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English

problems in kanayam

Tamil

kanayam பிரச்சினைகள்

Last Update: 2016-08-17
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English

problems in conduct of public elections

Tamil

பொதுத் தேர்தல்களில் நடக்கும் பிரச்சனைகள்

Last Update: 2017-09-30
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

tamil katturai problems in youth future

Tamil

இளைஞர் எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் கற்றாழை பிரச்சினைகள்

Last Update: 2018-01-09
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Kowshikulfi

English

tamil katturai youth problems in future

Tamil

தமிழ் எதிர்காலத்தில் இளைஞர்கள் பிரச்சினைகள் katturai

Last Update: 2018-01-09
Usage Frequency: 5
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Reference: Kowshikulfi

English

Problem in %s

Tamil

%s இல் இடர்பாடு

Last Update: 2014-08-15
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Kowshikulfi

English

No problem in the past

Tamil

narambu suruttal yerpadum perachainai

Last Update: 2017-10-10
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

There is a problem in this article

Tamil

sutham sugatharam essay in tamill

Last Update: 2018-02-04
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

There is a problem in Tamil language

Tamil

sutru suzhal pathukappu seemai in tamil language

Last Update: 2017-10-30
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Not caused by a problem in the KDE's Applications or libraries

Tamil

@ info bug resolution

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

the bug is caused by a problem in an external application or library, or by a distribution or packaging issue.

Tamil

@ info bug status,% 1 is the resolution

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Everyone wants to be successful and rich. I also dream of becoming successful in the field I choose although I am still indecisive about the career path I will choose. But I know whatever I choose I will work hard, stay focused and make it big. I also dream of doing something for my country. There are so many problems in the country such as poverty, illiteracy and casteism to name a few. Our country was once known for its rich cultural heritage which is all robbed now. The crime rate in the country is at an all time rise and so are various other issues. While there are a lot of loopholes in the India political system that has led to these problems however we cannot blame it all on the government. Each one of us should contribute our bit towards our country’s development. I am a firm supporter of each one teach one and have been teaching my maid’s child since the last two years. As I grow up, I aim to join an NGO to empower the poor and needy. I dream of eradicating poverty and social inequality from our country and will do my best in this direction. If we all join hands we shall certainly be able to free our country from these evils.

Tamil

என் எதிர்கால கனவுகள் என்ற கட்டுரை

Last Update: 2017-10-21
Usage Frequency: 2
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Reference: Anonymous

English

thamWhy does endometriosis cause pain and health problems? Growths of endometriosis are benign (not cancerous). But they still can cause many problems. To see why, it helps to understand a woman's menstrual cycle. Every month, hormones cause the lining of a woman's uterus to build up with tissue and blood vessels. If a woman does not get pregnant, the uterus sheds this tissue and blood. It comes out of the body through the vagina as her menstrual period. Patches of endometriosis also respond to the hormones produced during the menstrual cycle. With the passage of time, the growths of endometriosis may expand by adding extra tissue and blood. The symptoms of endometriosis often get worse. Tissue and blood that is shed into the body can cause inflammation, scar tissue, and pain. As endometrial tissue grows, it can cover or grow into the ovaries and block the fallopian tubes. Trapped blood in the ovaries can form cysts, or closed sacs. It also can cause inflammation and cause the body to form scar tissue and adhesions, tissue that sometimes binds organs together. This scar tissue may cause pelvic pain and make it hard for women to get pregnant. The growths can also cause problems in the intestines and bladder. il

