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English

Wave

Somali

Mowjad

Last Update: 2011-08-21
Usage Frequency: 3
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Reference: Wikipedia

English

Wave ring between this and that; neither for this nor for that and whomsoever Allah sendeth astray, for him thou wilt never find a way.

Somali

waxayna ku noqnoqon (wareeri) arrintaas dhexdeeda kuwaasina lama jiraan kuwaana lama jiraan, cidduu dhumiyey Eebe uma heshid Waddo (eid hanuunin).

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Wikipedia

English

Acknowledgment ................................................................................................................... i Table of Contents .................................................................................................................. ii Chapter One: Shock ............................................................................................................. 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1 Classification .............................................................................................. 1 Patho Physiology of Shock ......................................................................... 2 Management of Shock ................................................................................ 3 Complications of Shock .............................................................................. 4 Chapter Two: Fluid and Electolytes ..................................................................................... 5 Introduction ................................................................................................. 5 Normal Distribution of Body Fluids .............................................................. 5 Disturbances of Fluid and Electrolytes ........................................................ 7 Acid – Base Balance ................................................................................... 12 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 15 References .................................................................................................. 16 Chapter Three: Blood Transfusion ....................................................................................... 17 Indications for Blood Transfusion ............................................................... 17 Compatibility Tests ...................................................................................... 17 Component Therapy ................................................................................... 18 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 21 References .................................................................................................. 22 Chapter Four: Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Care ...................................................... 23 Introduction ................................................................................................. 23 General Consideration ............................................................................... 23 Assessment and Minimization of Surgical Risks ........................................ 24 Post-Operative Care, Complications and Their Treatment ......................... 26 Post Operative Intestinal Obstruction ......................................................... 31 Hematoma, Abscess and Seromas ............................................................ 33 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 34 References .................................................................................................. 35 Chapter Five: Aseptic and Antisepic Techniques ................................................................ 36 Introduction ................................................................................................. 36 Choice of Antiseptic ................................................................................... 37 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 41 References .................................................................................................. 42 Chapter Six: Suture Materials and Suturing ......................................................................... 43 Types of Suture Materials ........................................................................... 43 Suturing Techniques ................................................................................... 44 iii Chapter Seven: Wounds- Wound Healing and Care ........................................................... 47 Introduction ................................................................................................. 47 Wound Healing ............................................................................................ 47 Wound Assessment and Classification ....................................................... 49 Wound Management ................................................................................... 50 Crush and Avulsion Wounds ....................................................................... 53 Wound Complications ................................................................................. 55 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 57 Key To the Review Questions ..................................................................... 59 References .................................................................................................. 60 Chapter Eight: Surgical Infections ........................................................................................ 61 Introduction ................................................................................................. 61 Classification .............................................................................................. 62 Pathogenesis .............................................................................................. 62 Specific Types of Infections ........................................................................ 64 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 73 Key To the Review Questions ..................................................................... 75 References .................................................................................................. 76 Chapter Nine: Trauma .......................................................................................................... 77 Introduction ................................................................................................. 77 Treatment Priorities ..................................................................................... 78 Road Traffic Accidents ................................................................................ 79 Firearm Injuries ........................................................................................... 80 BURN INJURIES ......................................................................................... 81 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 84 References .................................................................................................. 85 Head and Spinal Injuries ............................................................................ 86 Head Injury .................................................................................................. 86 Brain Injuries ............................................................................................... 87 Spinal Cord Injuries ..................................................................................... 90 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 92 References .................................................................................................. 93 Chapter Ten: Orthopedic Surgery ........................................................................................ 94 Introduction ................................................................................................. 94 Infections of Bones and Joints .................................................................... 94 Fractures ..................................................................................................... 97 Dislocations ................................................................................................. 102 Amputations ................................................................................................ 103 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 105 References .................................................................................................. 106 Chapter Eleven: Anesthesia................................................................................................. 107 Pre-Anesthetic Patient Evaluation and Preparation .................................... 107 iv Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation .................................................................. 111 Systemic (General) Anesthesia .................................................................. 115 Regional Anesthesia ................................................................................... 118 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 124 References .................................................................................................. 125 SYSTEMIC SURGERY Chapter One: The Thyroid Gland ......................................................................................... 126 Thyroid Enlargement: Goiter ....................................................................... 126 Neoplasms of the Thyroid ........................................................................... 130 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 132 References .................................................................................................. 