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English

silence is the best answer to a fool

Telugu

Confuse them with your silence shock them with your actions

Last Update: 2020-05-25
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English

silence is the best response

Telugu

నిశ్శబ్దం ఒక మూర్ఖుడికి ఉత్తమ ప్రతిస్పందన

Last Update: 2020-08-27
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Reference: Anonymous

English

A girls mood is the best challenge to test a boy's patience

Telugu

బాలుడి సహనాన్ని పరీక్షించడానికి అమ్మాయిల మానసిక స్థితి ఉత్తమ సవాలు

Last Update: 2020-05-26
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

a smile is the best makeup any girl can wear

Telugu

ఒక స్మైల్ ఏ అమ్మాయి ధరించవచ్చు ఉత్తమ మేకప్ ఉంది

Last Update: 2017-09-30
Usage Frequency: 4
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Pavan is the best regards David good night sweet the sound

Telugu

జీవితం నకిలీ వ్యక్తులతో నిండి ఉంది

Last Update: 2021-01-18
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Smile is the best Medicine for Any problems so Always keep smile

Telugu

స్మైల్ అన్ని కోరికలకు ఉత్తమ medicine షధం

Last Update: 2020-10-21
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

the best part of rain effected- game is the

Telugu

వర్షం యొక్క ఉత్తమ భాగాన్ని ప్రభావితమయ్యారు-ప్రభావితమయ్యారు గేమ్

Last Update: 2016-08-13
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

WhiteHat Jr is the best Kids Coding Platform where kids are taught to code online by expert teachers. Kids coding will be the future of education.

Telugu

WhiteHat Jr is the best Kids Coding Platform where kids are taught to code online by expert teachers. Kids coding will be the future of education.

Last Update: 2020-11-05
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

building contract agreement AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND CONTRACTOR for use when a stipulated price forms the basis of payment and to be used only with the General Conditions of the Contract THIS AGREEMENT made on the day of in the year two thousand and . BY AND BETWEEN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Owner" AND ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Contractor" WITNESSETH: that the Owner and Contractor undertake and agree as follows: ARTICLE A-1 THE WORK The Contractor shall: (a) perform all the Work required by the Contract Documents for _______________________ _____________________________________________. (See Tender Form for Description) which have been signed in triplicate by both the parties, (b) do and fulfil everything indicated by this Agreement, and (c) commence the Work by the day of , 20 and substantially perform the Work of this Contract as certified by the Engineer/Architect by the _______ day of _________ 20 . (d) The "Engineer/Architect" is the person designated as such from time to time by the Owner. ARTICLE A-2 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS The following is an exact list of the Contract Documents referred to in Article A-1: (SEE TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR LIST OF DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS). See Attached ARTICLE A-3 CONTRACT PRICE THE CONTRACT PRICE IS $ _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ (HST INCLUDED) Canadian funds which price shall be subject to adjustments as may be required in accordance with the General Conditions of the Contract. ARTICLE A-4 PAYMENT (a) Subject to applicable legislation and, where such legislation does not exist or apply, in accordance with such prescribed regulations or industry practice respecting holdback percentages and in accordance with the provisions of the General Conditions of the Contract, the Owner shall: (1) make monthly payments to the Contractor on account of the Contract Price. The amounts of such payments shall be as certified by the Engineer/Architect; and (2) upon Substantial Performance of the work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of holdback monies then due; and (3) upon Total Performance of the Work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of the Contract Price then due. (b) If the Owner fails to make payments to the Contractor as they become due under the terms of this Contract or in any award by a court, interest at the rate and in the manner specified in GC21-Certificates and Payments, shall become due and payable until payment. Such interest shall be calculated and added to any unpaid amounts monthly. ARTICLE A-5 ADDRESSES FOR NOTICES All communications in writing between the parties or between them and the Engineer/Architect shall be deemed to have been received by the addressee if delivered to the individual or to a member of the firm or to an officer of the Corporation for whom they are intended or if sent by post or by facsimile addressed as follows: The Owner at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Contractor at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Engineer/Architect at: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ARTICLE A-6 SUCCESSION The General Conditions of the Contract hereto annexed, and all other aforesaid Contract Documents, are all to be read into and form part of this Agreement and the whole shall constitute the Contract between the parties and subject to law and the provisions of the Contract Documents shall ensure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, their respective heirs, legal representatives, successors and assigns. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have executed this Agreement under their respective corporate seals and by the hands of their proper officers hereunto duly authorized. SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED in the presence of: OWNER: CONTRACTOR ______________________________ ______________________________ signed signed ______________________________ ______________________________ name and title name and title _____________________________ ______________________________ date signed / witnessed ______________________________ name and title ______________________________ date N.B. Where any legal jurisdiction, local practice or client requirement calls for proof of authority to execute this document, proof of such authority in the form of a certified copy of a resolution naming the person or persons in question as authorized to sign the Agreement for and on behalf of the Corporation or Partnership, should be attached.

Telugu

Last Update: 2021-01-27
Usage Frequency: 2
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English

*ONLINE CODING CLASSES FOR KIDS ON WHITEHATJR.* *(From class 1 to 12)* *BOOK TODAY FOR FREE DEMO CLASS* WhiteHat Jr is the best Kids Coding Platform where kids are taught to code online by expert teachers. Kids coding will be the future of education. Today, in the computer age, less than 1% of schools teach coding in early childhood. Resulting in a major gap in the requirements of the new world and our children skills. WhiteHat Jr introduces and prepares your kid from 6 14 years for this

Telugu

Last Update: 2020-11-05
Usage Frequency: 1
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Reference: Anonymous

