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Infos

Anglais

Approved

Hindi

अनुमोदित

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-01-18
Fréquence d'utilisation : 4
Qualité :

Référence: MatteoT

Anglais

The app has been approved by you

Hindi

App Indiya aie may apko Indiya batata hu

Dernière mise à jour : 2018-07-22
Fréquence d'utilisation : 1
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Référence: Anonyme

Anglais

The app has been approved by me in the future.

Hindi

app apni chutiyo mein kisi rishtedar ke ghar gaye ho

Dernière mise à jour : 2017-06-23
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Anglais

Please get the distance approved from Didar for below runs

Hindi

transletion

Dernière mise à jour : 2017-06-12
Fréquence d'utilisation : 1
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Référence: Anonyme

Anglais

Why not make a list of common public approved names?

Hindi

सर्वमान्य लोकमान्य नामों की कोई सूची केंद्र क्यों नहीं बनाता?

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
Fréquence d'utilisation : 2
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Référence: Anonyme

Anglais

The application has been approved by the application of the application.

Hindi

Muje app se Rishta bnana hai jiju ka app ko manjur hai

Dernière mise à jour : 2018-07-20
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Anglais

below mentioned travel claims are approved by Tarun Sir and pending for your approval

Hindi

नीचे उल्लेख यात्रा के दावे तरुण सर द्वारा अनुमोदित और आपकी स्वीकृति के लिए लंबित हैं

Dernière mise à jour : 2019-12-06
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Référence: Anonyme

Anglais

Dear sunita your loan no 5111637000090790 is approved you can access loan application using this link hittps dip bfilit m006p0915431czcpdf

Hindi

प्रिय सुनीता आपका ऋण नहीं 5111637000090790 स्वीकृत है आप इस लिंक का उपयोग करके ऋण आवेदन तक पहुँच सकते हैं

Dernière mise à jour : 2019-10-19
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Anglais

This is for the trailing mail that your quotation PROTECTED has been approved by our management so please send the air dryer accessories

Hindi

यह पिछली मेल के लिए है कि आपके उद्धरण संरक्षण को हमारे प्रबंधन द्वारा अनुमोदित किया गया है, इसलिए कृपया एयर ड्रायर सहायक उपकरण भेजें

Dernière mise à jour : 2018-08-09
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Anglais

A proposal concerning this matter has been sent to the government on behalf of ADA, which is soon going to be approved.

Hindi

इस संबंध में एडीए की तरफ से शासन को प्रस्ताव भेजा जा चुका है, जिस पर जल्दी ही मुहर लगने जा रही है।

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
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Anglais

Syria has submitted a plan for the total destruction of its chemical weapons that has to be approved next month by the OPCW's executive committee.

Hindi

सीरिया ने अपने रासायनिक हथियारों के सम्पूर्ण विनाश के लिए योजना प्रस्तुत की है, जिसे अगले महीने ओ.पी.सी.डब्लू. की कार्यकारी समिति द्वारा स्वीकृत किया जाना है।

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
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Anglais

New airliners are far more reliant on electrical systems than previous generations of aircraft, but they are also designed and approved by the FAA to be resistant to electronic interference.

Hindi

नई एयरलाइन्स कम्पनियाँ, विमानों की पिछली पीढ़ी की तुलना में इलेक्ट्रिकल सिस्टम पर अधिक निर्भर हैं, लेकिन उन्हें भी एफ.ए.ए. द्वारा इलेक्ट्रॉनिक हस्तक्षेप के प्रति प्रतिरोध होने के लिए डिजाइन और स्वीकृत किया गया है।

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
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Anglais

The U.S. Senate approved a $90-million pilot project last year that would have involved about 10,000 cars.

Hindi

यू.एस. सीनेट ने पिछले वर्ष 90-मिलियन डॉलर की परीक्षण परियोजना स्वीकृत की थी, जिसमें 10,000 कारें शामिल हो गई होतीं।

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
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Anglais

Meanwhile, a key committee of the U.S. Congress has approved a bill to limit the monitoring activities of the National Security Agency [NSA].

Hindi

इस बीच अमेरिकी संसद की एक अहम समिति ने राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा एजेंसी [एनएसए] की निगरानी गतिविधियों को सीमित करने वाले एक विधेयक को मंजूरी दे दी है।

Dernière mise à jour : 2014-10-20
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Anglais

After inspection of materials, the approved materials are received by the keeper. These materials are stored in bins, racks, almirahs and other equipments provided for the purpose. For systematic storing, each type of mate kept in different bins, racks, almirahs, etc.

