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Inglese

Kannada

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Inglese

convey my regards to them

Kannada

ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ನನ್ನ ನಮಸ್ಕಾರ ತಿಳಿಸುವ

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-05-23
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Inglese

I feel sorry to be absent from office due to sudden sickness. I could not even convey my application. Actually I did try my best to get up and come to office but I had lie down again due to dizziness and weakness. I know I have a lot of work pending but I may assure you that I will complete it as soon as possible even if I have to stay late hours.I hope you will accept my apology.

Kannada

ಹಠಾತ್ ಅನಾರೋಗ್ಯದ ಕಾರಣ ಕಚೇರಿಯಿಂದ ದೂರವಿರಲು ನಾನು ವಿಷಾದಿಸುತ್ತೇವೆ. ನನ್ನ ಅಪ್ಲಿಕೇಶನ್ ಅನ್ನು ನಾನು ಸಹ ತಿಳಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗಲಿಲ್ಲ. ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ ನಾನು ಎದ್ದೇಳಲು ಮತ್ತು ಕಚೇರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬರಲು ನನ್ನ ಅತ್ಯುತ್ತಮ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದೇನೆ ಆದರೆ ತಲೆತಿರುಗುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ದೌರ್ಬಲ್ಯದಿಂದ ನಾನು ಮತ್ತೆ ಮಲಗಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದೇನೆ. ನನಗೆ ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಕೆಲಸ ಬಾಕಿ ಇದೆ ಎಂದು ನನಗೆ ತಿಳಿದಿದೆ ಆದರೆ ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಗಂಟೆಗಳ ಕಾಲ ಉಳಿಯಲು ಸಹ ನಾನು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ಬೇಗ ಅದನ್ನು ಪೂರ್ಣಗೊಳಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ ಎಂದು ನಾನು ನಿಮಗೆ ಭರವಸೆ ನೀಡಬಹುದು. ನನ್ನ ಕ್ಷಮಾಪಣೆಯನ್ನು ನೀವು ಸ್ವೀಕರಿಸುತ್ತೀರಿ ಎಂದು ನಾನು ಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ.

Ultimo aggiornamento 2018-03-14
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Inglese

Women's empowerment is the process in which women elaborate and recreate what it is that they can be, do, and accomplish in a circumstance that they previously were denied.[1][2] Empowerment can be defined in many ways, however, when talking about women’s empowerment, empowerment means accepting and allowing people (women) who are on the outside of the decision making process into it. “This puts a strong emphasis on participation in political structures and formal decision making and, in the economic sphere, on the ability to obtain an income that enables participation in economic decision making.”[3] Empowerment is the process that creates power in individuals over their own lives, society, and in their communities. People are empowered when they are able to access the opportunities available to them without limitations and restrictions. Feeling entitled to make your own decisions creates a sense of empowerment. Empowerment includes the action of raising the status of women through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training. Women's empowerment is all about equipping and allowing women to make life determining decisions through the different problems in society.[4]

Kannada

2000 character

Ultimo aggiornamento 2019-02-08
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Inglese