Tamil

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

Last Update: 2016-12-11
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

2.1 Tagore – Sadhana I – III Chapters Introduction Rabindranath Tagore born in Calcutta on 7th May 1861 was the youngest but one child of Debandranath Tagore. In the words of Tagore himself his father was one whom “I saw very seldom; he was away a great deal, but his presence pervaded the whole house and was one of the deepest influence on my life…’. He was called Maharishi or the great saint who believed in the worship of Invisible God. Tagore’s attitude to God and world was inherited from his father. The Tagores were Vaishnavas in their religious outlook and were inclined to vegetarianism in diet. They were a set of highly educated and enlightened people who assisted Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his movement of social reform. Rabindranath Tagore lived in a significant age when India was stirred deeply by three movements – religious, literary and social to which the contribution of the Tagore family was very great. The first movement was religious and its founder was Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who believed that God is one. One of the leaders of this movement was Debandranath Tagore, Rabindranath’s father. The second movement was in the field of Literature and Bakin Chandra tried to rescue Bengali language from the degradation of dead forms to which it had fallen and bring a new critical attitude and make Bengali language an instrument of the expression of rich imagination that would not tolerate any restrictions imposed upon it from outside. The third movement was national its was national; it was partly political and partly cultural. It raised a voice of protest against the humiliation which the Indians were subjected to at the hands of the westermers. It was not opposed to the introduction of western thought, but it certainly was not in favour of indiscriminate rejection of traditional Indian culture and values. Tagore’s father laid stress on the study of the Upanishads and left no stone unturned to check the wave of conversion to Christianity in Bengal. Tagore passed his boyhood in the Jarasnako house with the atmosphere that reverberated with the echoes of culture, refinement and art. He was from 63 64 very early years of his life fond of nature and longed for the outer world of nature. He was made to study science, literature, music and painting without taking into consideration whether he was interested in them or not. Learning all his subjects in English, he learnt Bengali well. Educated in India and London showed a great promise as a writer. He was influenced by the Vaishnava lyrical poetry, which gave to the poet an impetus to be bold and strike a new path for himself in the field of art and poetry. The Awakening of the waterfall, his work showed a great unity of meaning. What was memorable in this experienced was its human message and the sudden expansion of his consciousness in the supernatural world of man. There are three distinctive things which seem to come before us from this new vision of the poet about life. i. The human soul from which the creation and which its creative effort draws it away from itself and harmonizes it with the inner life of nature which is full of human significance. ii. The union between man’s growing consciousness and the spirit of nature is a source of joy and it is in this feeling of delight emerging from a realization of inner harmony of objects that the poet seeks for his definition of beauty. iii. This seeking and this joy is similar to freedom, for it is only by transcending the outer certain of common-placeness and triviality that its real significance is discovered. Published a number of collection of songs and poems in which the glorified the ideals of ancient times against the background of the evils of western nationalism which the condemned as the climax of greed. He waged a ceaseless war against the two evils of caste which dehumanizes man and nationality in the west which makes a brute of a man. After the publication of Gitanjali which marked the transition in his life, Tagore’s national aspirations got merged in the Universal. When the visited England and Europe he was greated there as seer with a universal message. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913. The publication of Gitanjali in English took the English – reading public by storm and they got examoured as much by 65 the nobility of its though as by the beauty of the language. During the course of his visit to America in 1913 to deliver some addressed there, he made the acquaintance of Rudolf Eucken, the famous German Philosopher, who was also charmed on reading Gitanjali. The lectures he delivered in America were published as Sadhana by Macmillan, along with The Gardener, The crescent Moon and Chitra. Tagore was a poet and a dreamer. He felt that the western civilization was heading towards a crash or destruction. He started thinking of the crash or destruction. He started thinking of the problems of life in a calm and detached manner and the expression was marked by a sense of bold optimism attempting to depict tot eh world the message of eternal peace. Peace and tranquility proved to be the theme. 2.2 The relation of the individual to the universe The civilization of ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. These walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They setup a principle of ‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built an everything has to fight hard for its entrance its our recognition. In India when the first Aryan invaders appeared, the vast forests provided them some special advantage of natural protection, food and water in plenty. Thus our civilization had its birth and it took a distinct character from this origin and environment. Surrounded by vast life of nature, was fed and clothed by her, having the closest and most constant intercourse with her varying objects. This atmosphere instead of dulling human intelligence and dwarfing the incentives to progress, gave it to a particular direction. Having constant contact with the living growth of nature, his mind was fee from the desire to extend his mind was free from the desire to extend his dominion by erecting boundary walls around his acquisitions. His aim was not to acquire but to realize, to enlarge his consciousness by growing with and growing into his surroundings. He