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kathak from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia jump to navigationjump to search kathak dancer arushi nishank performing at lucknow kathak sansthan. kathak is one of the eight major forms of indian classical dance.[1] the origin of kathak is traditionally attributed to the traveling bards of ancient northern india known as kathakars or storytellers.[2] the term kathak is derived from the vedic sanskrit word katha which means "story", and kathakar which means "the one who tells a story", or "to do with stories".[2][3] wandering kathakars communicated stories from the great epics and ancient mythology through dance, songs and music in a manner similar to early greek theatre.[3] kathak dancers tell various stories through their hand movements and extensive footwork, but most importantly through their facial expressions. kathak evolved during the bhakti movement, particularly by incorporating the childhood and stories of the hindu god krishna, as well as independently in the courts of north indian kingdoms.[2][4] kathak is found in three distinct forms, called "gharanas", named after the cities where the kathak dance tradition evolved – jaipur, banaras and lucknow.[5] while the jaipur gharana focuses more on the foot movements, the banaras and lucknow gharanas focus more on facial expressions and graceful hand movements. stylistically, the kathak dance form emphasizes rhythmic foot movements, adorned with small bells (ghungroo), and the movement harmonized to the music.[4][6] the legs and torso are generally straight, and the story is told through a developed vocabulary based on the gestures of arms and upper body movement, facial expressions, stage movements, bends and turns. the main focus of the dance becomes the eyes and the foot movements. the eyes work as a medium of communication of the story the dancer is trying to communicate. with the eyebrows the dancer gives various facial expressions.[4][7] the difference between the sub-traditions is the relative emphasis between acting versus footwork, with lucknow style emphasizing acting and jaipur style famed for its spectacular footwork.[4] kathak as a performance art has survived and thrived as an oral tradition, innovated and taught and from one generation to another verbally and through practice.[8] it transitioned, adapted and integrated the tastes of the mughal courts[9] in the 16th and 17th century particularly akbar, was ridiculed and declined in the colonial british era,[10] then was reborn as india gained independence and sought to rediscover its ancient roots and a sense of national identity through the arts.[11][8] part of a series on the culture of india ashoka chakra.svg history people languages[show] mythology and folklore[show] cuisine religion art[show] literature[show] music and performing arts[show] media[show] sport monuments[show] symbols[show] flag of india.svg india portal vte part of a series on hinduism 1 om.svg hindushistory origins[show] main traditions[show] deities[show] concepts[show] practices[show] philosophical schools[show] gurus, saints, philosophers[show] texts[show] society[show] other topics[show] glossary of hinduism terms aum om red.svg hinduism portal hinduswastika.svg vte contents 1 etymology and nomenclature 2 history 2.1 bhakti movement era 2.2 mughal era 2.3 british raj era 2.4 post colonial era 3 repertoire 3.1 pure dance (nritta) 3.2 expressive dance (nritya) 3.3 costumes 4 instruments 5 music 6 gharanas 7 relationship with other art forms 8 gallery 9 see also 10 notes 11 references 11.1 bibliography 12 external links etymology and nomenclature the term kathak is rooted in the vedic term katha (sanskrit: कथा) which means "story, conversation, traditional tale".[2][4] kathak refers to one of the major classical dance form primarily found in northern india, with a historical influence similar to bharatanatyam in south india, odissi in east india and other major classical dances found in south asia.[4][12] it differs from the numerous folk dance forms found in north and other parts of the indian subcontinent.[12] the kathak dancers, in the ancient india, were traveling bards and were known as. kathakas,[2] or kathakar.[13][14] kathak has inspired simplified regional variants, such as the bhavai – a form of rural theatre focussing on the tales of hindu goddesses (shakti), and one which emerged in the medieval era, is presently found in gujarat, rajasthan and madhya pradesh.[15] another variant that emerged from ancient kathak is thumri.[16] history performance arts and culture let nātya (drama and dance) be the fifth vedic scripture. combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture and forward every art. — nātyaśāstra 1.14–15[17][18] according to mary snodgrass, the kathak tradition of india is traceable to 400 bce.[19] the earliest surviving text with kathak roots is the natya shastra,[19] attributed to sage bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 bce and 200 ce,[20][21] but estimates vary between 500 bce and 500 ce.[22] kathak performance by sharmila sharma and rajendra kumar gangani at the guimet museum (november 2007) the most studied version of the natya shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[20][23] the text, states natalia lidova, describes the theory of tāṇḍava dance (shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of indian classical dances including kathak.[20][24][25] dance and performance arts, states this ancient hindu text,[26] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[18][27] the 2nd century bc panels found in bharhut show the dancers in a vertical stance with their arms' positions already suggesting today's kathak movements. most of the dancers have one arm near the ear in a ''pataka hasta'' (mudra). in subsequent years, the hasta was lowered to the bust level.[28] the term kathakas in the sense of "storytellers" appears in ancient hindu texts, such as the mahabharata:[2