English

Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity. It involves a juggling act of various demands upon a person relating to work, social life, family, hobbies, personal interests and commitments with the finiteness of time. Using time effectively gives the person "choice" on spending/managing activities at their own time and expediency.[1] Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Time management is usually a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. It is also important to understand that both technical and structural differences in time management exist due to variations in cultural concepts of time. The major themes arising from the literature on time management include the following: Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness Setting of priorities The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities Implementation of goals Contents Related concepts Time management is related to different concepts such as: Project management: Time management can be considered to be a project management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project scheduling. Time management has also been identified as one of the core functions identified in project management.[2] Attention management relates to the management of cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind (and organize the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities. Organizational time management is the science of identifying, valuing and reducing time cost wastage within organizations. It identifies, reports and financially values sustainable time, wasted time and effective time within an organization and develops the business case to convert wasted time into productive time through the funding of products, services, projects or initiatives at a positive return on investment. Cultural views of time management Differences in the way a culture views time can affect the way their time is managed. For example, a linear time view is a way of conceiving time as flowing from one moment to the next in a linear fashion. This linear perception of time is predominant in America along with most Northern European countries such as, Germany, Switzerland, and England.[3] People in these cultures tend to place a large value on productive time management, and tend to avoid decisions or actions that would result in wasted time.[3] This linear view of time correlates to these cultures being more “monochronic”, or preferring to do only one thing at a time. Generally speaking, this cultural view leads to a better focus on accomplishing a singular task and hence, more productive time management. Another cultural time view is multi-active time view. In multi-active cultures, most people feel that the more activities or tasks being done at once the better. This creates a sense of happiness.[3] Multi-active cultures are “polychronic” or prefer to do multiple tasks at once. This multi-active time view is prominent in most Southern European countries such as Spain, Portugal, and Italy.[3] In these cultures, the people often tend to spend time on things they deem to be more important such as placing a high importance on finishing social conversations.[3] In business environments, they often pay little attention to how long meetings last, rather the focus is on having high quality meetings. In general, the cultural focus tends to be on synergy and creativity over efficiency.[4] A final cultural time view is a cyclical time view. In cyclical cultures, time is considered neither linear nor event related. Because days, months, years, seasons, and events happen in regular repetitive occurrences, time is viewed as cyclical. In this view, time is not seen as wasted because it will always come back later, hence, there is an unlimited amount of it.[3] This cyclical time view is prevalent throughout most countries in Asia including Japan, China, and Tibet. It is more important in cultures with cyclical concepts of time to complete tasks correctly, therefore, most people will spend more time thinking about decisions and the impact they will have before acting on their plans.[4] Most people in cyclical cultures tend to understand that other cultures have different perspectives of time and are cognizant of this when acting on a global stage.[citation needed] Creating an effective environment Some[which?] time-management literature stresses tasks related to the creation of an environment conducive to "real" effectiveness. These strategies include principles such as: "get organized" - the triage of paperwork and of tasks "protecting one's time" by insulation, isolation and delegation "achievement through goal-management and through goal-focus" - motivational emphasis "recovering from bad time-habits" - recovery from underlying psychological problems, e.g. procrastination Also, the timing of tackling tasks is important as tasks requiring high levels of concentration and mental energy are often done at the beginning of the day when a person is more refreshed. Literature[which?] also focuses on overcoming chronic psychological issues such as procrastination. Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may result from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or attention deficit disorder (ADD).[5] Diagnostic criteria include a sense of underachievement, difficulty getting organized, trouble getting started, trouble managing many simultaneous projects, and trouble with follow-through.[6][page needed] Some authors[which?] focus on the prefrontal cortex which is the most recently evolved part of the brain. It manages the functions of attention span, impulse managegment, organization, learning from experience and self-monitoring, among others. Some authors[quantify] argue that changing the way the prefrontal cortex works is possible and offer a solution.[7] Setting priorities and goals Time management strategies are often associated with the recommendation to set personal goals. The literature stresses themes such as: "Work in Priority Order" – set goals and prioritize "Set gravitational goals" – that attract actions automatically[citation needed] These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project, an action plan, or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list, schedule, or calendar of activities. Authors may recommend a daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods associated with different scope of planning or review. This is done in various ways, as follows. ABCD analysis A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked by these general criteria: A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important, B – Tasks that are important but not urgent, C – Tasks that are unimportant but urgent, D – Tasks that are unimportant and not urgent. Each group is then rank-ordered by priority. To further refine the prioritization, some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups.[8] ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis.[citation needed] Pareto analysis See also: Pareto analysis The Pareto Principle is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the given time, and the remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority.[clarification needed] The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity.[9] If productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.[10] The Eisenhower Method A basic "Eisenhower box" to help evaluate urgency and importance. Items may be placed at more precise points within each quadrant. The "Eisenhower Method" stems from a quote attributed to Dwight D. Eisenhower: "I have two kinds of problems, the urgent and the important. The urgent are not important, and the important are never urgent."[11] Note that Eisenhower does not claim this insight for his own, but attributes it to an (unnamed) "former college president."[12] Using the Eisenhower Decision Principle, tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent,[13][14] and then placed in according quadrants in an Eisenhower Matrix (also known as an "Eisenhower Box" or "Eisenhower Decision Matrix"[15]). Tasks are then handled as follows: Tasks in Important/Urgent quadrant are done immediately and personally[16] e.g. crises, deadlines, problems.[15] Important/Not Urgent quadrant get an end date and are done personally[16] e.g. relationships, planning, recreation.[15] Unimportant/Urgent quadrant are delegated[16] e.g. interruptions, meetings, activities.[15] Unimportant/Not Urgent quadrant are dropped[16] e.g. time wasters, pleasant activities, trivia.[15] This method is inspired by the above quote from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Note, however, that Eisenhower seems to say that things are never both important and urgent, or neither: So he has two kinds of problems, the urgent and the important. POSEC method POSEC is an acronym for "Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing and Contributing". The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.[17] Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization, which mirrors Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Prioritize – Your time and define your life by goals. Organize – Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful (family and finances). Streamline – Things you may not like to do, but must do (work and chores). Economize – Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent (pastimes and socializing). Contribute – By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a difference (social obligations). Elimination of non-priorities Time management also covers how to eliminate tasks that do not provide value to the individual or organization. According to Sandberg,[18] task lists "aren't the key to productivity [that] they're cracked up to be". He reports an estimated "30% of listers spend more time managing their lists than [they do] completing what's on them". Hendrickson asserts[19] that rigid adherence to task lists can create a "tyranny of the to-do list" that forces one to "waste time on unimportant activities". Any form of stress is considered to be debilitative for learning and life, even if adaptability could be acquired its effects are damaging.[20] But stress is an unavoidable part of daily life and Reinhold Niebuhr suggests to face it, as if having "the serenity to accept the things one cannot change and having the courage to change the things one can." Part of setting priorities and goals is the emotion "worry," and its function is to ignore the present to fixate on a future that never arrives, which leads to the fruitless expense of one's time and energy. It is an unnecessary cost or a false aspect that can interfere with plans due to human factors. The Eisenhower Method is a strategy used to compete worry and dull-imperative tasks.[21] Worry as stress, is a reaction to a set of environmental factors; understanding this is not a part of the person gives the person possibilities to manage them. Athletes under a coach call this management as "putting the game face."[22] Change is hard and daily life patterns are the most deeply ingrained habits of all. To eliminate non-priorities in study time it is suggested to divide the tasks, capture the moments, review task handling method, postpone unimportant tasks (understood by its current relevancy and sense of urgency reflects wants of the person rather than importance), manage life balance (rest, sleep, leisure), and cheat leisure and nonproductive time (hearing audio taping of lectures, going through presentations of lectures when in a queue, etc.).[23] Certain unnecessary factors that affect time management are habits, lack of task definition (lack of clarity), over-protectiveness of the work, the guilt of not meeting objectives and subsequent avoidance of present tasks, defining tasks with higher expectations than their worth (over-qualifying), focusing on matters that have an apparent positive outlook without assessing their importance to personal needs, tasks that require support and time, sectional interests and conflicts, etc.[24] A habituated systematic process becomes a device that the person can use with ownership for effective time management. Implementation of goals "To do" redirects here. For the auxiliary use of the verb "to do" in the English language, see Do-support. See also: shopping list A to-do form with checkboxes tattooed into a person's arm. Some items have been written out with a black pen. A task list (also called a to-do list or "things-to-do") is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory. Task lists are used in self-management, business management, project management, and software development. It may involve more than one list. When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists. Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts" of time management that include: Map out everything that is important, by making a task list. Create "an oasis of time" for one to manage. Say "No". Set priorities. Don't drop everything. Don't think a critical task will get done in one's spare time.[25] Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including personal information management (PIM) applications and most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of which are free. Task list organization Task lists are often diarized and tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list (or task-holding file) to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish and a daily to-do list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list. An alternative is to create a "not-to-do list", to avoid unnecessary tasks.[25] Task lists are often prioritized: A daily list of things to do, numbered in the order of their importance, and done in that order one at a time until daily time allows, is attributed to consultant Ivy Lee (1877–1934) as the most profitable advice received by Charles M. Schwab (1862–1939), president of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation.[26][27][28] An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was Alan Lakein, in 1973. In his system "A" items were the most important ("A-1" the most important within that group), "B" next most important, "C" least important.[8] A particular method of applying the ABC method[29] assigns "A" to tasks to be done within a day, "B" a week, and "C" a month. To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the tasks in the order of highest priority, or assigns them a number after they are listed ("1" for highest priority, "2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates in which order to execute the tasks. The latter method is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded more quickly.[25] Another way of prioritizing compulsory tasks (group A) is to put the most unpleasant one first. When it's done, the rest of the list feels easier. Groups B and C can benefit from the same idea, but instead of doing the first task (which is the most unpleasant) right away, it gives motivation to do other tasks from the list to avoid the first one. A completely different approach which argues against prioritizing altogether was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating "closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs to change.[30] Various writers have stressed potential difficulties with to-do lists such as the following: Management of the list can take over from implementing it. This could be caused by procrastination by prolonging the planning activity. This is akin to analysis paralysis. As with any activity, there's a point of diminishing returns. To remain flexible, a task system must allow for disaster. A company must be ready for a disaster. Even if it is a small disaster, if no one made time for this situation, it can metastasize, potentially causing damage to the company.[31] To avoid getting stuck in a wasteful pattern, the task system should also include regular (monthly, semi-annual, and annual) planning and system-evaluation sessions, to weed out inefficiencies and ensure the user is headed in the direction he or she truly desires.[32] If some time is not regularly spent on achieving long-range goals, the individual may get stuck in a perpetual holding pattern on short-term plans, like staying at a particular job much longer than originally planned.[33] Software applications Many companies use time tracking software to track an employee's working time, billable hours, etc., e.g. law practice management software. Many software products for time management support multiple users. They allow the person to give tasks to other users and use the software for communication. Tasklist applications may be thought of as lightweight personal information manager or project management software. Modern task list applications may have built-in task hierarchy (tasks are composed of subtasks which again may contain subtasks),[34] may support multiple methods of filtering and ordering the list of tasks, and may allow one to associate arbitrarily long notes for each task. In contrast to the concept of allowing the person to use multiple filtering methods, at least one software product additionally contains a mode where the software will attempt to dynamically determine the best tasks for any given moment.[35] Time management systems Time management systems often include a time clock or web-based application used to track an employee's work hours. Time management systems give employers insights into their workforce, allowing them to see, plan and manage employees' time. Doing so allows employers to manage labor costs and increase productivity. A time management system automates processes, which eliminates

