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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"E-learning" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning.
Technology (Electronic marking)
Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."
Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology:
educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning
educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange
educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS)
educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)".
2 Related terms
5.1 Synchronous and asynchronous
5.2 Linear learning
5.3 Collaborative learning
6.1 Audio and video
6.2 Computers, tablets and mobile devices
6.3 Social networks
6.7 Virtual classroom
6.8 E-learning authoring tools
6.9 Learning management system
6.10 Learning objects
7.3 Higher education
7.4 Corporate and professional
7.5 Public health
7.8 Identity options
9.2 Sociocultural criticism
10 Teacher training
14 See also
16 Further reading
Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources." The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning." As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology.
Early 20th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school.
Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.
However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education.
Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features. However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment. Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning; nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology.
In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world, for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.
As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning milieu. Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have to do anything in order to learn, they just have to be there. The combination of adaptive learning, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning. Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept.
Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the "e" of e-learning should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic." Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy". These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology.
Main article: Educational software
19th century classroom, Auckland
Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls. Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium. From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials, such as overhead projectors. The concept of hypertext is traced to description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945.
Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s.
In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely linked device like a television or audio device.
In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California. Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. Working with Stanford and others he helped develop computer-assisted instruction. Working with the Rand Corporation, Luskin's landmark UCLA dissertation in 1970 analyzed obstacles to computer-assisted instruction.
Artistic portrait of Ivan Illich by Amano1.
In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada. In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86).
By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations.
Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.
Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with Museum Education. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue; and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant.
The Open University in Britain and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning, making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students. Practitioners such as Harasim (1995) put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks.
With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students.
By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.
Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams. The National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback.
According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component. In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks.
Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media. Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance.
Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education) and Educational philosophies
Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism.
This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.
B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior and wrote "The Technology of Teaching", an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models.
Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.
Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.:224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology. Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most contro
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Pollution can arise from the consumption or use of products (product pollution) or the production of those products (process pollution). Examples of product pollution include the consumption of foods contaminated with pesticides, the use of aerosol sprays with ozone depleting chemicals, driving vehicles,
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Organic fuel burned at thermal power stations contains harmful impurities, which are ejected into the environment as gaseous and solid components of combustion products and adversely affect the atmosphere and water and the whole biosphere. The atmosphere is also contaminated by waste gases of various industrial plants, exhaust gases of transport vehicles, abuse of agricultural chemicals and other contamination sources which are due to human activities.
In India, by the turn of the century, about 70,000 MW of thermal power will be generated using high ash content coal. The environmental pollution due to thermal power generation will increase beyond acceptable limits unless stringent measures based on Environmental Protection Act, 1986 are strictly enforced.
Causes of Thermal Pollution
The thermal power stations use thousands of tons of low quality (high ash content) coal per day. These power stations and other industries have completely changed the nature and socioeconomic order of the region.
The natural rocky hills are disappearing due to heavy quarrying. Tall chimneys and gigantic machines emit a cloud of dust with fly ash and smoke containing high level of acid forming oxides of sulphur and toxic fluorides and huge quantity of highly toxic cement particles which find easy foothold on plant leaves and human lungs.
The products of complete burning of fuel in thermal power plants mainly consist of carbon dioxide, water molecules, nitrogen, sulphur dioxide and S03 anhydride (sulphur trioxide) and ash. At high temperatures existing in the flame core of high power boilers, the nitrogen of fuel and air may partially be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen dioxide dissociates in the presence of sunlight to nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The latter combines with molecular oxygen to reform ozone (03).
The concentration of ozone in polluted atmosphere often goes up 10 to 20 times the natural ozone level (0.02-0.03 ppm).
With incomplete combustion of fuel in furnaces, carbon monoxide hydrocarbons (CH2, C2H4) etc. and some carcinogenic substances are additionally formed. Among many carcinogenic substances, of highest importance, as regards their intensity of action, are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, benzapyrene. The highest quantity of benzapyrene is formed under the conditions when air is deficient and complete combustion cannot occur.
Nitrogen oxides, even in low concentrations, can irritate respiratory organs, destroy equipme and materials, and promote the formation of smog and impair visibility. Sulphur is present iii solid fuels in three forms: as inclusions of pyrite FeS2; Sulphur in molecules of the organic ma of the fuel; and sulphate sulphur. Upon combustion of a fuel, almost all the sulphur contained in it passes to flue gases in the form of S02 and S03 oxides.
Pollutants in the effluents of thermal power stations and natural admixtures undergo complex processes of transformations and reactions. Deposited on the ground, they are washed down by atmospheric precipitates and reach the solid and water basins.
The hot fuel gases can be effectively removed in a powerful upward flow through high stacks and ejected into the atmosphere at a substantial height where they will be mixed with higher layers of the atmosphere. Before ejecting the fuel gases and ash into the atmosphere, however, the modern state of gas purifying techniques makes it possible to reduce appreciably the concentration of impurities in waste gases.
Electrostatic precipitators are employed to ensure a high degree of gas cleaning. With any method of fuel and waste gas purification, however, a certain quantity of impurities remains in the effluent gases. If harmful impurities have been dispersed in the atmosphere to concentrations not exceeding the scientifically found norms, their presence in the atmosphere has practically no effect on the living nature.
Toxic substances both of natural and industrial (antropogenic) origin can produce deleterious effects on the whole complex of biosphere.
The biosphere comprises of the atmospheric layer near the earth's surface and the upper layers of the soil and water basins. Though the natural sources of atmospheric pollution are sometimes more powerful than the anthropogenic ones, the latter are of great importance since they are responsible for atmospheric pollution in densely populated areas.
The main contributor to atmospheric pollution is the combustion of mineral fuels, especially the thermal power plants. The relative contribution of a particular industry to atmospheric pollution may vary with the rate of growth of the industry.
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