tarleshan1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Govern

Kannada

1 THE FAMILY COURTS ACT, 1984 ACT NO. 66 OF 1984 [14th September, 1984.] An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, and secure speedy settlement of, disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Family Courts Act, 1984. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States. 1. This Act shall come into force in— (i) Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/22/86, dated 19th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ii) Madhya Pradesh on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. 79/6/86, dated 14th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (iii) Uttar Pradesh on 2nd October, 1986, vide notification No. 79/11/86-Jus., dated 4th September, 1986, Gazette of India, Pt. II, Section 1. (iv) Delhi on 19th November, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 863(E), dater 18th November, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (v) Maharashtra on 1st December, 1986, vide notification No. S.O. 944(E), dated 5th December, 1986, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (vi) Karnataka on 25th May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 685(E), dated 15th May, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (vii) Orissa on 1st May, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 321(E), dated 27th April, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (viii) Kerala on 21st October, 1989, vide notification No. 79/5/86, dated 17th October, 1989, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1. (ix) Goa on 16th April, 1990, vide notification No. S.O. 328(E), dated 12th April, 1990, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (x) Union territory of Pondicherry on 1st May, 1987, vide notification No. G.S.R. 459 (E), dated 29th April, 1987, Gazette of India, Extra, Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xi) West Bengal on 1st November, 1991, vide notification No. 79/12/86-Jus., dated 1st November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xii) Assam on 2nd October, 1991, vide notification No. 79/2/86 Jus., dated 30th November, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 1 (E). (xiii) Bihar on 10th December, 1991, vide notification No. S.O. 838(E), dated 6th December, 1991, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xiv) Manipur on 3rd February, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 91(E), dated 30th January, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(ii). (xv) Haryana on 2nd November, 1992, vide notification No. S.O. 784(E), dated 23th October, 1992, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3(i). (xvi) Andhra Pradesh on 15th February, 1995, vide notification No. S.O. 92(E), dated 6th February, 1995, Gazette of India, Extra.. Part II, Section 3 (ii). (xvii) Gujarat on 1st January, 2000, vide notification No. S.O. 1268(E), dated 20nd December, 1999, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). (xviii) Union territory of Daman and Diu on 10th October, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1161 (E), dated 14th October, 2003, Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Section 3 (ii). 2 2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Judge” means the Judge or, as the case may be, the Principal Judge, Additional Principal Judge or other Judge of a Family Court; (b) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette; (c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (d) “Family Court” means a Family Court established under section 3; (e) all other words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code. CHAPTER II FAMILY COURTS 3. Establishment of Family Courts.—(1) For the purpose of exercising the jurisdiction and powers conferred on a Family Court by this Act, the State Government, after consultation with the High Court, and by notification,— (a) shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, established for every area in the State comprising of city or town whose population exceeds one million, a Family Court; (b) may establish Family Courts for such other areas in the State as it may deem necessary. (2) The State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, specify, by notification, the local limits of the area to which the jurisdiction of a Family Court shall extend and may, at any time, increase, reduce or alter such limits. 4. Appointment of Judges.—(1) The State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint one or more persons to be the Judge or Judges of a Family Court. (2) When a Family Court consists of more than one Judge,— (a) each of the Judges may exercise all or any of the powers conferred on the Court by this Act or any other law for the time being in force; (b) the State Government may, with the concurrence of the High Court, appoint any of the Judges to be the Principal Judge and any other Judge to be the Additional Principal Judge; (c) the Principal Judge may, from time to time, make such arrangements as he may deem fit for the distribution of the business of the Court among the various Judges thereof; (d) the Additional Principal Judge may exercise the powers of the Principal Judge in the event of any vacancy in the office of the Principal Judge or when the Principal Judge is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge unless he— (a) has for at least seven years held a judicial office in India or the office of a Member of a Tribunal or any post under the Union or a State requiring special knowledge of law; or (b) has for at least seven years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or (c) possesses such other qualifications as the Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, prescribe. 