Telugu

Last Update: 2020-07-25
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English

Fuel is a substance which is used to produce heat energy through chemical reaction. There is no machine which can works without it today. All are depend on this to run anything from a small home to a large industries. Even from a small screw to a big generator there is a need of it. But today, our India is facing a severe fuel crisis. In our day to day life, it became basic need of us. Due to it's lack, most countries have to import fuel to meet their needs by spending high amount today. We can say this by seeing the nearest petrol bunks. If we saw them, we can find long queues of vehicles because there was no fuel to tank up on. It's our time to face the problem of fuel need. How panic it is? What about our future generations? Their life conditions might be so difficult without these fuel. They have to work hard to do even a small work also. They have to suffer a lot. If it continues like this, there will be no industries which are going to be run in future. Such that we can't get any material even a small thing also because the things which we are using most today like plastic, paraffin wax, computers, cars, pharmaceuticals, etc are getting from the industries only on which fuel is the basic need to get all these. Fuels like petrol and diesel are also not clean fuels. They cause pollution and increase Carbon dioxide emissions. So we have to stop using fuel highly which is responsible for causing Global Warming. It's really makes our life tough if we still continue the usage of fuel in large amounts. In order to avoid this, We have to bring awareness on people.We have to turn of our vehicles at traffic. We have to encourage car pooling and have to minimise the usage of applying brakes.