felt that truth is all comprehensive that there is no such 66 thing as absolute isolation in existence and the only way of attaining truth is through the interpretation of our being into all objects. This harmony between man’s spirit and the spirit of the world was the endeavour of the forest dwelling sages of ancient India. In future even when Mighty Kingdoms were established – even in the heyday of its material prosperity – the heart of India ever looked back with adoration upon the early ideal of strenuous self-realization and the dignity of the simple life of the forest hermitage. Westerners took pride in subduing nature, as if we are living in a hostile world creating and artificial dissociation between himself and the universal nature within whose bosom he lies. But Indians believed that there is a rational connection between him and nature. We are in harmony with nature and the thoughts are in harmony with things – the power is in harmony with the power which is universal. According to it, everything that is low in the scale of being is merely nature, and whatever has stamp of perfection on it, intellectual or moral, in human-nature. The earth, water and light, fruits and flowers to India were not merely physical phenomena to be turned to and then left aside. The man who has his spiritual eyes open knows the ultimate truth about earth and water lies in our apprehension of the eternal world. There is not mere knowledge, as science is, but it is a perception of the soul by soul. This gives us not power but joy. When a man does not realize his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison – house whose walls are alien to him. When the meets the eternal spirit in all objects, them he is emancipated, for them he discovers the fullest significance of the world into which he is born. Thus the text of our everyday mediation is the Gayathri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul of man. We understand the Eternal spirit, whose power creates The Earth, the Sky and the stars. It is not in the power of possession but in the power of union. India knew that when by physical and mental barriers we violently detach ourselves from the inexhaustible life of nature, when we become man, man in the universe, we crate bewildering problems. Man must realize the wholeness of his existence, his place in the infinite. The Rishis were they, who having reached the supreme God from all sides had found abiding peace, had 67 become united with all, had entered into the life of the Universe. Thus the state of realizing our relationship with all, of entering into everything through union with God, was considered in India to be the ultimate and fulfillment of humanity. His freedom and fulfillment is in love, which is another name for perfect comprehension. This is why the Upanishads describe those who have attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at one with God’, meaning that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in undisturbed union with God. We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he says, ‘It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possession are our limitations. It is the one living truth that makes all realities true. This truth is not only of knowledge but of devotion. Buddha, who developed the practical side of the teaching of the Upanishads, preached the same. The Upanishad says that the being who is in his essence of light and life of all, who is world – conscious, is Brahma. Upanishad also says ‘thou shalt gain by giving away. Thou Shalt not covet’. In the Gita we are advised to work disinterestingly, abandoning all lust for the result. Everything his sprung from immoral life and is vibrating with life, for life is immense. 2.3 Soul consciousness The aspiration of ancient India was to live and move and have is joy is Brahma- the all conscious and all pervading spirit, by extending its field of consciousness all over the world. By beginning to try to realize all, one has to end by realizing nothing. But, in reality, it is not so absurd as it sounds. Facts are many, but the truth is one. The animal intelligence knows facts, the human mind has power to apprehend truth. This discovery of truth is pure joy to man – it is a liberation of his mind. Truth opens up a whole horizon, it leads us to the infinite. Upanishad says ‘know thine own soul’ – realize the one great principle of unity that there is in every man. All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, obscure our true vision of the soul. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that 68 transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All. Like children learning the alphabets, words and then sentences, our soul when detached and imprisoned within the narrow limits of a self loses its significance. In love he use of difference is obliterated and the human soul fulfils its purpose in perfection, transcending the limits of itself and reaching across the threshold of the infinite. Therefore love is the highest bliss that man can attain. Our great ‘Revealers’ are they who man manifest the true meaning of the soul by giving up self for the love of mankind. We call then ‘Mahatmas’ – the men of the great soul? ‘Paramathma’ is the supreme soul in me and my joy is in the realization of this truth. The joys and sorrows of our loved ones are joys and sorrows of our loved ones, because in them we have grown larger, in them we have touched that great truth which comprehends the whole universe. Our highest joy is in the losing of our egoistic self and in the uniting with others. According to the Upanishads, the key to cosmic consciousness, to God- consciousness, is in the consciousness of the soul. The chick knows when it breaks through the selfcentered isolation of its egg that the hard shell which covered it so long was not really a part of its life. In Sanskrit, the bird has been called the twice-born : so too the man is named, who has gone through the ceremony of the discipline of self-restraint and high thinking – who has come out simple in wants, pure in heart and ready to take up all the responsibilities of life in a disinterested largeness of spirit. He is considered to have had his rebirth from the blind envelopment of self to the freedom of soul life. When Jesus said, ‘Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth’ he meant this. The doctrine of deliverance that Buddha preached was the freedom from the thralldom of Avidya (ignorance), when he