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English

mainly responsible for the children

Tamil

Last Update: 2013-05-16
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Convert mainly the document structure (Recommended for exporting to browsers with limited capabilities)

Tamil

முக்கியமாக ஆவண வடிவத்தை மாற்று (உலாவி வரம்புடன் ஏற்றுமதி செய்வது பரிந்துரைக்கப்படுகிறது)

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Burn the specified project and REMOVE it. This option is mainly useful for integration use with other applications.

Tamil

குறிப்பிட்ட திட்டத்தை எழுது பின் அதை நீக்கு( REMOVE). இந்த தேர்வு முக்கியமாக மற்ற நிரல்களுடன் ஒத்திசைய பயன்படும்.

Last Update: 2014-08-20
Usage Frequency: 2
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Burn the specified project and remove it. This option is mainly useful for integration with other applications.

Tamil

குறிப்பிட்ட திட்டத்தை எழுது பின் அதை நீக்கு இந்த தேர்வு முக்கியமாக மற்ற நிரல்களுடன் ஒத்திசைய பயன்படும்.

Last Update: 2014-08-20
Usage Frequency: 3
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Then he turned to his household, so brought out a roasted calf [as the property of Ibrahim (Abraham) was mainly cows].

Tamil

எனினும் அவர் தம் குடும்பத்தாரிடம் விரைந்து சென்று, ஒரு கொழுத்த காளைக் கன்றை(ப் பொறித்துக்) கொண்டு வந்தார்.

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Respected Principal, Vice Principal, Teachers and Beloved Students – Warm Greetings Everyone! I take immense pleasure to thank the school for giving me the opportunity to deliver a speech on the importance of Children’s Day. Being a parent, I realize how important it is in the recent times to rejoice this wonderful occasion. It was Pundit Nehru’s dream that all the children of the nation must be educated and knowledgeable which mainly implies that they should be paying attention to all subjects equally as every subject is associated with certain amount of concepts which will help you to grow in your future life. In memory of the great leader and to honor his love for children, November 14 is celebrated in India as Children’s Day. It is also referred to as Bal Diwas by a number of people. Several children across the world suffer from atrocities which are innumerable. We must ensure that the rights of children are protected and they are not exploited. It is rightly said that “God is closest to children because their hearts and minds are pure and innocent”. Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru believed that children must be provided with love and attention as they are the future bearers of a nation. Children truly deserve a day that is dedicated to them. All across the world, different countries celebrate Children’s Day. You all are the picture of innocence and everybody adores children. It is a day specially set aside to honor children and celebrate your presence. This day is dedicated to children and everybody tries their best to make you all happy on this day. Though, universally, Children’s Day takes place on 20th November. The United Nations has declared this day as Children’s Day and it is intended to promote the welfare and wellbeing of children and also to celebrate childhood. Although November 20th is celebrated worldwide as Children’s Day, different countries have their own special day to celebrate this propitious occasion. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru being the first Prime Minister of India was very fond of children. The world may remember him as the first Indian Prime Minister and a skilled politician, but for children he was always considered as Chacha Nehru. Despite being a polished and perceptive political leader, Nehru was immensely fond of being surrounded by children. He never discriminated between a girl and a boy as his ideology emphasized more on the concept of equality. Nehru Ji was a patient listener and he admired children while they spoke. He believed that children are the future of a nation and educating them is a step towards the progress of a nation. Children’s Day is an occasion where we all should collectively take an oath for the safety of our children. The growing rate of crime in today’s scenario against children baffles parents and teachers to the core. We want that our children should be safe and to assure this aspect we need to educate them not only by imparting formal education, but it becomes our duty to make them aware about the social evils prevalent in our society. They should be taught to be alert every second in their life and should also be made aware about the difference between a good and a bad touch. It would be then that we could provide them with a safe environment both at home and school. Therefore, children are tender buds and it becomes our duty to assure them, a safe atmosphere which they rightfully deserve. Celebrating Children’s Day just as a convention is not enough rather we should collectively take certain measures to protect their childhood as they are our young minds who will support our country to grow in an optimistic manner with novel ideas. This is all from my side, thank you!