3 (4) In selecting persons for appointment as Judges,— (a) every endeavour shall be made to ensure that persons committed to the need to protect and preserve the institution of marriage and to promote the welfare of children and qualified by reason of their experience and expertise to promote the settlement of disputes by conciliation and counselling are selected; and (b) preference shall be given to women. (5) No person shall be appointed as, or hold the office of, a Judge of a Family Court after he has attained the age of sixty-two years. (6) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, a Judge shall be such as the State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, prescribe. 5. Association of social welfare agencies, etc.—The State Government may, in consultation with the High Court, provide, by rules, for the association, in such manner and for such purposes and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, with a Family Court of— (a) institutions or organisations engaged in social welfare or the representatives thereof; (b) persons professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family; (c) persons working in the field of social welfare; and (d) any other person whose association with a Family Court would enable it to exercise its jurisdiction more effectively in accordance with the purposes of this Act. 6. Counsellors, officers and other employees of Family Courts.—(1) The State Government shall, in consultation with the High Court, determine the number and categories of counsellors, officers and other employees required to assist a Family Court in the discharge of its functions and provide the Family Court with such counsellors, officers and other employees as it may think fit. (2) The terms and conditions of association of the counsellors and the terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees, referred to in sub-section (1), shall be such as may be specified by rules made by the State Government. CHAPTER III JURISDICTION 7. Jurisdiction.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall— (a) have and exercise all the jurisdiction exercisable by any district court or any subordinate civil court under any law for the time being in force in respect of suits and proceedings of the nature referred to in the Explanation; and (b) be deemed, for the purposes of exercising such jurisdiction under such law, to be a district court or, as the case may be, such subordinate civil court for the area to which the jurisdiction of the Family Court extends. Explanation.—The suits and proceedings referred to in this sub-section are suits and proceedings of the following nature, namely:— (a) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage for a decree of nullity of marriage (declaring the marriage to be null and void or, as the case may be, annulling the marriage) or restitution of conjugal rights or judicial separation or dissolution of marriage; (b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person; 4 (c) a suit or proceeding between the parties to a marriage with respect to the property of the parties or of either of them; (d) a suit or proceeding for an order or injunction in circumstance arising out of a marital relationship; (e) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to the legitimacy of any person; (f) a suit or proceeding for maintenance; (g) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of, or access to, any minor. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Family Court shall also have and exercise— (a) the jurisdiction exercisable by a Magistrate of the first class under Chapter IX (relating to order for maintenance of wife, children and parents) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); and (b) such other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by any other enactment. 8. Exclusion of jurisdiction and pending proceedings.—Where a Family Court has been established for any area,— (a) no district court or any subordinate civil court referred to in sub-section (1) of section 7 shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction in respect of any suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to that sub-section; (b) no magistrate shall, in relation to such area, have or exercise any jurisdiction or powers under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974); (c) every suit or proceeding of the nature referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (1) of section 7 and every proceeding under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974),— (i) which is pending immediately before the establishment of such Family Court before any district court or subordinate court referred to in that sub-section or, as the case may be, before any magistrate under the said Code; and (ii) which would have been required to be instituted or taken before such Family Court if, before the date on which such suit or proceeding was instituted or taken, this Act had come into force and such Family Court had been established, shall stand transferred to such Family Court on the date on which it is established. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE 9. Duty of Family Court to make efforts for settlement.—(1) In every suit or proceeding, endeavour shall be made by the Family Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist and persuade the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceeding and for this purpose a Family Court may, subject to any rules made by the High Court, follow such procedure as it may deem fit. (2) If, in any suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Family Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Family Court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement. (3) The power conferred by sub-section (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Family Court to adjourn the proceedings. 5 10. Procedure generally.