attains ‘Bodhi’, i.e., the awakenment from the sleep of self to the perfection of consciousness, he becomes But Man’s poverty is abysmal, his wants are endless till he becomes truly conscious of his soul. The vision of the supreme one in our own soul is a direct and immediate intuition. Sin is the blurring of truth which clouds the purity of our consciousness. It is the supreme one which makes man feel the pang of his separation from God and gives rise to the earnest prayer, ‘O God, O Father, completely sweap away all our sins’. Give into us that which is good? Man’s cry reach his fullest expression. It is this desire for self69 expression that leads him to attain perfection. Man becomes perfect man, he attains his fullest expression, when his soul realizes itself in the infinite being who is Avih whose very essence is expression. When a man’s life rescued from distractions finds its unity in the soul, then the consciousness of the infinite becomes at once direct and natural to it as the light is to the flame. All the conflicts and contradictions of life are reconciled; knowledge, love and action harmonized; the formless appears to us in the form of the flower, of the fruit as the supreme one. 2.4 The problem of Evil The question why there is evil in existence is the same as why there is imperfection on or why there is creation at all. Imperfection is not a negation of perfectness; finitude is not contradictory to infinity; they are but completeness manifested in parts, infinity revealed within bounds. Pain, which is the feeling of our finiteness, is not a fixture in our life. It is not an end in itself, as joy is. We feel that good is the positive element in man’s nature, and in every age and every clime what man values west is his ideal of goodness. Will is the supreme wish of larger life, the life whose greater partition is out of our present reach, whose objects are not for the most part before our sight. Then we begin to distinguish between what we immediately desire and what is good. Good is that which is desirable for our greater self. Thus sense of goodness comes out of truer view of life. In this he becomes great, for the realizes truth. Life is not made up of fragments, purposeless and discontinuous. It is a truth that man is not a detached being, that he has a universal aspect; and when he recognizes this he becomes great; very often it is our moral strength which gives us most effectively the power to do evil, to exploit other individuals for our own benefit, to rob other people of their just rights. The life of an animal is unmoral, for it is aware only of an immediate present; the life of a man can be immoral, but that only means that it must have a moral basis. Not to see is to be blind, but to see wrongly is to see only in an imperfect manner. To live the life of goodness is to live the life of all. Pleasure is for one’s own self, but goodness is concerned with the happiness of all humanity and for all time. From the point of view of the good, pleasure pain 70 appear in a different meaning. Martyrs prove is in history and we prove it every day in our little martyrdoms. To live in perfect goodness is to realize one’s life in the infinite. Our body can only die if it tries to eat its own substance, and our eye loses the meaning of its function if it can only see itself. We see then that man’s individuality is not his highest truth, there is that in him which is universal. Our organ of sight, our organ of locomotion, our physical strength becomes worldwide; steam and electricity become our nerve and muscle. It is the same with our spiritual life. Yet we complain that we are not happy, as if there were something inherent in the nature of things to make us miserable. The universal spirit is waiting to crown us with happiness, but our individual spirit would not accept it. The most important lesson that man can learn from his life is not that there is pain in this world, but it depends upon him to turn it is not good account, that it is possible for him to transmute it into joy. NON – DETTTTAILED – 2 . 5 .AN AREA OF DARKNESS -V.S.NAIPAUL V.S.Naipul’s position as a third generation Caribbean settled in England makes the idea of the return (to an unsullied past ,and threby a complete, rooted identity )doubly problematic . In one of his essays ,Naipaul wrote , “ although the English language was mine , [ …] its tradition was not ” . There is no virtually Caribbean ‘ tradition’ that he can fall back upon , and this perhaps is the basis for his anguished sense . The aboriginal peoples of the Caribbean have long been extinct .Naipaul has also in his many interviews and essays ,made his own myth into that of the writer as a displaced person ,one who does not “ have a side , doesn’t have a country ;doesn’t have a community ; one who is entirely an individual ” , a figure who has achieved a ‘Brahminical ideal of non –attachment ’,a man without a home . His protagonist Mr . Boswas depicts this linked to the ownership of ‘a house ’ – ‘a home ’.The slow and stately rhythm of his prose ,the measured tone ,reflects a grim solidity , and grants to it something of the status of fact . Naipaul visited India for many months on different occasions in order to gather ‘materials’ for his ‘An Area of Darkness ’ (1964),India :A Wounded Civilisation (1977),andIndia:A Mmillion Mutinies Now (1990). They are serious undertakings that entail much thought and analysis ; thus ,the eye-witness account gives ‘authority’ to his writings . It is a first hand account of what happened and who was involved . No one can doubt the 71 extraordinary qualities of Naipaul’s observations ,they are keen ,detailed and exact . In ‘An Area of Darkness’ , the ‘quest’ for ‘self ’ is notable : there is an intence preoccupation withself, and this colours all of Naipaul’s observations and comments . The narrative is replete ,with confessional statements ,with philosophical commentaries ,his own fears and anxieties about India . The philosophical perspective is imbedded everywhere in both of Naipaul’s fiction and traver narratives ;it is this substantive –idea that permeates his writings ,and is at times connected with the ‘autobiographical ’sense. In many passages philosophical ideas are brought out through autobiographical instances there is a dynamic interrelationship between both travel and fictional writings . The sharp literary image gives his travel narratives the necessary ‘literariness’ , and at the same time ,his travel narrative

