is. Buried in there are sentences which strike right to the heart of readers, and suggest all kinds of possibilities for them. For example, many students trying to see their way ahead in life have found great comfort in this metaphor: The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks. See the line from a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself, and will explain your other genuine actions. You could interpret this in several ways. When you look at your life, especially when you are young, if you follow your "inner gyroscope" and do things and take courses that just "feel right," it might look to others (parents in particular) as if you just can't make up your mind and are zigzagging all over the place. The coherence will be an inner one, perhaps not even visible to you, but over time, it will probably make sense, just as you have to zigzag when sailing to reach a point most directly. One difference, of course, is that you (unlike the sailor) often haven't a clue where or what that "point" might be, and have to trust that by following your instincts and strengths, you'll actually reach some kind of point. I find that rather profound, as I look at my own life, and the decisions that I made that didn't make a lot of sense, perhaps, to others and seemed inconsistent, but that were in fact quite consistent with who I was and what I wanted to be, although I hadn't a clue what that might be (I never dreamed I'd end up teaching, etc.!) OK, that's my personal testimony (although I'll admit, I cruised past that passage when I was in college and needed to read it most)--you'll have your own, I imagine. If you'll be patient with Emerson (and his vocabulary and greater reading knowledge), he is likely to speak very personally to you, if not on this reading then maybe on another. Besides, just think of all the money you can save on those self-help books and therapy groups by going right to the source! ;

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