Tamil

Tamil

Last Update: 2019-11-12
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

The IMU sensor provides the information about the wheelchair’s current state in the world coordinateand is mainly employed here for correcting the heading orientation. Output from this sensor is calibrated, and the errors arecompensated by using Extended Kalman filter. Therefore, the output provides reliable 6 DOF reading.Basically during full time operation, we do not directly use

Tamil

IMU சென்சார் ஒருங்கிணைக்க உலகில் சக்கர நாற்காலியில் தற்போதைய நிலை குறித்த தகவல்களைத் வழங்குகிறது மற்றும் முக்கியமாக தலைப்பு நோக்குநிலை திருத்தும் இங்கே பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. இந்த சென்சார் இருந்து வெளியீடு சரிசெய்துகொள்ளக்கூடியதா, மற்றும் பிழைகள் விரிவாக்கப்பட்ட கால்மன் வடிகட்டி பயன்படுத்தி இழப்பீடு செய்யப்படுகிறது. எனவே, வெளியீடு நம்பகமான 6 பயன்படுத்த DOF வாசிப்பு வழங்குகிறது. அடிப்படையில் முழு நேர அறுவை சிகிச்சையின் போது, நாங்கள் நேரடியாக பயன்படுத்த வேண்டாம்

Last Update: 2017-04-21
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Karagam is a folk dance with musical accompaniment, performed balancing a pot on the head. Traditionally, the villagers in praise of the rain goddess Mari Amman and River Goddess, Gangai Amman, performed this dance with literature with water pots balanced on their heads. In Sangam literature, it is mentioned as 'Kudakoothu'. This dance has two divisions--one, Aatta Karagam and the other 'Sakthi Karagam'. More often it is danced with decorated pots on the head and is known as 'Aatta Karagam' and symbolizes joy and merriment. The former is performed only in temples, while the latter is mainly for entertainment. This is one of the more popular rural dances of today. Earlier it was performed only with the Neiyandi Melam but now it also includes songs.

Tamil

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2016-07-31
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies. It occurs as a result of introduction of pollutants in water. Water is life. Still, we contribute in polluting the water bodies in several ways.Water Pollution is mainly caused as a result of improper discharge of household and industrial chemicals wastes into the water bodies.

Tamil

நீர் மாசு நீர் நிலைகளில் கலப்படம் உள்ளது. இது தண்ணீரில் மாசுகள் அறிமுகம் விளைவாக ஏற்படும். தண்ணீரே ஜீவன். இன்னும், நாம் பல வழிகளில் நீர் நிலைகளில் மாசு ஏற்படுத்தும் பங்களிக்க. நீர் மாசுபாடு முக்கியமாக நீர்நிலையைகளில் வீட்டு மற்றும் தொழில்துறை இரசாயன கழிவுகளை முறையற்ற வெளியேற்ற விளைவாக ஏற்படுகிறது.

Last Update: 2016-07-03
Usage Frequency: 2
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

english If you use your own car for business purposes, discuss this with your Broker. Many personal auto insurance policies exclude coverage if the vehicle involved in an accident is used mainly for business. A business auto policy provides coverage for autos owned by a business. The insurance pays any costs to third parties resulting from bodily injury or property damage for which your business is legally liable, up to the policy limits.

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-04-04
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

paragraphA trade union is an organisation made up of members (a membership-based organisation) and its membership must be made up mainly of workers. One of a trade union's main aims is to protect and advance the interests of its members in the workplace. Most trade unions are independent of any employer.

Tamil

A trade union is an organisation made up of members (a membership-based organisation) and its membership must be made up mainly of workers. One of a trade union's main aims is to protect and advance the interests of its members in the workplace. Most trade unions are independent of any employer.