Tamil

தமிழ் மொழிபெயர்ப்பு ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2016-05-25
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

The advent of Cloud computing as a new model of service provisioning in distributed systems, encourages researchers to investigate its benefits and drawbacks in executing scientific applications such as workflows. One of the most challenging problems in Clouds is workflow scheduling, i.e., the problem of satisfying the QoS of the user like deadline as well as minimizing the cost of workflow execution. An existing work QoS-based workflow scheduling algorithm based on a novel concept called Partial Critical Paths (PCP), which tries to minimize the cost of workflow execution while meeting a user-defined deadline. Today cloud provider’s mainly concentrate about the increasing their revenue. This will lead to the selfish behavior which may cause the QOS violation of cloud users. In the existing work, fault tolerance is not considered when the resources are failed to process the submitted tasks. The fault tolerance is achieved in the proposed by migrating the VM’s. The experimental results proves that the proposed work provides better result than the existing methodology.

Tamil

தமிழ், ஆங்கிலம் பத்தி ஆன்லைன்

Last Update: 2015-05-28
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Environmental pollution, problems and control measures – Overview A. Introduction and definition of environmental pollution – We know that, a living organism cannot live by itself. Organisms interact among themselves. Hence, all organisms, such as plants, animals and human beings, as well as the physical surroundings with whom we interact, form a part of our environment. All these constituents of the environment are dependent upon each other. Thus, they maintain a balance in nature. As we are the only organisms try to modify the environment to fulfill our needs; it is our responsibility to take necessary steps to control the environmental imbalances. The environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. The environmental problems are visualized in terms of pollution, growth in population, development, industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc. Rapid migration and increase in population in the urban areas has also lead to traffic congestion, water shortages, solid waste, and air, water and noise pollution are common noticeable problems in almost all the urban areas since last few years. Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. As a result of over-population, rapid industrializations, and other human activities like agriculture and deforestation etc., earth became loaded with diverse pollutants that were released as by-products. Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes: (a) Biodegradable pollutants – Biodegradable pollutants are broken down by the activity of micro-organisms and enter into the biogeochemical cycles. Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucal matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc. (b) Non- Biodegradable pollutants – Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc. B. Classification of Environmental Pollution – Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. Major of these are: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution (land degradation) and Noise pollution. Details of these types of pollutions are discussed below with their prevention measures. (1) Air Pollution: Air is mainly a mixture of various gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen. These are present in a particular ratio. Whenever there is any imbalance in the ratio of these gases, air pollution is caused. The sources of air pollution can be grouped as under PDS_AIR_POLLUTION_0 (i) Natural; such as, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, dust storm and decay of organic matters. (ii) Man-made due to population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrializations. Certain activities of human beings release several pollutants in air, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), lead, arsenic, asbestos, radioactive matter, and dust. The major threat comes from burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum products. Thermal power plants, automobiles and industries are major sources of air pollution as well. Due to progress in atomic energy sector, there has been an increase in radioactivity in the atmosphere. Mining activity adds to air pollution in the form of particulate matter. Progress in agriculture due to use of fertilizers and pesticides has also contributed towards air pollution. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests has led to increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Global warming is a consequence of green house effect caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2). Ozone (O3) depletion has resulted in UV radiation striking our earth. The gaseous composition of unpolluted air The Gases Parts per million (vol) Nitrogen 756,500 Oxygen 202,900 Water 31,200 Argon 9,000 Carbon Dioxide 305 Neon 17.4 Helium 5.0 Methane 0.97-1.16 Krypton 0.97 Nitrous oxide 0.49 Hydrogen 0.49 Xenon 0.08 Organic vapours ca.0.02 Harmful Effects of air pollution – (a) It affects respiratory system of living organisms and causes bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, pneumonia etc. Carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from motor vehicles and cigarette smoke affects the central nervous system. (b) Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV radiation reaches the earth. UV radiation causes skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. (c) Acid rain is also a result of air pollution. This is caused by presence of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur in the air. These oxides dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid respectively. Various monuments, buildings, and statues are damaged due to corrosion by acid present in the rain. The soil also becomes acidic. The cumulative effect is the gradual degradation of soil and a decline in forest and agricultural productivity. (d) The green house gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) trap the heat radiated from earth. This leads to an increase in earth’s temperature. (e) Some toxic metals and pesticides also cause air pollution. [For more refer Industrial Dust, Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases ] (2) Water Pollution: Water is one of the prime necessities of life. With increasing number of people depend on this resource; water has become a scarce commodity. Pollution makes even the limited available water unfit for use. Water is said to be polluted when there is any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution are mainly factories, power plants, coal mines and oil wells situated either close to water source or away from sources. They discharge pollutants directly or indirectly into the water sources like river, lakes, water streams etc. The harmful effects of water pollution are: (a) Human beings become victims of various water borne diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice, etc. (b) The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering the self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies. Agriculture is affected badly due to polluted water. Marine eco-systems are affected adversely. (c) The sewage waste promotes growth of phytoplankton in water bodies; causing reduction of dissolved oxygen. (d) Poisonous industrial wastes present in water bodies affect the fish population and deprives us of one of our sources of food. It also kills other animals living in fresh water. (e) The quality of underground water is also affected due to toxicity and pollutant content of surface water. (2.1) Water pollution by industries and its effects – Industrial_WaterPollutionA change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its uses. The term “water pollution” generally refers to human-induced changes to water quality. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from industries or the release of human or livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water of water bodies like rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Sources of water pollution may be divided into two categories. (i) Point-source pollution, in which contaminants are discharged from a discrete location. Sewage outfalls and oil spills are examples of point-source pollution. (ii) Non-point-source or diffuse pollution, referring to all of the other discharges that deliver contaminants to water bodies. Acid rain and unconfined runoff from agricultural or urban areas falls under this category. The principal contaminants of water include toxic chemicals, nutrients, biodegradable organics, and bacterial & viral pathogens. Water pollution can affect human health when pollutants enter the body either via skin exposure or through the direct consumption of contaminated drinking water and contaminated food. Prime pollutants, including DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persist in the natural environment and bioaccumulation occurs in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These prolonged and persistent organic pollutants are transferred up the food chain and they can reach levels of concern in fish species that are eaten by humans. Moreover, bacteria and viral pathogens can pose a public health risk for those who drink contaminated water or eat raw shellfish from polluted water bodies. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. Enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) can result in the growth of algae and other aquatic plants that shade or clog streams. If wastewater containing biodegradable organic matter is discharged into a stream with inadequate dissolved oxygen, the water downstream of the point of discharge will become anaerobic and will be turbid and dark. Settleable solids will be deposited on the streambed, and anaerobic decomposition will occur. Over the reach of stream where the dissolved-oxygen concentration is zero, a zone of putrefaction will occur with the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and other odorous gases. Because many fish species require a minimum of 4–5 mg of dissolved oxygen per liter of water, they will be unable to survive in this portion of the stream. Direct exposures to toxic chemicals are also a health concern for individual aquatic plants and animals. Chemicals such as pesticides are frequently transported to lakes and rivers via runoff, and they can have harmful effects on aquatic life. Toxic chemicals have been shown to reduce the