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English

kuchipudi, like other classical dance forms in india, traces its roots to the sanskrit natya shastra, a foundational treatise on the performing arts.[4][5] its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 bce and 200 ce,[27][28] but estimates vary between 500 bce and 500 ce.[29] the most studied version of the natya shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[27][30] the text, states natalia lidova, describes the theory of tāṇḍava dance (shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of indian classical dances.[27][31] dance and performance arts, states this ancient text,[32] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[33] the dance-drama tradition in andhra pradesh is of ancient origins, and the region is mentioned in the natya shastra. bharata muni credits a graceful movement to andhra region and discusses it as kaishiki vritti. the pre-2nd century ce text calls one raga as andhri, that is from andhra.[34] the andhri, is related to gandhari and arsabhi, and is discussed in many other 1st millennium sanskrit texts.[35] some, state bruno nettle and others, place the origins of kuchipudi to 3rd century bce.[15] dance-drama performance arts related to shaivism, in telugu-speaking parts of south india, are evidenced in 10th-century copper inscriptions, and these were called brahmana melas or brahma melas.[8][36] the medieval era dance-drama performance artists were brahmins.[37][38] this art was likely adopted by the musical and dancing bhakti traditions of vaishnavism which grew in the 2nd millennium, whose devotees were called bhagvatulus in andhra region and bhagvatars in tamil region of south india.[8] in andhra, this performance art evolved into kuchipudi, while in tamil nadu it became known as bhagavata mela nataka.[8] according to saskia kersenboom, both the telugu kuchipudi and tamil bhagavata mela are strongly related to the classical hindu dance tradition of yakshagana found in karnataka, all three involve carnatic music, but these dance-drama traditions have differences such as in costumes, structure, interpretation and creative innovations.[15]

Telugu

kuchipudi, like other classical dance forms in india, traces its roots to the sanskrit natya shastra, a foundational treatise on the performing arts.[4][5] its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 bce and 200 ce,[27][28] but estimates vary between 500 bce and 500 ce.[29] the most studied version of the natya shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[27][30] the text, states natalia lidova, describes the theory of tāṇḍava dance (shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of indian classical dances.[27][31] dance and performance arts, states this ancient text,[32] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[33] the dance-drama tradition in andhra pradesh is of ancient origins, and the region is mentioned in the natya shastra. bharata muni credits a graceful movement to andhra region and discusses it as kaishiki vritti. the pre-2nd century ce text calls one raga as andhri, that is from andhra.[34] the andhri, is related to gandhari and arsabhi, and is discussed in many other 1st millennium sanskrit texts.[35] some, state bruno nettle and others, place the origins of kuchipudi to 3rd century bce.[15] dance-drama performance arts related to shaivism, in telugu-speaking parts of south india, are evidenced in 10th-century copper inscriptions, and these were called brahmana melas or brahma melas.[8][36] the medieval era dance-drama performance artists were brahmins.[37][38] this art was likely adopted by the musical and dancing bhakti traditions of vaishnavism which grew in the 2nd millennium, whose devotees were called bhagvatulus in andhra region and bhagvatars in tamil region of south india.[8] in andhra, this performance art evolved into kuchipudi, while in tamil nadu it became known as bhagavata mela nataka.[8] according to saskia kersenboom, both the telugu kuchipudi and tamil bhagavata mela are stron