133 Chapter Two: The Breast ..................................................................................................... 134 Introduction ................................................................................................. 134 Anatomy ..................................................................................................... 134 Breast Lumps .............................................................................................. 135 Carcinoma of the Breast ............................................................................. 137 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 140 References .................................................................................................. 141 Chapter Three: The Chest ................................................................................................... 142 Introduction ................................................................................................. 142 Upper Airway Obstruction ........................................................................... 142 Tracheostomy ............................................................................................. 143 Chest Injuries .............................................................................................. 146 Pneumothorax ............................................................................................. 149 Hemothorax ................................................................................................. 149 Tube Thoracostomy (Chest Tube) .............................................................. 150 Empyema and Lung Abscess ..................................................................... 152 Lung Abscess .............................................................................................. 154 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 156 References .................................................................................................. 157 Chapter Four: Gastrointestinal Tract .................................................................................... 158 Introduction ................................................................................................. 158 Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding ................................................................. 159 Colorectal Tumors ....................................................................................... 164 Common Perianal Conditions ..................................................................... 166 Anal Fissure (Fissure in ANO) .................................................................... 170 Hemorrhoids (Piles) .................................................................................... 171 References .................................................................................................. 175 Acute Abdomen ........................................................................................... 176 Intestinal Obstruction .................................................................................. 177 Sigmoid Volvulus ......................................................................................... 179 v Appendicitis ................................................................................................. 180 Peritonitis .................................................................................................... 183 Hepato Biliary Diseases .............................................................................. 185 Hydatid Cyst of the Liver ............................................................................. 187 Diseases of Gall Bladder and Biliary Tree .................................................. 189 Obstructive Jaundice................................................................................... 193 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 197 Abdominal Wall Hernias ............................................................................. 198 Introduction ................................................................................................. 198 Risk Factors for Abdominal Wall Hernia Development ............................... 199 Specific Types of Hernia ............................................................................. 200 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 204 References .................................................................................................. 205 Stomach and Duodenum ............................................................................ 206 Introduction ................................................................................................. 206 Peptic Ulcer Disease ................................................................................... 206 Gastric Cancer ............................................................................................ 211 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 213 DYSPHAGIA ............................................................................................. 214 Introduction ................................................................................................. 214 Dysphagia ................................................................................................... 214 Carcinoma of the Esophagus...................................................................... 215 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 218 References .................................................................................................. 219 Chapter Five: Urology .......................................................................................................... 220 Introduction ................................................................................................. 220 Urinary Symptoms and Investigations of Urinary Tract Problems .............. 220 Acute Renal Failure (Anuria/Oliguria) ......................................................... 222 Disorder of the Kidneys and Ureters ........................................................... 223 Urinary Tract Infection ................................................................................. 224 Renal Tuberculosis ..................................................................................... 226 Urinary Bladder ........................................................................................... 230 Bladder Cancer ........................................................................................... 231 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ...................................................................... 231 The Urethra and Penis ................................................................................ 233 Urethral Stricture ......................................................................................... 234 Review Questions ....................................................................................... 238 References .................................................................................................. 239 1 CHAPTER ONE SHOCK Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter, each student should be able to: • State the clinical definition of shock • List the chief characteristics and causes of all types of shock • Describe the clinical symptoms and signs that are indicative of shock • List the immediate treatment measures to prevent complications Introduction Shock is a life-threatening condition which occurs when the circulatory system fails to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and becomes unable to remove waste products from the body. It is a descriptive term based on the symptoms and signs secondary to one or more of a wide range of problems. If not recognized and corrected as early as possible, shock may rapidly progress to an irreversible state with subsequent multi-organ failure and death. DEFINITION Shock is defined as a pathological state causing inadequate oxygen delivery to the peripheral tissues and resulting in lactic acidosis, cellular hypoxia and disruption of normal metabolic condition. CLASSIFICATION Shock is generally classified into three major categories: 1. Hypovolemic shock 2. Cardiogenic shock 3. Distributive shock Distributive shock is further subdivided into three subgroups: a. Septic shock b. Neurogenic shock c. Anaphylactic shock Hypovolemic shock is present when marked reduction in oxygen delivery results from diminished cardiac output secondary to inadequate vascular volume. In general, it results from loss of fluid from circulation, either directly or indirectly. 2 e.g. ▪ Hemorrhage 􀂃 Loss of plasma due to burns 􀂃 Loss of water and electrolytes in diarrhea 􀂃 Third space loss (Internal fluid shift into inflammatory exudates in the peritoneum, such as in pancreatitis.) Cardiogenic shock is present when there is severe reduction in oxygen delivery secondary to impaired cardiac function. Usually it is due to myocardial infarction or pericardial tamponade. Septic Shock (vasogenic shock) develops as a result of the systemic effect of infection. It is the result of a septicemia with endotoxin and exotoxin release by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Despite normal or increased cardiac output and oxygen delivery, cellular oxygen consumption is less than normal due to impaired extraction as a result of impaired metabolism. Neurogenic shock results primarily from the disruption of the sympathetic nervous system which may be due to pain or loss of sympathetic tone, as in spinal cord injuries. PATHO PHYSIOLOGY OF SHOCK Shock stimulates a physiologic response. This circulatory response to hypotension is to cons

