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1. Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leadership style is centered on the boss. In this leadership the leader holds all authority and responsibility. In this leadership, leaders make decisions on their own without consulting subordinates. They reach decisions, communicate them to subordinates and expect prompt implementation. Autocratic work environment does normally have little or no flexibility.
In this kind of leadership, guidelines, procedures and policies are all natural additions of an autocratic leader. Statistically, there are very few situations that can actually support autocratic leadership.
Some of the leaders that support this kind of leadership include: Albert J Dunlap (Sunbeam Corporation) and Donald Trump (Trump Organization) among others.
2. Democratic Leadership
In this leadership style, subordinates are involved in making decisions. Unlike autocratic, this headship is centered on subordinates’ contributions. The democratic leader holds final responsibility, but he or she is known to delegate authority to other people, who determine work projects.
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The most unique feature of this leadership is that communication is active upward and downward. With respect to statistics, democratic leadership is one of the most preferred leadership, and it entails the following: fairness, competence, creativity, courage, intelligence and honesty.
3. Strategic Leadership Style
Strategic leadership is one that involves a leader who is essentially the head of an organization. The strategic leader is not limited to those at the top of the organization. It is geared to a wider audience at all levels who want to create a high performance life, team or organization.
The strategic leader fills the gap between the need for new possibility and the need for practicality by providing a prescriptive set of habits. An effective strategic leadership delivers the goods in terms of what an organization naturally expects from its leadership in times of change. 55% of this leadership normally involves strategic thinking.
4. Transformational Leadership
Unlike other leadership styles, transformational leadership is all about initiating change in organizations, groups, oneself and others.
Transformational leaders motivate others to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible. They set more challenging expectations and typically achieve higher performance.
Statistically, transformational leadership tends to have more committed and satisfied followers. This is mainly so because transformational leaders empower followers.
5. Team Leadership
Team leadership involves the creation of a vivid picture of its future, where it is heading and what it will stand for. The vision inspires and provides a strong sense of purpose and direction.
eam leadership is about working with the hearts and minds of all those involved. It also recognizes that teamwork may not always involve trusting cooperative relationships. The most challenging aspect of this leadership is whether or not it will succeed. According to Harvard Business Review, team leadership may fail because of poor leadership qualities.
6. Cross-Cultural Leadership
This form of leadership normally exists where there are various cultures in the society. This leadership has also industrialized as a way to recognize front runners who work in the contemporary globalized market.
Organizations, particularly international ones require leaders who can effectively adjust their leadership to work in different environs. Most of the leaderships observed in the United States are cross-cultural because of the different cultures that live and work there.
7. Facilitative Leadership
Facilitative leadership is too dependent on measurements and outcomes – not a skill, although it takes much skill to master. The effectiveness of a group is directly related to the efficacy of its process. If the group is high functioning, the facilitative leader uses a light hand on the process.
On the other hand, if the group is low functioning, the facilitative leader will be more directives in helping the group run its process. An effective facilitative leadership involves monitoring of group dynamics, offering process suggestions and interventions to help the group stay on track.
8. Laissez-faire Leadership
Laissez-faire leadership gives authority to employees. According to azcentral, departments or subordinates are allowed to work as they choose with minimal or no interference. According to research, this kind of leadership has been consistently found to be the least satisfying and least effective management style.
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9. Transactional Leadership
This is a leadership that maintains or continues the status quo. It is also the leadership that involves an exchange process, whereby followers get immediate, tangible rewards for carrying out the leader’s orders. Transactional leadership can sound rather basic, with its focus on exchange.
Being clear, focusing on expectations, giving feedback are all important leadership skills. According to Boundless.com, transactional leadership behaviors can include: clarifying what is expected of followers’ performance; explaining how to meet such expectations; and allocating rewards that are contingent on meeting objectives.
10. Coaching Leadership
Coaching leadership involves teaching and supervising followers. A coaching leader is highly operational in setting where results/ performance require improvement. Basically, in this kind of leadership, followers are helped to improve their skills. Coaching leadership does the following: motivates followers, inspires followers and encourages followers.
11. Charismatic Leadership
In this leadership, the charismatic leader manifests his or her revolutionary power. Charisma does not mean sheer behavioral change. It actually involves a transformation of followers’ values and beliefs.
Therefore, this distinguishes a charismatic leader from a simply populist leader who may affect attitudes towards specific objects, but who is not prepared as the charismatic leader is, to transform the underlying normative orientation that structures specific attitudes.
12. Visionary Leadership
This form of leadership involves leaders who recognize that the methods, steps and processes of leadership are all obtained with and through people. Most great and successful leaders have the aspects of vision in them.
However, those who are highly visionary are the ones considered to be exhibiting visionary leadership. Outstanding leaders will always transform their visions into realities.
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Neoclassical economics is an economic theory that argues for markets to be free. This means governments should generally not make rules about types of businesses, businesses' behaviour, who may make things, who may sell things, who may buy things, prices, quantities or types of things sold and bought. The theory argues that allowing individual actors (people or businesses) freedom creates better economic outcomes. These outcomes may be a higher average standard of living, higher wages, better average life expectancies, and higher GDP.
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Blogger and academic Iván Chaar-López analyzes the role of social media in the outcome of the recent referendum in Puerto Rico: In short, the material published throughout the Internet was amazing. Social networks are, after all, our favorite existential spaces (for now).
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Many men and women who are molding the minds of future generations have to look for other income sources to make both ends meet.