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and of any other law for the time being in force shall apply to the suits and proceedings [other than the proceedings under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] before a Family Court and for the purposes of the said provisions of the Code, a Family Court shall be deemed to be a civil court and shall have all the powers of such court. (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or the rules made thereunder, shall apply to the proceedings under Chapter IX of that Code before a Family Court. (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall prevent a Family Court from laying down its own procedure with a view to arrive at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit or proceedings or at the truth of the facts alleged by the one party and denied by the other. 11. Proceedings to be held in camera.—In every suit or proceedings to which this Act applies, the proceedings may be held in camera if the Family Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires. 12. Assistance of medical and welfare experts.—In every suit or proceedings, it shall be open to a Family Court to secure the services of a medical expert or such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purposes of assisting the Family Court in discharging the functions imposed by this Act. 13. Right to legal representation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in any law, no party to a suit or proceeding before a Family Court shall be entitled, as of right, to be represented by a legal practitioner: Provided that if the Family Court considers it necessary in the interest of justice, it may seek the assistance of a legal expert as amicus curiae. 14. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—A Family Court may receive as evidence any report, statement, documents, information or matter that may, in its opinion, assist it to deal effectually with a dispute, whether or not the same would be otherwise relevant or admissible under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872). 15. Record of oral evidence.—In suits or proceedings before a Family Court, it shall not be necessary to record the evidence of witnesses at length, but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall, record or cause to be recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the witness and the Judge and shall form part of the record. 16. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.—(1) The evidence of any person where such evidence is of a formal character, may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any suit or proceeding before a Family Court. (2) The Family Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of any of the parties to the suit or proceeding summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. 17. Judgment.—Judgment of a Family Court shall contain a concise statement of the case, the point for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision. 18. Execution of decrees and orders.—(1) A decree or an order [other than an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], passed by a Family Court shall have the same force and effect as a decree or order of a civil court and shall be executed in the same manner as is prescribed by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the execution of decrees and orders. (2) An order passed by a Family Court under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall be executed in the manner prescribed for the execution of such order by that Code. 6 (3) A decree or order may be executed either by the Family Court which passed it or by the other Family Court or ordinary civil court to which it is sent for execution. CHAPTER V 1[APPEALS AND REVISIONS] 19. Appeal.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2) and notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law, an appeal shall lie from every judgment or order, not being an interlocutory order, of a Family Court to the High Court both on facts and on law. (2) No appeal shall lie from a decree or order passed by the Family Court with the consent of the parties 2[or from an order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974): Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any appeal pending before a High Court or any order passed under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) before the commencement of the Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 1991 (59 of 1991).] (3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the judgment or order of a Family Court. 2[(4) The High Court may, of its own motion or otherwise, call for and examine the record of any proceeding in which the Family Court situate within its jurisdiction passed an order under Chapter IX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of the order, not being an interlocutory order, and as to the regularity of such proceeding.] 3[(5)] Except as aforesaid, no appeal or revision shall lie to any court from any judgment, order or decree of a Family Court. 4[(6)] An appeal preferred under sub-section (1) shall be heard by a Bench consisting of two or more Judges. CHAPTER VI MISCELLANEOUS 20. Act to have overriding effect.—The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act. 21. Power of High Court to make rules.—(1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such rules as it may deem necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) normal working hours of Family Courts and holding of sittings of Family Courts on holidays and outside normal working hours; (b) holding of sittings of Family Courts at places other than their ordinary places of sitting; (c) efforts which may be made by, and the procedure which may be followed by, a Family Court for assisting and persuading parties to arrive at a settlement. 1. Subs. by Act 59 of 1991, s. 2, for “Appeals” (w.e.f 28-12-1991). 2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 3. Sub-section (4) renumbered as sub-section (5) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 4. Sub-section (5) renumbered as sub-section (6) thereof by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 28-12-1991). 7 22. Power of the Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may,

