Google で調べる

検索ワード: incorporated (英語 - ヒンズー語)

人による翻訳

プロの翻訳者、企業、ウェブページから自由に利用できる翻訳レポジトリまで。

翻訳の追加

英語

ヒンズー語

情報

英語

MI LIFESTYLE MARKETING GLOBAL PRIVATE LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and having its Registered Office in Chennai, hereinafter referred to as "the Company“ or “Mi Lifestyle” or “we” which ever is appropriate. The Company is inter alia into the business of Direct Selling of various products such as White Goods, Consumer Durables, Cosmetics, FMCG, Health Products, etc., The Company exclusively uses website to display the details of the products, marketing methods, business monitoring, while uses the word of mouth publicity to promote and create awareness about the company and its products. The Company does appoint freelance Independent Distributors across the country for marketing and sale of products. Interested individuals/body corporates can order the products upon they being satisfied with the quality and services they can become a freelance Independent Distributor (herein after may be referred as “Distributor”) of the company, if they wish to by applying for the same in th

ヒンズー語

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

最終更新: 2019-01-06
使用頻度: 2
品質:

参照: 匿名
警告:見えない HTML フォーマットが含まれています

英語

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (previously incorporated as Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc.[7] and colloquially known as Warner Bros., Warner Bros. Pictures and WB) is an American entertainment company that is a division of Time Warner and is headquartered in Burbank, California. It is one of the "Big Six" major American film studios.

ヒンズー語

वार्नर bros. मनोरंजन इंक (पहले वार्नर ब्रदर्स चित्र, Inc [7] के रूप में शामिल है और बोलचाल की वार्नर bros के रूप में जाना जाता है., वार्नर Bros. चित्र और पश्चिम बंगाल) एक अमेरिकी मनोरंजन कंपनी है कि समय वार्नर का एक विभाजन है और मुख्यालय में है Burbank, कैलिफोर्निया. यह "बिग छह" प्रमुख अमेरिकी फिल्म स्टूडियो में से एक है.

最終更新: 2017-10-16
使用頻度: 1
品質:

参照: 匿名
警告:見えない HTML フォーマットが含まれています

英語

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

ヒンズー語

Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company - December 15th, 2010 Marketing Strategy of Colgate-Palmolive Company : Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) is an American diversified multinational corporation focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal products, such as soaps, detergents, and oral hygiene products (including toothpaste and toothbrushes). Under its "Hill's" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[3] Statistics: Public Company Incorporated: 1806 as The Colgate Company Employees: 36,000 Sales: $10.58 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: New York Euronext Frankfurt London Zurich Ticker Symbol: CL NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 335211 Electric Housewares and Household Fan Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing Company Perspectives: Our long history of strong performance comes from absolute focus on our core global businesses, combined with a successful worldwide financial strategy. This financial strategy is designed to increase gross profit margin and reduce costs in order to fund growth initiatives and generate greater profitability. Key Dates: 1806: Company is founded by William Colgate in New York to make starch, soap, and candles. 1857: After founder's death, company becomes known as Colgate & Company. 1873: Toothpaste is first marketed. 1896: Collapsible tubes for toothpaste are introduced. 1898: B.J. Johnson Soap Company (later renamed Palmolive Company) introduces Palmolive soap. 1910: Colgate moves from original location to Jersey City, New Jersey. 1926: Palmolive merges with Peet Brothers, creating Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928: Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1947: Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser are introduced. 1953: Company changes its name to Colgate-Palmolive Company. 1956: Corporate headquarters shifts back to New York. 1966: Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced. 1967: Sales top $1 billion. 1968: Colgate toothpaste is reformulated with fluoride; Ultra Brite is introduced. 1976: Hill's Pet Products is purchased. 1987: The Softsoap brand of liquid soap is acquired. 1992: The Mennen Company is acquired; Total toothpaste is introduced overseas. 1995: Latin American firm Kolynos Oral Care is acquired; Colgate-Palmolive undergoes major restructuring. 1997: Total toothpaste is launched in the United States; Colgate takes lead in domestic toothpaste market. 2004: Company acquires European oral care firm GABA Holding AG; major restructuring is launched. Company History: Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments--oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods. Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States. Beginnings In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet soaps and Pearl starch. Upon its founder's death in 1857, the firm changed its name to Colgate & Company and was run by President Samuel Colgate until his death 40 years later. During his tenure several new products were developed, including perfumes, essences, and perfumed soap. The manufacture of starch was discontinued in 1866 after a fire destroyed the factory. In 1873 Colgate began selling toothpaste in a jar, followed 23 years later by the introduction of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream, in the now familiar collapsible tube. By 1906 the company was also producing several varieties of laundry soap, toilet paper, and perfumes. Colgate & Company shifted its headquarters to Jersey City in 1910. While the Colgate family managed its manufacturing operations on the East Coast, soap factories were also opened in 1864 by B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (under the name B.J. Johnson Soap Company), and in 1872 by the three Peet brothers in Kansas City, Kansas. In 1898 Johnson's company introduced Palmolive soap, which soon became the best-selling soap in the world and led the firm to change its name to the Palmolive Company in 1916. The Peets, who sold laundry soap mainly in the Midwest and western states, merged their company (Peet Brothers) with Palmolive in 1926, forming Palmolive-Peet Company. Two years later that firm joined with Colgate & Company to form Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, with headquarters in Jersey City. Palmolive-Peet's management initially assumed control of the combined organization. On October 25, 1929, management signed an agreement to merge the company with Kraft Phenix Cheese Corporation (forerunner of Kraft Foods) and Hershey Chocolate Company. The three companies would continue to operate independently, but they would become subsidiaries of a holding company slated to be called International Quality Products Corporation. Just four days after the deal was signed, however, the stock market crashed, forcing the huge amalgamation to be scuttled. In the wake of the crash, the Colgate family regained control of Colgate-Palmolive-Peet and installed Bayard Colgate as president in 1933. International Expansion Colgate & Company had been a pioneer in establishing international operations, creating a Canadian subsidiary in 1913 and one in France in 1920. In the early 1920s the firm expanded into Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Mexico. Colgate or its successor firm next created subsidiaries in the Philippines, Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa in the late 1920s. In 1937 the company moved into India and by the end of the 1940s had operations in most of South America. By 1939 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet's sales hit $100 million. In the 1940s and 1950s the company also built upon its strategy of growth by acquisition, buying up a number of smaller consumer product companies. Organic growth remained on the agenda as well, and in 1947 the company introduced two of its best-known products, Fab detergent and Ajax cleanser. These acquisitions and new products, however, did little to close the gap between Colgate and its arch-rival, the Procter & Gamble Company, a firm that had been formed in the 1830s and had by now assumed a commanding lead over Colgate in selling detergent products in the United States. Meanwhile, the firm adopted its present name in 1953 and moved its offices for domestic and international operations to New York City in 1956. In 1960 George H. Lesch was appointed Colgate's president in the hopes that his international experience would produce similar success in the domestic market. Under his leadership, the company embarked upon an extensive new product development program that created such brands as Cold Power laundry detergent, Palmolive dishwashing liquid, and Ultra Brite toothpaste. In an attempt to expand beyond these traditional, highly competitive businesses into new growth areas, Colgate also successfully introduced a new food wrap called Baggies in 1963. As a result of these product launches, the company's sales grew between 8 and 9 percent every year throughout the 1960s. Sales topped the $1 billion mark in 1967. Lesch assumed the chairmanship of Colgate, and David Foster became president in 1970 and CEO in 1971. Foster was the son of the founder of Colgate-Palmolive's U.K. operations. He joined the company in 1946 as a management trainee and rose through the sales and marketing ranks both in the United States and overseas. New Strategies for the 1970s During the 1970s, as environmental concerns about phosphate and enzyme detergent products grew, the company faced additional pressure to diversify beyond the detergent business. In response to this pressure, Foster instituted a strategy that emphasized internal development via a specialized new venture group; joint ventures for marketing other companies' products; and outright acquisitions of businesses in which Colgate could gain a marketing advantage over Procter & Gamble. In 1971, for example, the company began selling British Wilkinson Sword Company razors and blades in the United States and other countries. In 1972 Colgate-Palmolive acquired Kendall & Company, a manufacturer of hospital and industrial supplies. It was originally hoped that the Kendall acquisition would bolster the pharmaceutical sales of Colgate's Lakeside Laboratories subsidiary, which had been acquired in 1960. The partnership never materialized, however, and Lakeside was sold in 1974. The Kendall business proved to be one of Foster's most successful acquisitions. Within two years, the subsidiary was producing sales and earnings results well above the company's targeted goals. On the product development side, meanwhile, Irish Spring deodorant soap was introduced in 1972. In 1971 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission enacted restrictions on in-store product promotions, such as couponing. In response to these restrictions, Foster began to employ other tactics designed to enhance Colgate's visibility in the marketplace. Two such programs awarded money to schools and local civic groups whose young people collected the most labels and boxtops from selected Colgate products. Under Foster, Colgate-Palmolive also began to sponsor a number of