One of them is Teacher V, who has been teaching in a local high school in Burgos, Pangasinan for two years now.
Her passion for teaching came from her aunt, a teacher in a local elementary school in the province who supported her studies.
“I’m happy with my teaching job because I know that in my own way, I’m not just teaching my students. I’m also touching their lives and inspiring them,” Teacher V said.
Professors can be some of the most influential figures you will ever meet. While many school rankings include “academic rigor” as a way to determine the quality of scholarship at a given institution, this can fall short, and ignore a number of important factors. Factors like the ability of students to actually access professors, the extent to which the school enables collaboration between students and faculty, and if students rank professors positively or not. For this reason we’ve constructed our own rankings of the top 50 schools in the nation with the best professors.
This member of the Five Colleges Consortium is the oldest college in Massachusetts, and perennially a top ranked liberal arts school. This year Amherst was ranked the second best liberal arts school in the nation by US News and World Report, and the 10th ranked liberal arts school by Forbes. The college is known for an unusually open curriculum, allowing freshman to take advanced courses and seniors to take introductory courses if they should choose. This places greater trust in quality students and instructors to create their own good outcomes and course interactions. A small student body (around 2,000 students) and a low student-teacher ratio (8 to 1) aids in creating quality interactions in class. Amherst has been known for quality instruction for years, so much so that in 2007,Harvard and Columbia consulted Amherst when reviewing their teaching programs.
Swarthmore is one of the “little na buhay ,” and one of only three schools to hold the number one spot of the US News liberal arts rankings. Swarthmore is noted as the number one value for a private school in the US, and also for its rate of over 90% of graduates who attend either graduate or professional school, as well as 20% of graduates that proceed to garner their Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), numbers only topped by CalTech, Harvey Mudd, and Reed College. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium with Bryn Mawr and Haverford, allowing students to cross register at all three, as well as for Swarthmore students to register at UPenn’s College of arts and sciences (a school sharing a Quaker heritage). The school itself is quite small, with just over 1,500 students, with a student faculty ratio of 8 to 1.
While not for everyone, for the select few who gain admission to West Point (you must both gain admission from the school and be nominated, often by a Senator), you are offered a full ride by the US Army (provided you serve in the armed forces upon graduation). Most graduates leave the academy commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army, though graduates may choose to be commissioned in another branch of the armed forces if wanted. Teaching styles at West Point follow the Thayer system, which focuses on daily homework, brought to class and collaboratively discussed. Curriculum is highly structured at West Point, with all students taking the same classes until junior year, including mathematics, information technology, chemistry, physics, engineering, history, physical geography, philosophy, leadership and general psychology, English composition and literature, foreign language, political science, international relations, economics, and constitutional law. Regardless of major, all graduates receive a Bachelor’s of Science. Slightly over 4,500 cadets attend the school, which has a student faculty ratio of seven to one. West Point was the 24th ranked national liberal arts school by US News this year.
Bryn Mawr is a small (1,300+ undergraduate students) women’s liberal arts college that is one of the seven sisters colleges as well as the tri-college consortium (with other quaker-founded schools Haverford and Swarthmore). Bryn Mawr is tied for the 27th ranked liberal arts college in the nation by US News, and the 65th ranked overall college by Forbes. The college is noted for small class sizes, with over 3/4th of classes having under 20 students. The most popular majors are STEM heavy for a liberal arts school, with the most popular majors including (in decreasing rank) mathematics (11% of students), English, psychology, political science, and biology/biological sciences. There have been numerous professors of great fame at Bryn Mawr, and the institution itself has been progressive in organizing its academic programs, being the first institute of higher education to award doctorates in social work, as well as to award graduate and doctorate degrees to women.
Washington and lee is the 14th ranked liberal arts school by US News, and the 33rd ranked overall university by Forbes. Though it has refused to send data to the Princeton Review for years, the 2007 edition of the Princeton Review ranked Washington and Lee 4th for “Professors get high marks” and sixth for “professor accessibility.” Home to 1,800 undergraduates housed in two college, Washington and Lee has a student-faculty ratio of eight to one. Washington and Lee has a great community centered around student, faculty, and community traditions. One of the more notable traditions enjoys coverage on national news every four years: the Mock Convention. A mock presidential election that has predicted the winning presidential nominee every election save two since 1948 (Ted Kennedy in 1972 and Barack Obama in 2008).
Subject: Social Science
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Accessible sexual, reproductive, and mental healthcare services are crucial for adolescent health and wellbeing. It has been reported that school-based healthcare (SBHC) has the potential to improve the availability of services particularly for young people who are normally underserved. Locating health services in schools has the potential to reduce transport costs, increase accessibility and provide links between schools and communities.
A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Pubmed, Psychinfo, Psychnet, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched for English language papers published between January 1990 and March 2012
Twenty-seven studies were found which fitted the criteria, of which, all but one were from North America. Only three measured adolescent sexual, reproductive, or mental health outcomes related to SBHC and none of the studies were randomized controlled trials. The remaining studies explored accessibility of services and clinic utilization or described pertinent contextual factors.
There is a paucity of high quality research which evaluates SBHC and its effects on adolescent sexual, reproductive, and mental health. However, there is evidence that SBHC is popular with young people, and provides important mental and reproductive health services. Services also appear to have cost benefits in terms of adolescent health and society as a whole by reducing health disparities and attendance at secondary care facilities. However, clearer definitions of what constitutes SBHC and more high quality research is urgently needed.
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