growth, survival, reproductive output, and disease resistance of exposed organisms. These effects can have important consequences for the viability of aquatic populations and communities. Wastewater discharges are most commonly controlled through effluent standards and discharge permits. Under this system, discharge permits are issued with limits on the quantity and quality of effluents. Water-quality standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain or enhance the quality of receiving waters. Criteria can be developed and implemented to protect aquatic life against acute and chronic effects and to safeguard humans against deleterious health effects, including cancer. [ For more refer ‘Water Conservation – Need-of-the-day for our very survival‘ ] (3) Soil pollution (Land degradation): Land pollution is due to (i) Deforestation and (ii) Dumping of solid wastes. Deforestation increases soil erosion; thus valuable agricultural land is lost. Solid wastes from household and industries also pollute land and enhance land degradation. Solid wastes include things from household waste and of industrial wastes. They include ash, glass, peelings of fruit and vegetables, paper, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, brick, sand, metal, waste from cattle shed, night soil and cow dung. Chemicals discharged into air, such as compounds of sulfur and lead, eventually come to soil and pollute it. The heaps of solid waste destroy the natural beauty and surroundings become dirty. Pigs, dogs, rats, flies, mosquitoes visit the dumped waste and foul smell comes from the waste. The waste may block the flow of water in the drain, which then becomes the breeding place for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are carriers of parasites of malaria and dengue. Consumption of polluted water causes many diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. [ For more refer Solid Waste Disposal -A Burning Problem To Be Resolved To Save Environment ] (4) Noise pollution : health_effects_of_noiseHigh level noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Because of urbanization, noise in all areas in a city has increased considerably. One of the most pervasive sources of noise in our environment today is those associated with transportation. People reside adjacent to highways, are subjected to high level of noise produced by trucks and vehicles pass on the highways. Prolonged exposure to high level of noise is very much harmful to the health of mankind. In industry and in mines the main sources of noise pollution are blasting, movement of heavy earth moving machines, drilling, crusher and coal handling plants etc. The critical value for the development of hearing problems is at 80 decibels. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Moreover, noise can be a causal factor in workplace accidents. C. Fundamentals of prevention and control of air pollution: As mentioned above, air pollutants can be gaseous or particulate matters. Different techniques for controlling these pollutants are discussed below: a. Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants – 1. Combustion – This technique is used when the pollutants are in the form of organic gases or vapors. During flame combustion or catalytic process, these organic pollutants are converted into water vapor and relatively less harmful products, such as CO2. 2. Absorption – In this technique, the gaseous effluents are passed through scrubbers or absorbers. These contain a suitable liquid absorbent, which removes or modifies one or more of the pollutants present in the gaseous effluents. 3. Adsorption – The gaseous effluents are passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The organic and inorganic constituents of the effluent gases are trapped at the interface of the solid adsorbent by physical adsorbent. b. Methods to control particulate emissions – 1. Mechanical devices generally work on the basis of the following: dustbagfilter (i) Gravity: In this process, the particles settle down by gravitational force. (ii) Sudden change in direction of the gas flow. This causes the particles to separate out due to greater momentum. 2. Fabric Filters: The gases containing dust are passed through a porous medium. These porous media may be woven or filled fabrics. The particles present in the gas are trapped and collected in the filters. The gases freed from the particles are discharged. 3. Wet Scrubbers: Wet scrubbers are used in chemical, mining and metallurgical industries to trap SO2, NH3, metal fumes, etc. 4. Electrostatic Precipitators: When a gas or an air stream containing aerosols in the form of dust, fumes or mist, is passed between two electrodes, then, the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrode. dustelectrostaticprecipitator c. Other practices in controlling air pollution – Apart from the above, following practices also help in controlling air pollution. (i) Use of better designed equipment and smokeless fuels, hearths in industries and at home. (ii) Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to recent emission-control standards. (iii) More trees should be planted along road side and houses. (iv) Renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, ocean currents, should fulfill energy needs. (v) Tall chimneys should be installed for vertical dispersion