Last Update: 2015-09-14
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

free online english to COMPLAINT LETTER FROM N.SUBRAMANIAN, S/O NACHIMUTHU GOUNDER, 2/319,NALLAGOUNDER THOTTAM, VAVIPALAYAM (POST), PERUMANALLUR (VIA), VAVIPALAYAM, TIRUPUR-641666. TO THE TAMILNADU INFORMATION COMMISSIONER, STATE INFORMATION COMMISSION, NO.2 ,THEAYAGARAYA SALAI, NEAR AALAI AMMAN KOIL,TEYNAMPET, CHENNAI-600018. SUBJECT : COMPLAINT PETITION AS THERE IS NO RESPONSE FOR MY QUESTIONS UNDER RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005 – REGARDING. NOTE 1 : COPY OF FIRST APPLICATION APPLIED ON 19.02.2015 UNDER SEC 7(1) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. NOTE 2 : COPY OF FIRST APPEAL APPLICATION APPLIED ON 27.03.2015 UNDER SEC 7(1) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. NOTE 3 : COPY OF RESPONSE LETTER GIVEN BY APPELLATE OFFICER AS I HAD RECEIVED IT ON 24.04.2015. RESPECTED SIR, I AM RESIDED IN THE ABOVE ADDRESS.AS PER NOTE [1] I HAD APPLIED FOR GETTING INFORMATION FROM PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER AND AS PER NOTE [2].SO,I HAD ALSO DONE FIRST APPEAL TO APPELLATE OFFICER. I HAD BRING TO YOUR NOTICE SIR,THAT TILL DATE NO PROPER RESPONSE FPR MY APPLICATION FROM PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER AND THE RESPONSE GIVEN BY APPELLATE AUTHORITY IS NOT SATISFIED. AS PER TAMILNADU RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT,THERE IS NO PROPER INFORMATION PROVIDED.THEREFORE I REQUEST YOU SIR TO PROVIDE CLEARLY CERTIFIED EVIDENCE COPY FOR THE INFORMATION I AM NEEDED. AND I REQUEST YOU SIR TO TAKE NECESSARY ACTIONS ON THOSE WHO MAY DELAYED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION AND ALSO I REQUEST YOU SIR TO PROVIDE COMPENSATION UNDER SEC 19(8)(B) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. I ALSO ATTACHED THE COPY OF APPLICATIONS PROVIDED IN THE NOTE. APPEAL ARGUMENT : THIS IS MAINLY DONE INORDER TO CREATE BAD OPINION BY NOT PROVIDING THE KNOWN INFORMATION. APPELLANT REQUEST : REQUESTING RELIEF AS PER THE TAMILNADU INFORMATION COMMISSION,S JUDGEMENT AND BASED ON EVIDENT COPY. THANKING YOU, SIGNATURE N.SUBRAMANIAN NO.OF.ATTACHED COPIES : DATE : PLACE : 02101032636 translation service

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சேவை ஆங்கிலம் இலவச ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-05-29
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

COMPLAINT LETTER FROM N.SUBRAMANIAN, S/O NACHIMUTHU GOUNDER, 2/319,NALLAGOUNDER THOTTAM, VAVIPALAYAM (POST), PERUMANALLUR (VIA), VAVIPALAYAM, TIRUPUR-641666. TO THE TAMILNADU INFORMATION COMMISSIONER, STATE INFORMATION COMMISSION, NO.2 ,THEAYAGARAYA SALAI, NEAR AALAI AMMAN KOIL,TEYNAMPET, CHENNAI-600018. SUBJECT : COMPLAINT PETITION AS THERE IS NO RESPONSE FOR MY QUESTIONS UNDER RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005 – REGARDING. NOTE 1 : COPY OF FIRST APPLICATION APPLIED ON 19.02.2015 UNDER SEC 7(1) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. NOTE 2 : COPY OF FIRST APPEAL APPLICATION APPLIED ON 27.03.2015 UNDER SEC 7(1) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. NOTE 3 : COPY OF RESPONSE LETTER GIVEN BY APPELLATE OFFICER AS I HAD RECEIVED IT ON 24.04.2015. RESPECTED SIR, I AM RESIDED IN THE ABOVE ADDRESS.AS PER NOTE [1] I HAD APPLIED FOR GETTING INFORMATION FROM PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER AND AS PER NOTE [2].SO,I HAD ALSO DONE FIRST APPEAL TO APPELLATE OFFICER. I HAD BRING TO YOUR NOTICE SIR,THAT TILL DATE NO PROPER RESPONSE FPR MY APPLICATION FROM PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER AND THE RESPONSE GIVEN BY APPELLATE AUTHORITY IS NOT SATISFIED. AS PER TAMILNADU RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT,THERE IS NO PROPER INFORMATION PROVIDED.THEREFORE I REQUEST YOU SIR TO PROVIDE CLEARLY CERTIFIED EVIDENCE COPY FOR THE INFORMATION I AM NEEDED. AND I REQUEST YOU SIR TO TAKE NECESSARY ACTIONS ON THOSE WHO MAY DELAYED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION AND ALSO I REQUEST YOU SIR TO PROVIDE COMPENSATION UNDER SEC 19(8)(B) OF RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005. I ALSO ATTACHED THE COPY OF APPLICATIONS PROVIDED IN THE NOTE. APPEAL ARGUMENT : THIS IS MAINLY DONE INORDER TO CREATE BAD OPINION BY NOT PROVIDING THE KNOWN INFORMATION. APPELLANT REQUEST : REQUESTING RELIEF AS PER THE TAMILNADU INFORMATION COMMISSION,S JUDGEMENT AND BASED ON EVIDENT COPY. THANKING YOU, SIGNATURE N.SUBRAMANIAN NO.OF.ATTACHED COPIES : DATE : PLACE : 02101032636