Somali

download mymemory free Ingiriisi in somali

Last Update: 2016-01-17
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

"I shall go up a mountain," he said, "which will keep me from the water." "There is no getting away," said Noah, "from the decree of God today, except for those on whom be His mercy." And a wave came between them, and he was among those who were drowned.

Somali

wuxuuna ku yidhi waxaan u dunmi buur iga dhawrta Biyaha wuxuu yidhi (Nabi Nuux) wax ilaalin kara maanta amarka Eebe ma jiro cid Eebe u naxariistay mooyee, waxaana kala dhex maray hirkii wuxuuna noqday Wiilkii kuwa la maansheeyey.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

A believer cannot slay another believer except by mistake for which the retaliation is to set free a believing slave and pay the appointed blood money to the relatives of the deceased unless the relatives wave aside the payment. If the person slain is from your enemies but himself is a believer, the penalty is to set free a believing slave. If the person slain is one of those with whom you have a peace treaty, the penalty is the same as that for a slain believer. If this is not possible, the defendant has to fast for two consecutive months, asking God to accept his repentance. He is All-knowing and All-wise.

Somali

uma habboona (banaana) Ruux Mu'min ah muu Dilo Mu'min si gaf'ah mooyee, Ruuxii u Dila Mu'min Gaf waxaa saaran Xorayn qoor Mu'min, iyo Mag la siiyo Ehelmiisii, inay Sadaqaystaan moyee, hadduu ka midyahay Qoom aad Coltihiin isna Mu'min yahay waxaa Saaran Xorayn Qoor Mu'min, hadduu ka midyahay Qoom ballan, idin dhexyaal waxaa saaran Mag la siiyo Ehelkiisii iyo Xorayn Qoor Mu'min ah, hadduusan helin (Qoorna) wuxuu Soomi Laba Bilood oo Israac raacsan, waana Toobad Eebe, Eebana waa Oge Falsau.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And if a wave comes upon them like mountains, they pray to Allah believing purely in Him; then when He brings them safely to land, some of them remain upon justice; and none will deny Our signs except an extremely unfaithful, ungrateful person.

Somali

marka hirku daboolo dadka oo Hoos la moodo waxay baryaan Eebe iyagoo u kali yeeli Diinta (Cibaadada) markuu u koriyo xagga Barrigana waxaa ka mid noqon Dadka mid dhexdexeysan, mana diido aayadkanaga mid khaa'in ah oo gaalimo badan mooyee.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And if a wave enshroudeth them like awnings, they cry unto Allah, making their faith pure for Him only. But when He bringeth them safe to land, some of them compromise. None denieth Our signs save every traitor ingrate.