of pollutants. d. General air pollution control devices / equipments for industries – The commonly used equipments / process for control of dust in various industries are (a) Mechanical dust collectors in the form of dust cyclones; (b) Electrostatic precipitators – both dry and wet system; (c) particulate scrubbers; (d) Water sprayer at dust generation points; (e) proper ventilation system and (f) various monitoring devices to know the concentration of dust in general body of air. The common equipments / process used for control of toxic / flue gases are the (a) process of desulphurisation; (b) process of denitrification; (c) Gas conditioning etc. and (d) various monitoring devices to know the efficacy of the systems used. e. Steps, in general, to be taken for reduction of air pollution – To change our behavior in order to reduce AIR POLLUTION at home as well as on the road, few following small steps taken by us would lead to clean our Environment. At Home: 1. Avoid using chemical pesticides or fertilizers in your yard and garden. Many fertilizers are a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Try organic products instead. 2. Compost your yard waste instead of burning it. Outdoor burning is not advisable, as it pollutes air. Breathing this smoke is bad for you, your family and your neighbors. Plus, you can use the compost in your garden. 3. If you use a wood stove or fireplace to heat your home, it would be better to consider switching to another form of heat which does not generate smoke. It is always better to use sweater or warm clothing than using fireplace. 4. Be energy efficient. Most traditional sources of energy burn fossil fuels, causing air pollution. Keep your home well-maintained with weather-stripping, storm windows, and insulation. Lowering your thermostat can also help – and for every two degrees Fahrenheit you lower it, you save about two percent on your heating bill. 5. Plant trees and encourage other to plant trees as well. Trees absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and filter out air pollution. During warmer days, trees provide cool air, unnecessary use of energy on air conditioning is avoided, hence the air pollution. 6. Try to stop smoking; at home, at office or at outside. Tobacco smoking not only deteriorates self’s health, it affects others health too. On the Road: 7. Keep your vehicle well maintained. A poorly maintained engine both creates more air pollution and uses more fuel. Replace oil and air filters regularly, and keep your tires properly inflated. 8. Drive less. Walking, bicycling, riding the bus, or working from home can save you money as well as reducing air pollution. 9. Don’t idle your vehicle. If you stop for more than 30 seconds, except in traffic, turn off your engine. 10. Don’t buy more car than you need. Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, engine size, vehicle weight, and tire size all affect the amount of fuel your vehicle uses. The more fuel it uses the more air pollution it causes. D. Water pollution prevention and control: Water is a key resource for our quality of life. It also provides natural habitats and eco-systems for plant and animal species. Access to clean water for drinking and sanitary purposes is a precondition for human health and well-being. Clean unpolluted water is essential for our ecosystems. Plants and animals in lakes, rivers and seas react to changes in their environment caused by changes in chemical water quality and physical disturbance of their habitat. Water pollution is a human-induced change in the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological quality of water that is injurious to its existing, intended, or potential uses such as boating, waterskiing, swimming, the consumption of fish, and the health of aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, the discharge of toxic chemicals from a pipe or the release of livestock waste into a nearby water body is considered pollution. The contamination of ground water, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and oceans can threaten the health of humans and aquatic life. Contaminants have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. for example, enrichment of water bodies with nutrients (principally nitro

Tamil

sutru suzhal pathukappu கட்டுரை என்னை சொல்ல

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Satrun transit is going to give you lot of domestic as well as career tensions. To get relief from the tensions and to calm down your mind, recite Shiva Panchakshari Mantra 108 times daily. Worship goddess Durga and recite Durga Saptasloki daily for mental strength. The blessings acquired from guru and parents always help to survive in difficult situations. Provide cloths to teachers who are in financially poor condition. Try to help poor and needy people with food and clothes. Help mentally challenged people to solve problems in your progress. Try to lead the life without any type of addictions. Offering sweets to blind people will prove beneficial for you. - See more at: http://www.southupdates.com/sani-peyarchi-pariharam-2014-sani-peyarchi-pariharam-2014-2017-saturn-transit-saturn-transit-predictions-2014-saturn-transit-remedies-2014/#sthash.ac0scojo.dpuf

Tamil

யாகூ! செய்திகள்

Last Update: 2014-10-06
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