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சேவை ஆங்கிலம் இலவச ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-05-29
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

The advent of Cloud computing as a new model of service provisioning in distributed systems, encourages researchers to investigate its benefits and drawbacks in executing scientific applications such as workflows. One of the most challenging problems in Clouds is workflow scheduling, i.e., the problem of satisfying the QoS of the user like deadline as well as minimizing the cost of workflow execution. An existing work QoS-based workflow scheduling algorithm based on a novel concept called Partial Critical Paths (PCP), which tries to minimize the cost of workflow execution while meeting a user-defined deadline. Today cloud provider’s mainly concentrate about the increasing their revenue. This will lead to the selfish behavior which may cause the QOS violation of cloud users. In the existing work, fault tolerance is not considered when the resources are failed to process the submitted tasks. The fault tolerance is achieved in the proposed by migrating the VM’s. The experimental results proves that the proposed work provides better result than the existing methodology.

Tamil

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-05-28
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

Tamil

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

Last Update: 2015-04-27
Usage Frequency: 3
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Wireless network is used to exchange information between the people and devices. For example, the home networks enable a new class of intelligent electronic devices that can interact with each other and with the internet in addition to providing connectivity between computers, phones and security/monitoring applications. Wireless networks are also used for video conferencing, smart class and remote training facilities. The wireless sensors have an enormous range of both commercial and military applications that include monitoring of fire hazards, stress and strain in buildings and bridges, carbon dioxide movement and the spread of chemicals and gases at a disaster site. These wireless sensors are self configured into a network to process and interpret sensor measurement and they convey this information to a centralized control location. Wireless sensors are used mainly in military applications that include identification and tracking of enemy targets, detection of chemical and biological attacks, and support of unmanned robotic vehicles. Finally, wireless networks enable distributed control systems with remote devices, sensors, and actuators are linked together via wireless communication channels. Such networks enable automated highways and mobile robot. These necessity overhead throughout extremely dynamic network like MANET (Mobile adhoc Network) and such networks are more dynamic owing to the high mobility of transmitting nodes in the network due to collision occurrence and the sleep/awake rounds are frequently employed to reduce energy wastages of such devices and present an anti-collision technique. A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network), perhaps brought in as an infrastructure less dynamic network, consists of independent number of mobile nodes that can communicate to one another through radio wave. A MANET is a self assembling infrastructure of a couple of networks of mobile devices that are linked up by wireless. These set of wireless mobile devices called wireless nodes which actively connect and transfer information. Each node in a MANET is capable of moving independently in any direction, and hence it varies its connection to other devices often; each must send on traffic unrelated to its own use, and consequently be a router. The MANET network alters servers and clients to communicate in an undetermined topology area and it is utilized in many applications and fast developing networks. With the raising usage of mobile nodes, these nodes will collide with one another rendering the computing power and connectivity to operate applications such as multiplayer games or collaborative work tools, MANETs are becoming more crucial since they satisfy the demand of today’s users to connect and interact in a quick manner using hybrid beacon scheduling approach especially to avoid the collision in mobile nodes. Localization for autonomous mobile robots is the process of finding out and tracking the position and direction of the robot in any given environment. Localization has become a subject matter over the past few decades. Localization is the principle practice that allows a robot to navigate, investigate, and carry out its allotted work effectively without human intrusion. Exteroceptive sensory systems, such as ultrasonic sensors, Light detection and Ranging devices (LRDs) and image sensors, act as alternative techniques in addressing the above mentioned restriction by offering information about the external environment around the robot. These external sensors help in determining the orientation of the robot with the measurements such as distance, and angle, etc. with the beacons in the external environment. When all these external measurements that are in correspondence with the same robot pose, self-localization method is applied. During continuous movement of the robot, external measurements are obtained at different times, and they do not coincide accurately with similar robot poses. Thus, self localization method results in larger errors due to collision while calculating the robot pose. Hence to overcome this issue, most of the systems work by combining odometry values with measured values of external environment to obtain optimal evaluation of the robot poses. The most extensively used tool for this fusion technique is the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF and its variants were used for localization in many conventional techniques. Also, the particle filter was used as an alternate means to combine odometry and external measurements, which was one of the probabilistic approaches. The localization system used in this method employs ultrasonic sensors. Many ultrasonic transmitters are attached to the ceiling at certain recognized locations in the global co-ordinate system for anti-collision. Three ultrasonic receivers are placed equilaterally over the top of the mobile robot. It is assumed that the robot navigates over an indoor plane as common in most of the indoor applications. Also the z-value of the robot and the receivers are assumed to be in the global coordinate system. A novel technology in wireless communication called Multiple Input- Multiple Output (MIMO) assures to eliminate the boundaries and defeats of wireless communication networks by rendering the efficiency of spectrum close to Shannon’s bound is proposed in this work. MIMO procreates range, dependability and information speed of previous wireless communication systems. Owing to its benefits, MIMO system is recruited into almost each and every wireless communication network like CDMA-2000 and WCDMA technologies. aph to tamil translation online