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sample essay on cricket | essay samples blog--paperwritings.com--sample essay on cricket is cricket a global game? cricket is a bat-and-ball kind of game that is played between two teams, 11 players in each of them. the field has an oval shape and in the center there is rectangular 22-yard long pitch. in the game process, one team bats and tries to score runs, the more, the better, while the second team fields and bowls, and attempts to dismiss the batsmen and limit runs received by the first team. teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of innings. the history of cricket started in the 16th century in england. the first written evidence dates back to 1598. then it was called creckett. there are many facts that make it clear that cricket was actively developing in the 17th century, and by its end it became an organized activity that was played for high stakes. in the next century it became the national sport of england. since then it gained recognition and today there are fans around the world and matches gather lots of people who are dedicated to this game. this game has several peculiarities that make it very appealing to people. first of all, it is interesting that there are laws that players have to abide to, but also there is the spirit of the game, which is no less important. besides, the fields for cricket are unique and vary considerably in shape and size. there are many other peculiarities that make this sport interesting and unique for many people, as everyone can find something interesting in it for themselves. today the international cricket council has 104 members, which proves the point.

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nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

Telugu

nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. the study of nature is a large part of science. although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. the word nature is derived from the latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] natura is a latin translation of the greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] the concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. this usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the earth. it is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". this more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. contents 1 earth 1.1 geology 1.1.1 geological evolution 1.2 historical perspective 2 atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 water on earth 3.1 oceans 3.2 lakes 3.2.1 ponds 3.3 rivers 3.4 streams 4 ecosystems 4.1 wilderness 5 life 5.1 evolution 5.2 microbes 5.3 plants and animals 6 human interrelationship 6.1 aesthetics and beauty 6.2 value of nature 7 matter and energy 8 beyond earth 9 see also 10 notes and references 11 external links earth main articles: earth and earth science view of the earth, taken in 1972 by the apollo 17 astronaut crew. this image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the earth. earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. the remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the northern hemisphere. earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. the interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. this iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. it is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the earth.[9][10] geology main article: geology three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. the field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. the field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. geological evolution the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. after the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. these structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. historical perspective main articles: history of the earth and evolution plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] an animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of pangaea until the present day. earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the sun and other planets.[12] the moon formed roughly 20 million years later. initially molten, the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] the highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] during the neoproterozoic era covered much of the earth in glaciers and ice sheets. this hypothesis has been termed the "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] since the cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] the last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] several million years ago, a species of small african ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] the subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. by comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. the present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] some, such as e. o. wilson of harvard university, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] the extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] atmosphere, climate, and weather lightning blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the earth a blue halo when seen from space a tornado in central oklahoma main articles: atmosphere of earth, climate and weather the earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. the thin layer of gases that envelops the earth is held in place by gravity. air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. the atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. the ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (uv) radiation that reaches the surface. as dna is readily damaged by uv light, this serves to protect life at the surface. the atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. these currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the earth's orbit. based on historical records, the earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. the climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. a latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. there are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. this exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. at any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] water on earth the iguazu falls on the border between brazil and argentina main article: water water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] in typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. water covers 71% of the earth's surface.