Telugu

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Last Update: 2018-09-22
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building contract agreement AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND CONTRACTOR for use when a stipulated price forms the basis of payment and to be used only with the General Conditions of the Contract THIS AGREEMENT made on the day of in the year two thousand and . BY AND BETWEEN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Owner" AND ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Contractor" WITNESSETH: that the Owner and Contractor undertake and agree as follows: ARTICLE A-1 THE WORK The Contractor shall: (a) perform all the Work required by the Contract Documents for _______________________ _____________________________________________. (See Tender Form for Description) which have been signed in triplicate by both the parties, (b) do and fulfil everything indicated by this Agreement, and (c) commence the Work by the day of , 20 and substantially perform the Work of this Contract as certified by the Engineer/Architect by the _______ day of _________ 20 . (d) The "Engineer/Architect" is the person designated as such from time to time by the Owner. ARTICLE A-2 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS The following is an exact list of the Contract Documents referred to in Article A-1: (SEE TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR LIST OF DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS). See Attached ARTICLE A-3 CONTRACT PRICE THE CONTRACT PRICE IS $ _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ (HST INCLUDED) Canadian funds which price shall be subject to adjustments as may be required in accordance with the General Conditions of the Contract. ARTICLE A-4 PAYMENT (a) Subject to applicable legislation and, where such legislation does not exist or apply, in accordance with such prescribed regulations or industry practice respecting holdback percentages and in accordance with the provisions of the General Conditions of the Contract, the Owner shall: (1) make monthly payments to the Contractor on account of the Contract Price. The amounts of such payments shall be as certified by the Engineer/Architect; and (2) upon Substantial Performance of the work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of holdback monies then due; and (3) upon Total Performance of the Work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of the Contract Price then due. (b) If the Owner fails to make payments to the Contractor as they become due under the terms of this Contract or in any award by a court, interest at the rate and in the manner specified in GC21-Certificates and Payments, shall become due and payable until payment. Such interest shall be calculated and added to any unpaid amounts monthly. ARTICLE A-5 ADDRESSES FOR NOTICES All communications in writing between the parties or between them and the Engineer/Architect shall be deemed to have been received by the addressee if delivered to the individual or to a member of the firm or to an officer of the Corporation for whom they are intended or if sent by post or by facsimile addressed as follows: The Owner at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Contractor at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Engineer/Architect at: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ARTICLE A-6 SUCCESSION The General Conditions of the Contract hereto annexed, and all other aforesaid Contract Documents, are all to be read into and form part of this Agreement and the whole shall constitute the Contract between the parties and subject to law and the provisions of the Contract Documents shall ensure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, their respective heirs, legal representatives, successors and assigns. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have executed this Agreement under their respective corporate seals and by the hands of their proper officers hereunto duly authorized. SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED in the presence of: OWNER: CONTRACTOR ______________________________ ______________________________ signed signed ______________________________ ______________________________ name and title name and title _____________________________ ______________________________ date signed / witnessed ______________________________ name and title ______________________________ date N.B. Where any legal jurisdiction, local practice or client requirement calls for proof of authority to execute this document, proof of such authority in the form of a certified copy of a resolution naming the person or persons in question as authorized to sign the Agreement for and on behalf of the Corporation or Partnership, should be attached.

Telugu

భవనం ఒప్పందం

Last Update: 2018-09-06
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English

The Life of a Soldier A soldier is the pride of his nation. He defends the honor of his motherland with his life and blood. He has to rise above his own self to defend his nation. His profession brings out the best qualities in him like chivalry, discipline, team sprite, loyalty and steadfastness. His example serves as a beacon light to others who are tame and cowardly. His life is a source of inspiration to the youth of the nation. He has no politics in his makeup. He serves the nation to the best of his ability. We love the soldier as much as, if not more than as the scholar, the statesman and the poet. The soldier embodies in himself the sprite of youth. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lives in the memory of the Indian youth much more than Tilak or Tagore. The great and glorious past he played in the INA movement will be cherished by generation to come. The brace deeds of our soldiers at Kargil have become part of over folk love. The life of soldier is very tough and full of discipline. He has to be mentally and physically alert and keep his body in fine shape for any battles that may come up. His performance in the theatres of war has been heroic and daring. He is the finest specimen of humanity who is prepared to given the supreme sacrifice of his life for the lives of his fellow countrymen. He has to brave the tyrannies of nature and in thunder, lightning or rain, extreme hot or cold, in deserts, mountain or seas, day and night fight continuously for the know of his nation. He has to sacrifice his family life, be away from his children, only to the save the life of other children. These days soldiers are involved in many other types of activities. They help civilians in fighting terrorism, communal violence, fury of floods, building of bridges, crop cutting, locus fighting, road building etc. the soldiers is truly secular in character and serves people of all castes, creeds, religions. We should always salute our soldiers.

Telugu

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Last Update: 2017-07-05
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It is the best pattern of living that is most conducive to the growth. It is based on a principle of fair economy. It holds it as a rule of creation that all men are not equal. Naturally it imposes a kind of unwritten discipline that those who are more able economically shall share some of the burden of those who are not. The joint mess, naturally, runs on an understanding of mutual adjustment. Naturally those who are benefited by the generosity of others remain obliged and grateful. Similarly in a big joint family the study groups of boys are formed according to their age matching. Naturally the cousins study together, play together, quarrel together and are even punished together. As a result there grows in them a feeling of camaraderie that is free from any discrimination of one being a full brother or a cousin. In marriages also the grooms for marriageable girls become a concern for all the elders in the family. Even if a daughter of a junior brother is selected by someone because of her beauty or brilliance, he would not agree to her marriage until her senior cousin sister is married. The basic necessities of all the family members are taken care of. Each member is guaranteed the minimum subsistence for living. It supports all the members of the family. Old and elderly people are respected. Proper care is taken for old, widowed, physically weak and disabled family members. As such the disciplines in a joint family are self-imposed on its members. The head of the big family almost becomes its patriarch. The family prospers squarely if the patriarch and the other constituents observe the norms soundly and healthily. Finally, the spirit of oneness prevails in a Joint family system.