Tamil

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-04-09
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

Road traffic safety refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person using the road network being killed or seriously injured. The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport, mainly buses and trams. Best-practice road safety strategies focus upon the prevention of serious injury and death crashes in spite of human fallibility[1] (which is contrasted with the old road safety paradigm of simply reducing crashes assuming road user compliance with traffic regulations). Safe road design is now about providing a road environment which ensures vehicle speeds will be within the human tolerances for serious injury and death wherever conflict points exist. Furthermore, the highest possible degree of safety shall be ensured when transporting goods by road. It is of vital importance to monitor and validate the road transportation safety, including comprehensive checks on drivers, vehicles and safety processes.[2]

Tamil

தமிழ் சாலை பாதுகாப்பு கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2015-01-16
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

It seems that alpha channel support is not available. Please make sure you have Xorg & ge; 6.8, and have installed the kompmgr that came with kwin. Also, make sure you have the following entries in your XConfig (e. g. / etc/ X11/ xorg. conf): Section "Extensions" Option "Composite" "Enable" EndSection And if your GPU provides hardware-accelerated Xrender support (mainly nVidia cards): Option "RenderAccel" "true" In Section "Device"

Tamil

ஆல்பா வழிமுறை ஆதரவு இல்லை போல் தெரிகிறது. Please make sure you have Xorg & ge; 6. 8, and installed the kompmgr that came with kwin. Also, make sure you have the following entries in your XConfig (e. g. / etc/ X11/ xorg. conf): Section "Extensions" Option "Composite" "Enable" EndSection And if your GPU provides hardware- accelerated Xrender support (mainly nVidia cards): Option "RenderAccel" "true" In Section "Device"

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Other printer Use this for any printer type. To use this option, you must know the URI of the printer you want to install. Refer to the CUPS documentation for more information about the printer URI. This option is mainly useful for printer types using 3rd party backends not covered by the other possibilities.

Tamil

மற்ற அச்சுப்பொறி எந்த அச்சுப்பொறி வகைக்கும் பயன்படுத்தவும். இந்த விருப்பத்தைப் பயன்படுத்த, உங்களுக்கு கண்டிப்பாக அச்சுப்பொறி நிறுவலுக்கான URI தெரிந்திருக்க வேண்டும். CUPS ஆவண அச்சுப்பொறியின் கூடுதல் தகவலை பரிசோதிக்கவும். இந்த விருப்பம் மற்ற முடியும் நிலைமைகளை 3ஆம் குழுவாக பயன்படுத்த அச்சுப்பொறியை அமைக்கவும்.

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

English

This module allows configuration of input actions, such as mouse gestures, keyboard shortcuts for performing commands, launching applications or D-Bus calls, and similar. NOTE: If you are not an experienced user, you should be careful when modifying the actions, and should limit your changes mainly to enabling/ disabling actions, and changing triggers.

Tamil

விசைப்பலகை_ உள்ளீடு_ சாளரம்_ ui

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
Quality:

Reference: Anonymous

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