Ultimo aggiornamento 2018-04-10
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Inglese

The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Here they find an environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the intellectual and social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to them. Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. It is the nucleus of the school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students’ tastes and interests.

Kannada

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Ultimo aggiornamento 2017-09-12
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Inglese

Kittur Rani Chennamma (1778-1829) [In Kannada: ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಣಿ ಚೆನ್ನಮ್ಮ] Kittur Rani Chennamma was the first woman independence activist of India. She stood all alone with a courageous mind against the British Empire. She did not succeed in driving them away, but she was given provocation to many of the women to rise against the British rule. She was Chennamma Queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka. Today she is well known as Kittur Rani Chennamma. She led an Army rebellion against British in response to the “Doctrine of lapse” at the age of 33 in 1824. The resistance ended in her martyrdom only, but she is still remembering today as one of the earliest Indian rulers to have fought for independence. Among the freedom fighters like Keladi Chennamma, Abbakka Rani and Onake Obavva she is much venerated in Karnataka as an icon of bravery and women's pride for ever. Kittur Fort Kittur Chennamma was born 56 years before the 1857 rebel, Rani Laxmi Bai was the first woman fought against British against the Tax levied by them from each kingdom. During the Kittur Utsava of every 22nd to 24th- October these memories are renewing and the people giving the patriotic salute to them. Statue of Kittur Chennamma Chennamma was born in Kakati, a small village 5 KM distance from Belgaum (the wealthy kingdom of Kittur) in Karnataka in 1778. She got training at her childhood itself for sword fighting, horse riding and archery. She was married to Raja Mallasarja from the Desai family and had one son. Unfortunately her son was expired in 1824; she adopted Shivalingappa for giving the right of crown. The British East India Co didn’t accepted the adoption as per their new law for attaching the small kingdoms with them, “Doctrine of lapse”. She was fought with British in this issue with her expert skill and courage. Her lieutenant was Sangolli Rayanna. But finally the British captured her kingdom and added with East India Co. Our Pride, respectable: Kittur Chennamma was imprisoned at Bailhongal Fort, where she died in 21st-February 1829. Chennamma become the ever memorable woman in world history due to her patriotism, courage etc..

Kannada

ಮೇಲೆ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಣಿ ಚೆನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Ultimo aggiornamento 2016-10-18
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Inglese

Corruption is not a new phenomenon in India. It has been prevalent in society since ancient times. History reveals that it was present even in the Mauryan period. Great scholar Kautilya mentions the pressure of forty types of corruption in his contemporary society. It was practised even in Mughal and Sultanate period. When the East India Company took control of the country, corruption reached new height. Corruption in India has become so common that people now are averse to thinking of public life with it. Corruption has been defined variously by scholars. But the simple meaning of it is that corruption implies perversion of morality, integrity, character or duty out of mercenary motives, i.e. bribery, without any regard to honour, right and justice. In other words, undue favour for any one for some monetary or other gains is corruption. Simultaneously, depriving the genuinely deserving from their right or privilege is also a corrupt practice. Shrinking from one’s duty or dereliction of duty are also forms of corruption. Besides, thefts, wastage of public property constitute varieties of corruption. Dishonesty, exploitation, malpractices, scams and scandals are various manifestations of corruption. Corruption is not a uniquely Indian phenomenon. It is witnessed all over the world in developing as well as developed countries. It has spread its tentacles in every sphere of life, namely business administration, politics, officialdom, and services. In fact, there is hardly any sector which can be characterised for not being infected with the vices of corruption. Corruption is rampant in every segment and every section of society, barring the social status attached to it. Nobody can be considered free from corruption from a high ranking officer. To root out the evil of corruption from society, we need to make a comprehensive code of conduct for politicians, legislatures, bureaucrats, and such code should be strictly enforced. Judiciary should be given more independence and initiatives on issues related to corruption. Special courts should be set-up to take up such issues and speedy trial is to be promoted. Law and order machinery should be allowed to work without political interference. NGOs and media should come forward to create awareness against corruption in society and educate people to combat this evil. Only then we would be able to save our system from being collapsed

Kannada

ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-08-20
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Inglese

Today, we have assembled here to celebrate the 64th Republic Day of India. On this auspicious occasion, I convey my greetings to all my countrymen and pray for the prosperity and development of our nation so that we can all live in peace with a spirit of brotherhood. Just a few minutes ago, you have watched the chief guest of today's function hoist the national flag of India and we all sang the Indian national anthem symbolizing the unity of India with our hearts filled with patriotic feelings for our nation. The saffron (kesaria) colour of the flag at the top represents the strength and courage of the country. The white colour in the middle shows our desire for peace. The dark green colour at the bottom of the national flag shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of our motherland. The nave blue wheel with 24 spokes represents the Dharma Chakra. You must have read in your history books about the great king Ashoka of ancient India. This symbolic wheel in the middle of our flag belongs to a monument of King Ashoka, kept at Sarnath near Varanasi. The national anthem which we have sung now and usually sing in our school assembly was originally composed in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore. For your historical knowledge, I must tell you that the national anthem was first sung at the Kolkata session of the Indian National Congress on December 27, 1911. The full song consists of five stanzas, but the Indian Constitution Assembly adopted the Hindi version of only the first stanza as our national anthem on January 24, 1950.