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Hello, Fight is still on but the focus has shifted from issues to people. Satyamevajayate • Reply•Share › Avatar Dildara Dildara • 4 days ago As my communication will not give that much worth as yours, hence I am putting my thought before you on resolving water problem - Government shall pass the resolution that every city, town and/or village (e.g. like i'm living in ulhasnagar and ur living at Bandra) has it's own lake which will help at least at the time of summer season as in other seasons that much water is not required. For creation of lake's government may charge from every house depends on number of members living in the house. Please give a thought on this. • Reply•Share › Avatar rama ganga • 4 days ago hai aamir sir... after a long time am talking with you, I was busy in my personal problem...... let it be. Sir there are many people who are unemployed they are educated people but they don't have job.... why this happening I don't know, we are telling that our country is developing country, but still educated people don't have job. Please sir find solution for this problem . • Reply•Share › Avatar CREDAI Clean City Movement • 6 days ago CREDAI Clean City Movement Brochure Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail see more • Reply•Share › Avatar sunny b • 9 days ago hey aamir sir, i also want to join your fight with satyamev jayete..plz lemme knw hw can i help. regardsSunny#9322210951 • Reply•Share › Avatar subhakantabiswal92@gmail • 9 days ago Hi aamir ,I am a student under graduation.I want to join in your team because I want change our society ,our mentality and miss use of power in our society. About your show,it is so much different from other TV shows ,its unique. I want to mention that ,it is only we saw in Hindi, but I think if it is come in all regional languages then who didn't understand Hindi thay also see it,becouse I am from odiasha and many odia middle class people didn't understand Hindi so they avoid the show so please give importants on my suggestion. I think you make a team which work in all our states that's why I and many boys who want to work for our country they get a way of selfless work for India.I think you are the perfect inspiration for young boys & student.please sir I want to work with you .please sir • Reply•Share › Avatar Rashmi Shingavi • 12 days ago Just a thought came in mind seeing television/movies people learn so many things like love story, making girl friend-boy friend ,running and marrying,murder, kidnapping,etc. if in these stories if we add the duty of every citizen like reading newspaper regularly discussing the problems of the nation thinking of solution writing to PM asking for what effective steps PM is taking why given solution which was in majority not taken by PM by these basic things are added in which movie the FAN OF EACH HERO WHICH ARE MILLIONS WILL START DOING THE SAME. if this happens India will soon change toward development of public the day will come when PM write laws as per public demand and not as per their wish which will increase them to earn money which help to reduce or nullify corruption. to start with this I have one solution every movie requires publicity so this can be started through FAN movie(Im tweetting it even you tweet it) and also demand these actors to promote their movie they should go to school/colleges read newspaper discuss the main problems of nation and also discuss the solutions and make them habit of writing the same to PM website and also see that PM implements your solution and the same is not done it should be published on facebook and other social networking site. Im tweeting it even you tweet the same and help Indian cinema to change good night. • Reply•Share › Avatar Aftab Shaikh • 14 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन है की आपकी यह वेब साईट राष्ट्रभाषा हिंदी में भी क्यों नहीं है • Reply•Share › Avatar Akash Chopade • 16 days ago मेरा आमिर खान और सत्यमेव जयते की पूरी टीम से एक निवेदन की आप rajivdixitmp3.com इस वेबसाईट पर जाए और उस वेबसाईट मे जिन सामाजिक विषयो पर राजिव दीक्षित जी ने व्याख्यान किए है उनको सूने. मेरा दावा है की इन व्याख्यानो (speeches) सूनने के बाद आप फैसला लेंगे की अगला season इन ज्वलंत विषयो पर ही करे.बल्कि मेरा सारे भारत वासियो से निवेदन है की आप इन व्याख्यानो को सूने.धनूयवाद. • Reply•Share › Avatar v • 23 days ago Dont stop the show! If Aamir is busy, can you not find another anchor to keep the show going? India needs to discuss all the tough challenges we face to improve and grow. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia • a month ago Dear Aamir Wrote you 8 days back about asking for financial donation. I am not sure if you did that or not. Didn't get any mail / response. These forums are good if there is two way communication. So far my experience has been it is simply one way communication. We writing to you - that's it. May be you / your team take cream of all you get and whatever suits you is followed. So, I think 90+% of what's written here by countless people go waste. That's a lot of waste of their time. Bureaucrats and politicians in our country work like this fashion. Hard to approach, hard to talk to. You don't want to be like that. Right? You are better than that. Again, my plea - We represent Hyderabad School parents association and we are in the middle of HC case against schools and Govt to fight the ever increasing menace of unjustified profiteering and school fee hike in double digits for last so many years. The idea of filing a case against govt. gives us kick as it shows how determined we are to even (try to ) move a giant elephant called India politics. We need help. We are asking for what you have abundant of. We, the common people helped you amass insanely huge amount of money. Too much of anything is bad for health - not only yours, but also others. Don't you want to give something back? The act of kindness and gratitude have ripple effects and it sure comes back sooner or later. Do good karma and donate. Remember - There is enough in the world for man's need; but not enough for man's greed. Donation link at our facebook page - /HSPAIndia Satwinder • Reply•Share › Avatar Maitri • a month ago Hi, I really appreciate your efforts to bring change in the country. I have been observing from many years education is becoming a business these days. For teachers only money matters and not the quality of education they are imparting to the children. I think that if education is not received by a child, who is the future of this country, India cannot prosper. Even school's are using books which are very costly instead of the state board books. And in return school's get commission from the book publisher. These books don't contain any qualitative knowledge. I hope you consider this subject in the upcoming season of satyamev jayate. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ravneel • a month ago hi i would like to share my view about this show satyamev jayate. first of all i have enjoyed every episode of season 3 shown in Fiji Islands on FBC Tv. we are about to witness the season finale of the show "When Masculinity Harms Men" on Thursday. i would like to thank Mr.Aamir Khan for bringing such a wonderful show to viewers around the world. My suggestion is that if we want to bring changes to the society then first we have to get rid of the cast system and dowry system in India as this is only practiced in India. It clearly shows the bad image of India to the world in recent times the high number of corruption in government departments in India. Unavailability of basic things such as medicines / water / electricity in India. To tell you the true facts that we in Fiji import almost all the medicines from India because it is the cheapest in the world and also for medical treatments our first priority is India even though countries like Australia and New Zealand are our close neighbours but things are very expensive there. I just cannot image that, if we in Fiji can get these medicines from India at a cheap price in our country then why the ordinary citizens of India cannot get these medicines at a reasonable price in India as it is manufactured there. To all those who have been criticizing Mr.Aamir Khan my suggestion to you all if you are a true Indian then do something positive for your country that will change the mind set of others. In this way you will move forward Jai Hind • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia • a month ago Hi Aamir, Have been writing you again after few months. Last time I wrote on this forum was few months back - on the day to defend your stand on intolerance. I must have written 10+ messages that day, if I remember correctly. :-) I, infact, We need your help. I have been part of HSPA ( Hyderabad School Parents Association ) and among all states, Hyderabad private school education is on top - in terms of greed and arbitrary and absolutely unjustified fee hike year after in private schools. We are fighting tooth and nail and trying to put pressure on schools and Govt and asking parents to join us. Our efforts are making a difference, but not much that we want to be. Ministers in Hyderabad love private schools more than public and they love to inaugurate new schools opening every now and then. I am sure lots of monies are exchanging hand when they show up for a new school branch opening. We have decided to take Govt. head on. We have filed PIL ( Public interest litigation ) on Govt of Telengana for their inaction to curb "indecent" school fee hike and hope to put huge pressure on govt to ACT and listen to our woes. Bhopal parents association also did that recently. I have heard many other states this prt. school menace is making life hell for parents and causing them so much of financial burden. Infact recent movie of Juhi chawla also highlighted this issue. We need some help from you - you being social conscience person. 