women's sporting events, including the Colgate-Dinah Shore Winner's Circle, a women's professional golf tournament. Foster chose women's sports in an effort to appeal to Colgate-Palmolive's primarily female customer base. He even went so far as to have Colgate buy the tournament's home course, the Mission Hills Country Club in Palm Springs, California, so that he could supervise the maintenance of the greens. In 1973 Colgate acquired Helena Rubinstein, a major cosmetics manufacturer with strong foreign sales but a weak U.S. presence. Believing that its marketing expertise could solve Rubinstein's problems, Colgate reduced both the number of products in the company's line and the number of employees in its workforce, increased advertising expenditures, and moved the products out of drugstores and into department stores. The following year the company acquired Ram Golf Corporation and Bancroft Racket Company, and in 1976 it bought Charles A. Eaton Company, a golf and tennis shoe manufacturer. Although total U.S. sales of consumer products appeared to be slowing by the end of 1974, particularly in soaps and detergents, Colgate's international sales continued to carry the company forward. It maintained its leadership position abroad through new product development geared specifically to local tastes throughout Europe as well as through its involvement in the growing markets of less-developed countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Setbacks Beginning in the Late 1970s Foster's diversification strategy initially improved earnings, but Colgate's domestic sales, market share, and profit margins were beginning to soften. This was due, in large part, to an economic recession and an advertising cutback the company had made in an attempt to boost earnings. Colgate was consistently losing the marketing battle in personal care products to Procter & Gamble. It had no leading brands and few successful new product introductions because of reduced spending for research and development. In an effort to remedy this problem and broaden its product mix, Colgate moved into food marketing in 1976 with the acquisition of Riviana Foods, a major producer of Texas long-grain rice with its own subsidiaries in pet food (Hill's Pet Products), kosher hot dogs (Hebrew National Kosher Foods), and candy. The Riviana acquisition, however, did not live up to the company's expectations. Along with purchasing a successful rice-milling business, Colgate found that it had also saddled itself with two unprofitable restaurant chains and a low-quality candy company. In 1977 declines in the price of rice seriously eroded Riviana's cash flow. Helena Rubinstein created additional headaches. Whereas other cosmetic manufacturers had moved their products from department store distribution to higher-volume drugstores, Colgate's management elected to keep Rubinstein products in department stores even though stores' demands for marketing support eroded the company's margins so severely that it lost money on every cosmetic item sold. Colgate finally sold the business in 1980 to Albi Enterprises. Foster had become chairman in 1975. In 1979, embattled by a series of marketing failures and the pressures of an acquisition strategy that yielded more losers than winners, Foster suddenly resigned, citing ill health. The company's president and chief operating officer, Keith Crane, was appointed as Foster's successor. A 42-year Colgate employee, Crane quickly instituted a new management structure consisting of several group vice-presidents, reunited all domestic operations under one group, and realigned division managers in an attempt to promote a more cohesive organization. Consumer advertising and product research were given renewed emphasis to support the company's basic detergent and toothpaste lines. Over the next two years, Crane sold a number of Foster's acquisitions that no longer fit with the company's long-term strategic plan, including Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which had been part of the Riviana purchase; Ram Golf; and the Bancroft Racket Company. Crane also put the Mission Hills Country Club up for sale and withdrew Colgate's sponsorship of the sporting events his predecessor had nurtured. Also during the late 1970s and the 1980s, Colgate found itself named as a defendant in two lawsuits. In 1981 the company lost a suit brought by United Roasters, who successfully argued that Colgate had violated the terms of a contract between the two firms for Colgate to market Bambeanos, a soybean snack produced by United Roasters, and was awarded $950,000. The following year the company was sued by the federal government for alleged job discrimination. According to a complaint filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Colgate had failed or refused to hire people between the ages of 40 and 70 since 1978 and had also deprived employees in that age group of opportunities for promotion. By the end of 1982 Crane also experienced problems at Colgate. Several attempts at new product development never made it out of the test-market stage. Increased advertising expenditures for a limited number of major brands produced only temporary gains in market share while slowly killing off other products receiving little or no media support. Even Fresh Start detergent, one of the most successful new products to come out of the Foster era, was having problems retaining market share. Thus while Procter & Gamble's sales and margins were increasing, Colgate's were on the decline. To make matters worse, the strong dollar overseas hurt Colgate's international sales, and changes in Medicare policy weakened Kendall's business. Turnaround Under Reuben Mark, Mid- to Late 1980s In 1983 Crane relinquished the title of president to Reuben Mark, one of the company's three executive vice-presidents and a member of Crane's management advisory team. Mark also assumed the position of chief operating officer at that time; one year later he succeeded Crane as CEO. Mark built upon his predecessor's restructuring efforts in an attempt to increase profits and shareholder value. Between 1984 and 1986 several inefficient plants were closed, hundreds of employees laid off, and noncore businesses sold, including the remnants of the Riviana Foods acquisition, except for the Hill's Pet Products subsidiary. In an attempt to refocus the company's marketing and profitability, Mark developed a set of corporate initiatives intended to address business areas ranging from production-cost reduction to new product development, with a heavy emphasis on motivating employees and involving them in company decision-making. In response to the implementation of these ideas, the company's U.S. toothpaste business enjoyed a boost with first-to-the-market introductions of a gel toothpaste and a pump-type dispenser bearing the Colgate brand name. Similar U.S. market share gains were earned by new and improved versions of its Palmolive and Dynamo detergents and Ajax cleaner. Palmolive automatic dishwashing liquid debuted in 1986. With the company's turnaround firmly underway, business units managed by key executives were formed to develop plans for the company's major product categories. The purpose of each plan was to identify how products under development could be best introduced in domestic and international markets. Two years into this strategic reorganization, coinciding with Mark's appointment as chairman in 1986, Colgate confronted an embarrassing controversy. Since the early 1920s Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company had marketed a product called Darkie Black and White Toothpaste in the Far East. Colgate had acquired a 50 percent interest in this company in 1985. The following year, the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, a coalition of Protestant and Roman Catholic groups, demanded that Colgate change what it deemed to be the product's racially offensive name and packaging, which depicted a likeness of Al Jolson in blackface. The company acknowledged the criticism and agreed to make the necessary changes. Colgate also continued to seek out growth areas in its personal care product and detergent businesses. In 1987 it acquired a line of liquid soap products (including the Softsoap brand) from Minnetonka Corporation, the first transaction the company had made in the personal care area in several years. Building upon its success in launching an automatic dishwashing detergent in liquid form ahead of its competitors, the company also beat Procter & Gamble to the market with a laundry detergent packaged in a throw-in pouch called Fab 1 Shot, although this product failed to sustain consumer interest or reach sales expectations over the long term. Buoyed by product development breakthroughs and a renewed commitment to consumer products marketing, Colgate sold its Kendall subsidiary and related healthcare businesses in 1988 to Clayton & Dubilier. The sale enabled Colgate to retire some debt, sharpen its focus on its global consumer products businesses, and invest in new product categories. Moreover, Mark's global approach enabled the company to maintain its overall profitability despite not having a leadership position in the United States. Although Colgate lagged behind Procter & Gamble in the toothpaste

