Ask Google

Results for weighing scale translation from English to Kannada

Human contributions

From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories.

Add a translation

English

Kannada

Info

English

Weighing scale

Kannada

ತಕ್ಕಡಿ

Last Update: 2015-05-08
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale X

Kannada

X ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale Y

Kannada

ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ Y

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale Z

Kannada

Z ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Data scale

Kannada

ದತ್ತಾಂಶದ ಅಳತೆ

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale In

Kannada

ಸ್ಕೇಲ್ ಇನ್Comment

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale Gravity

Kannada

ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಗುರುತ್ವ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Horizontal scale

Kannada

ಅಡ್ಡಲಾದ ಮಾಪನ

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Vertical scale

Kannada

ಲಂಬ ಮಾಪನ

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale Center X

Kannada

ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರ X

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale Center Y

Kannada

ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರ Y

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Horizontal scale center

Kannada

ಅಡ್ಡ ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Vertical scale center

Kannada

ಲಂಬ ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale factor on the X axis

Kannada

X ಅಕ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿನ ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಅಂಶ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale factor on the Y axis

Kannada

Y ಅಕ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿನ ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಅಂಶ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Scale factor on the Z axis

Kannada

Z ಅಕ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿನ ಗಾತ್ರ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ ಅಂಶ

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

An earthquake can be measured with Richter scale

Kannada

ಭೂಕಂಪನ್ನು ರಿಕ್ಟರ್ ಮಾಪನದಿಂದ ಅಳೆಯಬಹುದು

Last Update: 2018-01-02
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

tarleshan1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Govern

Kannada

1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may,

Last Update: 2018-04-10
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

n everyday usage, vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal. The term vegetable is somewhat arbitrary, and largely defined through culinary and cultural tradition. It normally excludes other food derived from plants such as fruits, nuts, and cereal grains, but includes seeds such as pulses. The original meaning of the word vegetable, still used in biology, was to describe all types of plant, as in the terms "vegetable kingdom" and "vegetable matter". Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing, processing, and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day often being recommended.

Kannada

ತರಕಾರಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಬೀಜಗಳು ಸಹ ಲಾಭ

Last Update: 2017-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

WLE Austria Logo (no text).svg The beautiful white bengal tiger, Abhishek Chikile, CC BY-SA 4.0. Hide Participate in Wiki Loves Earth India 2016 Photo contest Upload Photos of Natural Heritage sites of India to help Wikipedia & win fantastic Prizes Check out the rules here Educational technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "E-learning" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Education Disciplines Evaluation History Organization Philosophy Psychology (school) Technology (Electronic marking) International education School counseling Special education Teacher education Curricular domains Arts Business Early childhood Engineering Language Literacy Mathematics Science Social science Technology Vocational Methods Case method Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Factor analysis Factorial experiment Focus group Meta-analysis Multivariate statistics Participant observation v t e Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS) educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Contents 1 Definition 2 Related terms 3 History 4 Theory 4.1 Behaviorism 4.2 Cognitivism 4.3 Constructivism 5 Practice 5.1 Synchronous and asynchronous 5.2 Linear learning 5.3 Collaborative learning 6 Media 6.1 Audio and video 6.2 Computers, tablets and mobile devices 6.3 Social networks 6.4 Webcams 6.5 Whiteboards 6.6 Screencasting 6.7 Virtual classroom 6.8 E-learning authoring tools 6.9 Learning management system 6.10 Learning objects 7 Settings 7.1 Preschool 7.2 K–12 7.3 Higher education 7.4 Corporate and professional 7.5 Public health 7.6 ADHD 7.7 Disabilities 7.8 Identity options 8 Benefits 9 Disadvantages 9.1 Over-stimulation 9.2 Sociocultural criticism 10 Teacher training 11 Assessment 12 Expenditure 13 Careers 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading Definition Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[2] The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."[3][4][5] As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Related terms Early 20th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school. Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.[6] However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[7] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),[8] internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education. Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features.[9] However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment.[10] Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle.[9] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning;[11] nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology.[9] In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology.[9] Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world,[12][13] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[14][15] In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.[16] As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning milieu.[17] Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have to do anything in order to learn, they just have to be there.[17][18] The combination of adaptive learning, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning.[19][20][21] Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept.[22][23] Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the "e" of e-learning should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic."[24] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[25] These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology.[24] History Main article: Educational software 19th century classroom, Auckland Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls.[26][27] Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium.[28] From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century[29] with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials, such as overhead projectors. The concept of hypertext is traced to description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. Cuisenaire rods Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s. In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely linked device like a television or audio device.[30] In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California.[31][32] Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. Working with Stanford and others he helped develop computer-assisted instruction. Working with the Rand Corporation, Luskin's landmark UCLA dissertation in 1970 analyzed obstacles to computer-assisted instruction. Artistic portrait of Ivan Illich by Amano1. In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology[33] as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada.[34] In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning[35] (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86). By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge. Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with Museum Education. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue; and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant.[36] The Open University in Britain[34] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning,[37] making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students.[38] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[39] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.[40] Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams. The National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component.[41] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.[42] Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media.[43][44] Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance.[45] Theory Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education) and Educational philosophies Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Behaviorism This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.[46] B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior[47][48] and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",[49][50] an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. Cognitivism Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.[51] Constructivism Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012[52]). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.[53]:224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology.[53][54] Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most contro

Kannada

ಬಿನ್ ಜೊತೆ transalate

Last Update: 2016-06-06
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

Get a better translation with
4,401,923,520 human contributions

Users are now asking for help:



We use cookies to enhance your experience. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. Learn more. OK