[25] on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. additionally, a minute amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. oceans a view of the atlantic ocean from leblon, rio de janeiro. view of the earth where all five oceans visible earth's oceans arctic pacific atlantic indian southern world ocean v t e main article: ocean an ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. approximately 71% of the earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. more than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the world ocean or global ocean.[28][29] this concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] the major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the pacific ocean, the atlantic ocean, the indian ocean, the southern ocean and the arctic ocean. smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. there are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the world ocean. two notable examples of salt lakes are the aral sea and the great salt lake. lakes lake mapourika, new zealand main article: lake a lake (from latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. on earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] the only world other than earth known to harbor lakes is titan, saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. it is not known if titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. natural lakes on earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. in some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. all lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. ponds the westborough reservoir (mill pond) in westborough, massachusetts. main article: pond a pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. a wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. while currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. these features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. rivers the nile river in cairo, egypt's capital city main article: river a river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. in a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is burn in scotland and north-east england. sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] a river is part of the hydrological cycle. water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). streams a rocky stream in hawaii main article: stream a stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. in the united states a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. given the status of the ongoing holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. the study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. ecosystems loch lomond in scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. the fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] lush green aravalli mountain range in the desert country-rajasthan, india. a wonder how such greenery can exist in hot rajasthan, a place well known for its thar desert an aerial view of a human ecosystem. pictured is the city of chicago main articles: ecology and ecosystem ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] the structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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bhagat singh from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia this article is about the revolutionary. for early immigrant in usa, see bhagat singh thind. bhagat singh bhagat singh 1929 140x190.jpg bhagat singh as he appeared in 1929 after cutting his hair in lahore to escape detection by police born september 1907[a] jaranwala tehsil, punjab, british india died 23 march 1931 (aged 23) lahore, punjab, british india organization naujawan bharat sabha, kirti kisan party, hindustan socialist republican association movement indian independence movement bhagat singh (ipa: [pə̀ɡət̪ sɪ́ŋɡ] ( listen) 27/28 september 1907 – 23 march 1931)[a] was an indian socialist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the indian independence movement. he is often referred to as "shaheed bhagat singh", the word "shaheed" meaning "martyr" in a number of south asian and middle eastern languages. born into a sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the british raj, as a teenager singh studied european revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and marxist ideologies. he was involved in several revolutionary organisations and became prominent in the hindustan republican association (hra), which changed its name to the hindustan socialist republican association (hsra) in 1928. seeking revenge for the death of lala lajpat rai, singh was involved in the murder of british police officer john saunders. he eluded efforts by the police to capture him. soon after, together with batukeshwar dutt, he and an accomplice threw two bombs and leaflets inside the central legislative assembly. the two men were arrested, as they had planned to be. held on this charge, he gained widespread national support when he underwent a 116-day fast in jail, demanding equal rights for european prisoners and those indians imprisoned for what he believed were political reasons. during this time, sufficient evidence was brought against him for a conviction in the saunders case, after trial by a special tribunal and appeal at the privy council in england. he was convicted and subsequently hanged for his participation in the murder, aged 23. his legacy prompted youth in india to begin fighting for indian independence and he continues to be a youth idol in modern india, as well as the inspiration for several films. he is commemorated with a large bronze statue in the parliament of india, as well as a range of other memorials. contents [hide] 1 early life 2 later revolutionary activities 2.1 lala lajpat rai's death and murder of saunders 2.2 escape 2.3 1929 assembly bomb throwing incident 2.4 assembly bomb case trial 2.5 further trial and execution 3 popularity 4 ideals and opinions 4.1 atheism 4.2 regarding death 4.3 criticism 5 legacy 5.1 memorials and museums 5.2 modern day 6 see also 7 references 8 further reading 9 external links

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the size of the file is over 2 gib. files larger than 2 gib are not supported by the iso9660 standard in its first and second versions (the most widespread ones). it is recommended to use the third version of the iso9660 standard, which is supported by most operating systems, including linux and all versions of windows™. however, mac os x cannot read images created with version 3 of the iso9660 standard.

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ఫైలు యొక్క పరిమాణము 2 gib కన్నా యెక్కువ. 2 gib కన్నా పెద్ద ఫైళ్ళు iso9660 ప్రమాణపు మొదటి మరియు రెండవ వర్షన్లు చేత మద్దతివ్వబడవు (ఇవి బాగా విస్తరించిన వర్షన్లు). iso9660 ప్రమాణం యొక్క మూడవ వర్షన్‌ను వుపయోగించమని సిఫార్సు చేయడమైనది, ఇది లైనక్సుతో కలుపుకొని అన్ని ఆపరేటింగ్ సిస్టమ్సుకు మరియు అన్ని విండోస్™ వర్షన్లకు మద్దతిస్తుంది. ఏమైనప్పటికి macos x మాత్రం iso9660 ప్రమాణం వర్షన్ 3 చేత సృష్టించబడిన ప్రతిబింబములను చదువలేదు.

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