1. A movie which highlight the huge profitability of schools - to spread awareness. If you say, the whole world listens. You have given master pieces before - shaken up beliefs and am sure in that position - we would love to make you hit this huge problem head on with a relevant movie on the subject. 2. Our High Court case against Govt, needs fund. We HSPA members are contributing and asking many of our contacts and other parents to join. Can you please donate too? If you don't want to donate as Aamir khan ( for not to get target of media. You seems to get attention of media even when you sneeze ) , can you please get your donation by other means? Donation is possible through our facebook page - /HSPAIndia ( https://www.facebook.com/HSPAI... ). You have enough by God/nature and some (anonymous) generosity would get you many blessings from parents all over hyderabad and India. I am part of the parents association who earn enough, but the body and people we are fighting is big enough. Movies mai heros praja ko bachata hai. Can you be our real hero with the resource you have aplenty of? Satwinder see more • Reply•Share › Avatar Santosh N Jois • a month ago My adventures with #Composting is shared here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse... Happy to connect and share and co-create a #Swachh India • Reply•Share › Avatar Goldy Sakhre • a month ago I am a huge fan of this show and i watched all the episodes of this shows. This is great and helpful for improve their lives for better future. Every thing is possible in life when people around us are very good. After a long time i am writing this comment because i was very confused till now in my life but now i can say that i understand how to live our life with passion and courage. I will try to make a better future for me and my family. • Reply•Share › Avatar D Patel • a month ago I watched couple of episode of Satyamev Jayate but I don't like them because your TV shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not good for Indian people. How will they take pride of own country? Every Indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. What kind message children would get from your show? Why not Talk about how much progress India has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. Do you know India had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom, look at how much progress made in last 60 years. Jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai agar koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia D Patel • a month ago I somewhat agree with you. There should be balance of reporting. Lots of wonderful things about people. But there are other shows out there - which do that. Hardly there has show which shows issues people face in India. There was a good space there and Aamir pitched in. So, with plenty of good stuff marketed by many other shows, Aamir show is sort of reality check. It's a risky business, but that's what Aamir signature is...:-) • Reply•Share › Avatar D Patel • a month ago I watched couple of episode of Satyamev Jayate but I don't like them because TV your shows create negativity in public mind about country which is not for Indian people. Every Indian man and women should take pride of own country no matter how our country being operated in many ways. What kind message children would get from your show? Why not Talk about how much progress India has made after freedom, bring some positivity in your show. Do you know India had difficulty making needle at the time of freedom look at how much progress made in last 60 years. Jaisa bhi desh hai hamara desh hai koi baharwala akar kahe ke kais ye tumara desh unko do thappad lagani chahe. Yes, India will become a developed country one day. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande • a month ago All that said. How about and episode on Female Genital Mutilation? That is really need of the hour today with many women who are suffering from it have started coming forward and protesting. Please sign the petition below to support ban on FGM in India : https://www.change.org/p/end-f... • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande • a month ago Hello Aamir, Don't let the voice of the few make you believe that all of us in India have lost our mind. To us you are just Aamir whom we respect and look up to for all the good work that you have done. It is easy for us to tell you not to get discouraged, but I can understand it might be difficult. But all we can at our end do is to let you know that we exist and you are not alone. • Reply•Share › Avatar Ritu Pande Ritu Pande • a month ago Though sometimes I kind of feel ashamed and bound to think if we even deserve someone like Aamir to stand up for all of us :-( • Reply•Share › Avatar Deepika Ambwani • a month ago Dear Aamir, I feel really unfortunate that people in this country form perceptions ( good n bad) so easily. Please don't let this discourage you in doing the noble work you are doing for us in India by creating awareness amongst people through SMJ and bringing radical changes in our society and laws. Looking forward to your next season... A proud Hindu supporter. • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia Deepika Ambwani • a month ago +1. On the dot. Well said. Judging people is easy, very very easy, but what you have done and taken challenges in bringing satyamev jayate is amazing. I just wish more Movie people share their fortunes and wealth with common man - at least 1-2% percent of what they have. The result would be amazing and also it would be good for you guys who would receive blessings for your generosity. Too much money corrupts mind and body. Too much generosity opens heart and magic happens. • Reply•Share › Avatar truth hurts • a month ago Hi Amir I Saw I video which you show how a kid cheats a old guy by taking him in trust and visit Varanasi and many temples and then go to Ganga and take a bath and then this kids disappear with his clothes and his stuff and I see you always use Hindu faith and try show negative view My question is have you ever made I video where you explain how Islam in negative view have you ever explained how mullah in mosque creat terrorists and claim doing under faith why not you do that because you do not think Islam is misused or are scared of fatwa will be issued to kill you if you say any word negative against Islam • Reply•Share › Avatar Satwinder Setia truth hurts • a month ago Right - too scared. If aamir sneeze, media people would be around. and you are asking him to talk on something which can bring his whole hard earned career down! Only a fool would do that. Instead...learn to read between lines ( rather dialogue ) See "PK" Read between lines / dialogues and you should get it. Something said artistically goes long way than saying bluntly to judgemental audiences. Remember, aamir is an artist. • Reply•Share › Avatar abdulhakim hamza • 2 months ago hi my nama abdulhakim i fall in love with the women and i am afraid to tell her and finally she goes abroad USA and then after one of my friend tell her thathe is (abdulhakim) in love you and then after she called me and ask ME "you love USA or ME " THEN i replied her i love but i fail to tell you she hang up on me and she couldnt answer my phone and i am in hell. please help me • Reply•Share › Avatar Ram • 2 months ago Hi Aamir, I started to watch your show on Old age..(.a bit late) but had to stop it just after 5 minutes to write this message. Instead of judging children as inconsiderate and cruel to parents in their old age, does anyone ever consider the possibility of abuse and wrong upbringing children have to put up with from parents which then reflects on their relationships in old age? My birth mother is in Delhi she is 75 and has given the impression to all he neighbours that none of her children ever come to visit her or look after her. But this due to her own doing. She manipulated, physically and mentally abused us as children. Systematically, one by one. She played us against each other and we had to forgive everything because she was a MOTHER. Till date she has to win every argument, and knows how to play the victim in full glory. She's been to school only till the 5th but she is smarter than all of us put together. Why aren't children considered equal citizens with equal rights when it comes to parents? Why do we turn a blind eye when we see someone beating their children mercilessly even in streets? How can it be good for their own sake? My and my sibling's childhood and teenage years has been ruined because we had to be sacrificed for her ego. If we dared to go against her and even for replying back she would hit us and deprive us of food for days till we were broken and apologised to her. Many time we had to face public humiliation for daring to stand up against her methods. We could not say anything to anyone because she was the MOTHER and no one would belie