Hindi

VENDER NE LAI सामग्री कीपर द्वारा प्राप्त की जाती है। इन सामग्रियों को डिब्बे, रैक, अलमीरा और अन्य उपकरणों के लिए संग्रहित किया जाता है। व्यवस्थित भंडारण के लिए, प्रत्येक प्रकार के साथी को अलग-अलग डिब्बे, रैक, अलमीरा, आदि में रखा जाता है।

Dernière mise à jour : 2020-01-14
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Anglais

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

Hindi

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

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show me some essayIntroduction: Discipline is the biggest key to succeed in life. Everystudent must read various topic on discipline to keep its alive at every walk of life. Many toppers of any fields follow their study routine in very much disciplined way. Because of this their level of intelligence and grip on maximum sjbjects remains always on the top. Discipline means to follow a particular code of conduct or order. In the field of child development, discipline refers to methods of modeling character and of teaching self-control and acceptable behavior. Discipline is the most useful quality. Discipline involves obedience. A disciplined man acts strictly in obedience to law or order or principle or an approved formula. Usefulness: Discipline has got immense usefulness for us. Discipline leads to success. If we read in a disciplined way, we can master the subject. If we labour in a disciplined way, we can make better production. A disciplined army has immense advantage over an undisciplined army. A small number of disciplined soldiers can defeat a large number of undisciplined soldiers. A disciplined life gives us healthy and happiness. A disciplined man is a virtuous man. Because discipline never admits any vice. Vice never gets a chance to creep into a disciplined man. Discipline in a school: The foremost duty of the school is to teach discipline to their students. Because discipline is the key point of all success. The students should conduct in a disciplined manner. They should obey the rules and regulation of the school. They should obey the direction of their teachers. They should make a regular habit in their day-to-day work. Because regularity is also a condition for discipline. They should keep their books, tools and belongings in the most disciplined order. Discipline in a meeting: People should know how to maintain discipline in a meeting. Because meetings are common in this age of democracy. People present in a meeting should obey the President of the meeting. They should not disturb or interrupt when a person delivers his speech. They should speak when their turns will come or they should speak only with the order of the President. They should not make a noise or indulge side-talking when they are in a meeting. Discipline at a booking-office: People should maintain perfect discipline when they are at a booking-office or at a shop or at a public place. When they are to purchase a ticket or to purchase a thing. They should not pour together. They should not make rush and they should not jumble. They should not push and elbow. They should learn to stand in a queue. This is discipline. patience is the lifeblood of discipline. An impatient man can never be disciplined. People should form a queue when they are to get into a motor-bus. Conclusion: Discipline is the key-note of all success. During the world war II, The Russian success over the German invasion was mostly due to the Russian discipline, i.e., the discipline of the whole Russian nation. If we want to make India great, we must be disciplined, whatever we may be.