Somali

marka hirku daboolo dadka oo Hoos la moodo waxay baryaan Eebe iyagoo u kali yeeli Diinta (Cibaadada) markuu u koriyo xagga Barrigana waxaa ka mid noqon Dadka mid dhexdexeysan, mana diido aayadkanaga mid khaa'in ah oo gaalimo badan mooyee.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And it moved on with them amid waves like mountains; and Nuh called out to his son, and he was aloof: O my son! embark with us and be not with the unbelievers.

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And it moved on with them amidst waves like mountains. And Nuh called out his son, and he was apart: O my son! embark with us, and be not with the infidels.

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And it sailed along with them amid waves [rising] like mountains. Noah called out to his son, who stood aloof, ‘O my son! ‘Board with us, and do not be with the faithless!’

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And it sailed with them amid waves like mountains, and Noah cried unto his son - and he was standing aloof - O my son! Come ride with us, and be not with the disbelievers.

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And it sailed with them through waves like mountains, and Noah called to his son who was apart [from them], "O my son, come aboard with us and be not with the disbelievers."

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

And on that Day We shall let some of them surge like waves against others, and the Trumpet shall be blown. Then We shall gather them all together.

Somali

waxaana ka yeeli qaarkood maalintaas kii qaarka (kale) dhexgali waxaana la afuufaa suurka waana soo kulminnaa kulmin.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And on that Day [i.e. the Day Ya'juj and Ma'juj (Gog and Magog) will come out], We shall leave them to surge like waves on one another, and the Trumpet will be blown, and We shall collect them all together.

Somali

waxaana ka yeeli qaarkood maalintaas kii qaarka (kale) dhexgali waxaana la afuufaa suurka waana soo kulminnaa kulmin.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And on that day We shall release them in groups surging like waves one after another, and the Trumpet will be blown – so We shall gather them all together. (* Gog and Magog will come out during the time of Eisa (Jesus – when he comes back to earth) and cause great destruction in the land.)

Somali

waxaana ka yeeli qaarkood maalintaas kii qaarka (kale) dhexgali waxaana la afuufaa suurka waana soo kulminnaa kulmin.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And so it (the Ark) ran with them amidst the mountainous waves, and Noah cried out to his son, who was standing apart, 'Embark with us, my son, do not be with the unbelievers'

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And so it sailed with them amidst waves like hills. And Noah called to his son, who had kept away, “On my son! Embark with us, and do not be with the disbelievers.”

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And the same carries them amid waves like mountains; and Nooh called out to his son whereas he was standing apart, “O my son! Embark along with us*, and do not be with the disbelievers.” (* As a Muslim.)

Somali

wayna la socotay hir dhexdiis oo buuro la mida wuxuuna u dhawaaqay Nabi Nuux Wiilkiisii wuxuuna ahaa meel ka gaar ah (Isagoo leh) Wiilkaygow nala soo kor hana la jirin gaalada.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And when a wave covereth them like awnings, they call upon Allah, making their religion pure for Him. Then when He delivereth them on the land, only some of them keep to the middle course. And none gainsaith Our signssave each perfidious, ingrate one.

Somali

marka hirku daboolo dadka oo Hoos la moodo waxay baryaan Eebe iyagoo u kali yeeli Diinta (Cibaadada) markuu u koriyo xagga Barrigana waxaa ka mid noqon Dadka mid dhexdexeysan, mana diido aayadkanaga mid khaa'in ah oo gaalimo badan mooyee.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e. like clouds or the mountains of sea-water), they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in the middle, between (Belief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs except every perfidious ungrateful.

Somali

marka hirku daboolo dadka oo Hoos la moodo waxay baryaan Eebe iyagoo u kali yeeli Diinta (Cibaadada) markuu u koriyo xagga Barrigana waxaa ka mid noqon Dadka mid dhexdexeysan, mana diido aayadkanaga mid khaa'in ah oo gaalimo badan mooyee.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

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