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A Programmable Logic Controller – PLC, also known as programmable controller, is the name given to a type of computer commonly used in commercial and industrial control applications. PLCs can differ from office computers in the types of tasks that they perform and the hardware and software they require to perform these tasks. All PLCs monitor inputs and other variable values, make decisions based on a stored program, and control outputs to automate a process or machine.

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మీ langage పూర్తి వాక్యం టైప్

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The most important thing that you need to realize in this fastest way to lose weight is to not stay hungry at all. This will do the opposite and instead of your plans to lose weight you might end up gaining a few extra kilograms. This plan suggests you the right amount and the right quantity of food that you can intake in order to make you feel you are full always. You might be curious thinking of how a diet plan will work when you are allowed to eat and that too at a specified amount. Also, many people who took this lose weight diet program from GM were puzzled on how a diet program that does not ask you to fast will help in effective weight loss. But, there is nothing to worry about in this diet plan as it is a sure shot procedure that will help you to reduce your overall body weight by 5 to 8 kilos in about a week. Day One The first day is the most important day in your GM diet plan program. You are just stepping into the world of knowing how you can reduce your body weight and that too in 7 days time. The GM diet plan says that the first day of the diet must be a complete fruit diet day. You have the option of eating all the fruits that you possibly can and also take in whatever fruit that you like. But, it is important for you to make sure that you avoid bananas from your fruit list on day one. Some of the suggested fruits that you can take on the GM’s weight loss diet plan are watermelons and cantaloupe. You are also supposed to drink about 8 to 12 glasses of water on day one and make sure that you do not even touch any other food items, not even raw or boiled vegetables. If you need this plan to work effectively in your body, then you should only consume various kinds of assorted fruits throughout the day. If you feel hungry, try to eat more fruits and of course drink water. Day Two If day one was a day that gave you the opportunity to binge on your favorite fruits, then day two provides you an opportunity to eat only vegetables throughout the day. You can take in the vegetables that you like both in the raw state and in cooked state. But, it is important for you to make sure that you do not use any sort of oil while cooking vegetables. Consuming boiled vegetables are also a good option. You can take any vegetable that you like including potatoes. But, it would be safe for you to try out the boiled potatoes early in the morning itself so that the carbohydrates get burnt during the course of the day. Some of the common vegetables that are good to be consumed on day 2 of the lose weight diet regime are: cooked beans, raw and cooked carrot, broccoli, cucumber, boiled bottle and ridge gourd, lettuce, boiled cabbage and so on. There is no doubt that your digestive system will completely undergo an overhaul by the evening and you also would need to visit the toilet more times than before. Make sure that you do not miss out on your daily dose of 8 to 12 glasses of water along with a strict veggie diet on day two. Day Three The third dray of your GM weight lose plan will allow you to take both vegetables and fruits for the entire day. Make sure that you do not touch potatoes in the veggie section and also make sure that you do not consume bananas from the fruit section. You have the option of going for a fruit diet in the morning followed by a veggie diet in the afternoon and a fruit diet in the evening followed by a veggie and fruit diet at night. The options and the permutations and combinations of consuming the fruit and vegetable diet or combination of both the diets is totally left to your disposal. You can decide on what you would like to have provided it is fruits and vegetables. Never miss the option of drinking 8 to 12 glasses of water even on day three as well. Day Four Day four would interest dieters looking for the fastest way to lose weight as it is filled with a banana and milk diet. Yes, you need to take at least a minimum of 8 to 10 bananas throughout the day and are allowed three glasses of milk. You might be a bit worried if this diet will make you feel hungry. But, on the contrary, you will feel quite full with this diet plan at the end of the day. You need to divide the bananas and the glasses of milk properly so that you do not feel any kind of starvation on the fourth day of GM diet plan regime. Consuming a banana and a glass of milk in the morning followed by a couple of bananas during the midday will be an ideal start to day four. You can take a glass of milk and two bananas for lunch on day four. You can also take a couple of bananas in the evening or even three bananas and then take a couple of bananas and a glass of milk at night. There will be no sign of hunger at all throughout the entire day if you follow this simple day four regime. Day Five If you love having a feast, then day 5 of the GM’s lose weight diet plan offers you the opportunity to a feast on day five. It is the day when you can have a cup of rice for lunch and take about six to seven tomatoes throughout the day. As there is every chance of producing a lot of uric acid in your body, it is ideal for you to increase the water level from 12 glasses to 15 glasses on day five. Day Six You are in for another feast day on day six of the GM’s diet plan. Here too, you will be allowed to take a cup of rice in the afternoon for lunch and you also need to stick on to a vegetable diet for the rest of the day. It is also important for you to make sure that you take at least 8 to 12 glasses of water on day six as well. This is the penultimate day of your seven day GM diet plan regime and you are sure to feel quite lighter than before by the sixth day. There is no doubt that you will also be improving your digestive system completely with this seven day diet plan from General Motors. Day Seven This is the last day of the lose weight diet plan from GM. Here, you are allowed to take a cup of rice and all the veggies that you would love to eat along with the fruit juice of your choice. This is considered to be the best day of your entire diet regime as you have the option to eat all the vegetables that you like and to flush it off by consuming the fruit juices of your choice. [Also Read: Simple Vegetarian Diet Plan for Quick Weight Loss] There is no doubt that you will see a considerable amount of weight loss in your body and you have done nothing other than following a strict fruit and vegetable and drinking water diet plan. There are also quite a lot of benefits that you gain from the GM diet plan. You will see your face to glow even better than before and also will improve your digestive system. The best advantage though would be that you would see a reduction in your body weight by about 4 to 5 kilos or even more. So, for all the overweight people who are starving their stomach away to lose excess weight, try the healthier and fastest way to lose weight by following the simple GM diet plan.