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google Zaleplon is a hypnotic which is drug that has the ability to cause sleep. It is indicated for use in patients that have difficulty falling asleep and is not indented to treat those who have difficulty staying asleep or who wake too early. It is different in chemical structure from benzodiazepines but acts at the same receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines are used primarily in the treatment of anxiety, zaleplon and similar drugs are used almost exclusively for the treatment of insomnia. In the United States and many other countries, Zaleplon is marketed as Sonata by King Pharmaceuticals. In Canada, zaleplon was sold under the brand name Starnoc however it was taken from the market; the reasons for this discontinuation are not clear. Zaleplon is available in some countries as Hegon, Zalep, Zaplon, or Zerene. The patent on Sonata began to expire on June 6, 2008 and King Pharmaceuticals does not have exclusivity as listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. More on zaleplon. Sonata is available in 5 mg and 10 mg dosages; however, physicians sometimes prescribe a 20 mg treatment (two 10 mg capsules). Clinical safety studies were conducted using doses as high as 60 mg. Zaleplon is indicated for short term treatment of insomnia, that is, insomnia that is corrected by seven to ten days of treatment. The FDA has approved use of zaleplon for up to 30 days. Zaleplon is known to cause CNS depression and its affects are relatively rapid. Zaleplon causes sedation and sleep within one hour of administration therefore it should only be taken before bed and never before any activity that requires alertness. Like benzodiazepines, alcohol use can potentiate the CNS depressant effects and alcohol should not be consumed while taking zaleplon. Of note, zaleplon is potentially habit forming and dependency may occur. Once the drug is discontinued, one may experience rebound insomnia simply because the medicine has been taken away. Because of its sedative and euphoric effects, zaleplon may be abused i.e. used for non-medical, illegal reasons. NIH Information on Zaleplon Zolpidem Zolpidem is sedative-hypnotic medicine that is used to treat short-term insomnia. Its chemical structure is different than benzodiazepines but exerts its sedative affect by acting on so-called benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. Zolpidem does not have the same disruptive effects on sleep as benzodiazepines. Zolpidem is marketed in the United States as Ambien but is known commercially by many other names worldwide. (The Guardian reports that 5.3 million people in England alone take zolpidem.) Ambien is available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and the maximum and usual treatment dose is 10 mg. This medication should not be taken with alcohol as excessive CNS depression can occur. There is also a potential for dependence and abuse with zolpidem. The most common side effects were headache, sleepiness and dizziness. A less common side effect is the "zombie" effect - unusual behavior while asleep. Ambien is sold by Sanofi Aventis although at least 13 companies manufacture and sell a generic version of the rapid-acting form of zolpidem. Sanofi Aventis has extended the commercial viability of this drug by patenting and selling a CR or Controlled Release formulation. The CR formulation combines both a rapid-acting form and a slow-release form in a layered pill. According to the manufacturers, this allows a person suffering from insomnia to achieve sleep, from the rapid-acting component, and stay asleep, from the slow-acting component. Importantly, the chemical structure of the drug is the same in both the fast and slow layers, however the slow release layer contains a proprietary mixture of inactive ingredients that delays absorption and prolongs the hypnotic effect. Ambien CR is available in 6.25 and 12.5 mg strengths. NIH Information on Zolpidem. Triazolam Triazolam is related in structure to benzodiazepines but is of a slightly different class than classic benzodiazepines such as Ativan and Valium. Despite this subtle structural difference, triazolam achieves its biological effect by acting at benzodiazepine receptors in various regions of brain. Triazolam is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia and should not be used for longer than three consecutive weeks. In clinical studies, triazolam was able to decrease sleep latency (you get to sleep faster), increase the duration of sleep and decrease the number of times people with insomnia wake during the night. Triazolam was originally branded as Halcion; however there is no longer patent protection or exclusivity on this brand. It is still manufactured and sold as Halcion by Pharmacia and Upjohn yet generic versions exist. Triazolam is available in 0.125 and 0.25 mg tablets and a single dose of either strength is usually sufficient for uncomplicated insomnia. The maximum dose per day should not exceed 0.5 mg. Caution should be taken in elderly patients and they should receive lower doses. The most common side effects were drowsiness, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, difficulty with coordination and nausea/vomiting. Ramelteon Ramelteon was introduced as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America. Rozerem is indicated for treatment of the type of insomnia that is interferes with sleep onset. Ramelteon is rather unique among commonly prescribed sleep aids in that it is unrelated to benzodiazepines in both its chemical structure and its mechanism of action. Rozerem binds with high affinity (strongly) to two of the three main melatonin receptors in the brain. Melatonin is a hormone that is present naturally in humans. Melatonin is also available without a prescription as an OTC sleep aid. According to Takeda, Rozerem’s affinity and selectivity for specific melatonin receptors make it a more effective sleep aid and less likely to cause side effects than non-prescription melatonin. Because it does not interact with benzodiazepine receptors, ramelteon is essentially without risk of abuse and is therefore not a controlled substance. Clinical studies have shown that ramelteon does not cause physical dependence or rebound insomnia. Ramelteon is available in 8 mg tablets though it occasionally prescribed as two 8 mg tablets to be taken 30 thirty minutes prior to the desired onset of sleep. The most common side effects are drowsiness and dizziness. More on ramelteon. Ramelteon is under patent to Takeda until March 6, 2017. Eszopiclone Eszopiclone is marketed as Lunesta by Sepracor Inc. for the treatment of insomnia. Lunesta is under patent until 2012 with exclusivity until December 15, 2009. Eszopiclone is available in 1, 2 and 3 mg film-coated tablets. The precise mechanism of action of eszopiclone as a hypnotic is unknown, but it most likely interacts with benzodiazepine receptors. Because of this interaction, eszopiclone is a controlled substance and there is potential for abuse of the drug. Unlike zaleplon, zolpidem and triazolam which are only prescribed for up to three to four weeks, Lunesta has been approved by the FDA for long term use (greater than six months). Long-term trials showed that Lunesta did not cause tolerance meaning that patients did not need larger doses to obtain the same effect. Lunesta is touted as superior to competing medications since it not only initiates sleep but also prevents nighttime waking. The most common side effects of Lunesta include an unpleasant taste or dry mouth, dizziness, headache, cold symptoms and drowsiness. Serious side effects of eszopiclone, while rare, include sleep walking/driving, abnormal thoughts, memory loss, anxiety and allergic reactions. These rare and serious side effecttransleter

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