Kannada

ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯೋತ್ಸವದಂದು ಪ್ರಬಂಧ ಭಾಷಾಂತರಿಸಲು

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-01-16
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Inglese

The other day, my daddy was telling me his childhood stories. He shared his evergreen memories of having a great time with his relatives. In the olden days, people used to visit friends and relatives often. But look at about our generation. How often we get to see our relatives? We just make a phone call to talk to them instead of visiting. We call our grandparents through phones to check if they are doing okay. We wish them Merry Christmas and Happy New Year by sending a text message. We are living in a fast moving world where social life is centered around the mobile phones. Mobile phones are the No:1 culprit in damaging our social life and family life. People have started Texting instead of talking and visiting. What more, I have seen people talking through phone to the family members in the next room instead of just getting up from the chair and walking over there. Leave aside the social life. Think about the health problems because of excessive use of mobile phones. It is a scientific fact that cell phones emit radio frequency energy, a form of radiation, which can be absorbed by tissues in your body. The nervous system of children is still developing and is more vulnerable to factors that may cause cancer. Considering the fact that over 7 billion people use cell phones worldwide, I can't even imagine how many of them are waiting for the deadly decease called "Cancer". Agreed, cell phones keep you connected, but think about the privacy you are losing. No matter where you are, whether it is a vacation in a beach or you are having some family time in a hill station, your phone can ring anytime and bring you some bothering news that will spoil your fun time. I have seen my mother will make sure everyone in the family turn off the mobile phones when we go for fun trips. Places of worship are supposed to be divine where you get connected with the almighty God where ultimate silence is extremely important. But every Sunday, when I go to church with my parents, I hear all kinds of fancy ring tones that interrupt the prayers. Can't people leave the phones behind even for an hour of prayer? How about the irritating commercial and funny text messages you receive everyday? How many spammy commercial messages are sent to people without their permission? For many people, it is one of their routine tasks to delete so many messages from their phone everyday, wasting so much of time and energy. Many people use cell phones to show off and not to make phone calls. There are a lot of expensive, fancy phones, which costs more than the price of a laptop. Why do people waste so much money on cell phones which are meant to be simple devices to make phone calls when needed? A recent study in USA shows that a teen sends average 400 text messages per week. About half of them are sent during class hours. Aren't you shocked to hear this? I am glad our India is much better and cell phones are not allowed in most schools. I can't even imagine we carrying cell phones to the schools and texting in the classrooms! Here is my pledge: If I have the power, I will ban the cell phones in schools, colleges, churches, temples, offices and while driving to focus on learning, to improve productivity, to have a silent atmosphere, to protect privacy and to save lives.

Kannada

ಪ್ರಯೋಜನಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಮೊಬೈಲ್ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ ದುಷ್ಪರಿಣಾಮಗಳು

Ultimo aggiornamento 2015-01-12
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Inglese

Kannada Folklore is the best medium to understand the culturally rich heritage of the land. It is an indigenous system which portrays the reality of a time, which may or may not be considered ideal. It effectively conveys through tales, songs, dance, games, and other arts, the regional practices, wisdom, not necessarily delineated by religion and caste which often dictates the traditions. Folklore has incredible metaphors which in itself a preview to the history and also the message that has to be passed on to the successive generation. ‘Janapada Sinchana’ is intended to bring out the regional practices and influence through the medium of dance and probably small pieces of enacting or narration in between like the ones listed below but not limited to them and can include other prevalent folk forms.

Kannada

ಜನಪದ ಕನ್ನಡ

Ultimo aggiornamento 2014-12-25
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