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The most important thing that you need to realize in this fastest way to lose weight is to not stay hungry at all. This will do the opposite and instead of your plans to lose weight you might end up gaining a few extra kilograms. This plan suggests you the right amount and the right quantity of food that you can intake in order to make you feel you are full always. You might be curious thinking of how a diet plan will work when you are allowed to eat and that too at a specified amount. Also, many people who took this lose weight diet program from GM were puzzled on how a diet program that does not ask you to fast will help in effective weight loss. But, there is nothing to worry about in this diet plan as it is a sure shot procedure that will help you to reduce your overall body weight by 5 to 8 kilos in about a week. Day One The first day is the most important day in your GM diet plan program. You are just stepping into the world of knowing how you can reduce your body weight and that too in 7 days time. The GM diet plan says that the first day of the diet must be a complete fruit diet day. You have the option of eating all the fruits that you possibly can and also take in whatever fruit that you like. But, it is important for you to make sure that you avoid bananas from your fruit list on day one. Some of the suggested fruits that you can take on the GM’s weight loss diet plan are watermelons and cantaloupe. You are also supposed to drink about 8 to 12 glasses of water on day one and make sure that you do not even touch any other food items, not even raw or boiled vegetables. If you need this plan to work effectively in your body, then you should only consume various kinds of assorted fruits throughout the day. If you feel hungry, try to eat more fruits and of course drink water. Day Two If day one was a day that gave you the opportunity to binge on your favorite fruits, then day two provides you an opportunity to eat only vegetables throughout the day. You can take in the vegetables that you like both in the raw state and in cooked state. But, it is important for you to make sure that you do not use any sort of oil while cooking vegetables. Consuming boiled vegetables are also a good option. You can take any vegetable that you like including potatoes. But, it would be safe for you to try out the boiled potatoes early in the morning itself so that the carbohydrates get burnt during the course of the day. Some of the common vegetables that are good to be consumed on day 2 of the lose weight diet regime are: cooked beans, raw and cooked carrot, broccoli, cucumber, boiled bottle and ridge gourd, lettuce, boiled cabbage and so on. There is no doubt that your digestive system will completely undergo an overhaul by the evening and you also would need to visit the toilet more times than before. Make sure that you do not miss out on your daily dose of 8 to 12 glasses of water along with a strict veggie diet on day two. Day Three The third dray of your GM weight lose plan will allow you to take both vegetables and fruits for the entire day. Make sure that you do not touch potatoes in the veggie section and also make sure that you do not consume bananas from the fruit section. You have the option of going for a fruit diet in the morning followed by a veggie diet in the afternoon and a fruit diet in the evening followed by a veggie and fruit diet at night. The options and the permutations and combinations of consuming the fruit and vegetable diet or combination of both the diets is totally left to your disposal. You can decide on what you would like to have provided it is fruits and vegetables. Never miss the option of drinking 8 to 12 glasses of water even on day three as well. Day Four Day four would interest dieters looking for the fastest way to lose weight as it is filled with a banana and milk diet. Yes, you need to take at least a minimum of 8 to 10 bananas throughout the day and are allowed three glasses of milk. You might be a bit worried if this diet will make you feel hungry. But, on the contrary, you will feel quite full with this diet plan at the end of the day. You need to divide the bananas and the glasses of milk properly so that you do not feel any kind of starvation on the fourth day of GM diet plan regime. Consuming a banana and a glass of milk in the morning followed by a couple of bananas during the midday will be an ideal start to day four. You can take a glass of milk and two bananas for lunch on day four. You can also take a couple of bananas in the evening or even three bananas and then take a couple of bananas and a glass of milk at night. There will be no sign of hunger at all throughout the entire day if you follow this simple day four regime. Day Five If you love having a feast, then day 5 of the GM’s lose weight diet plan offers you the opportunity to a feast on day five. It is the day when you can have a cup of rice for lunch and take about six to seven tomatoes throughout the day. As there is every chance of producing a lot of uric acid in your body, it is ideal for you to increase the water level from 12 glasses to 15 glasses on day five. Day Six You are in for another feast day on day six of the GM’s diet plan. Here too, you will be allowed to take a cup of rice in the afternoon for lunch and you also need to stick on to a vegetable diet for the rest of the day. It is also important for you to make sure that you take at least 8 to 12 glasses of water on day six as well. This is the penultimate day of your seven day GM diet plan regime and you are sure to feel quite lighter than before by the sixth day. There is no doubt that you will also be improving your digestive system completely with this seven day diet plan from General Motors. Day Seven This is the last day of the lose weight diet plan from GM. Here, you are allowed to take a cup of rice and all the veggies that you would love to eat along with the fruit juice of your choice. This is considered to be the best day of your entire diet regime as you have the option to eat all the vegetables that you like and to flush it off by consuming the fruit juices of your choice. [Also Read: Simple Vegetarian Diet Plan for Quick Weight Loss] There is no doubt that you will see a considerable amount of weight loss in your body and you have done nothing other than following a strict fruit and vegetable and drinking water diet plan. There are also quite a lot of benefits that you gain from the GM diet plan. You will see your face to glow even better than before and also will improve your digestive system. The best advantage though would be that you would see a reduction in your body weight by about 4 to 5 kilos or even more. So, for all the overweight people who are starving their stomach away to lose excess weight, try the healthier and fastest way to lose weight by following the simple GM diet plan.

Telugu

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English

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

Telugu

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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