最終更新: 2017-09-02
使用頻度: 1
品質:

参照: 匿名
警告:見えない HTML フォーマットが含まれています

英語

Goकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1. ogle Translator

ヒンズー語

google traslaterकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1.

最終更新: 2017-02-06
使用頻度: 1
品質:

参照: 匿名
警告:見えない HTML フォーマットが含まれています

英語

google traslaterकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1.

ヒンズー語

Goकंपनी इतिहास - कोलगेट पाल्मोलिव (इंडिया) 1902 -Stylish Palmolive advertising begins, emphasizing ingredient purity and product benefits. 1906 -Colgate & Company celebrates its 100th anniversary. Product line includes over 800 different products. 1908 -Colgate is incorporated by the five sons of Samuel Colgate. -Ribbon opening added to Colgate tube: �We couldn't improve the product so we improved the tube.� 1911 -Colgate distributes two million tubes of toothpaste and toothbrushes to schools, and provides hygienists to demonstrate tooth brushing. 1912 -William Mennen introduces the first American shaving cream tube. 1914 -Colgate establishes its first international subsidiary in Canada. 1920s -Colgate begins establishing operations in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. 1926 -Soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merge to become Palmolive-Peet Company. 1928 -Colgate merges with Palmolive-Peet to become Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company. 1930 -On March 13, Colgate is first listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1937 - The Company was incorporated on 23rd September, as a private limited company. The Company Manufacture and market dental care products (dental cream and tooth powder), hair care products (hair oils, shampoos, brilliantine) and other personal care products such as shaving creams, and lotions, face creams, baby powder, talcum powder, etc. The products are marketed under the trade marks Colgate. Palmolive, Halo and Charmis. - A distribution set up was also developed on an all-India basis with warehouse facilities in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. - Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A. supplemented this reinvestment by providing, technical assistance, new product information and its worldwide developments in quality dental care and other personal care products. The Company has its own research and development facilities. 1939 Dr. Mark L. Morris develops a pet food to help save a guide dog named Buddy from kidney disease. This breakthrough leads to the first Hill's Prescription Diet product. 1947 -Ajax cleanser is launched, establishing a powerful now-global brand equity for cleaning -products. 1953 -Colgate-Palmolive Company becomes company's official name. 1956 -Colgate opens corporate headquarters at 300 Park Avenue in New York City. 1962 -Colgate opens research center in Piscataway, NJ. -Fabric conditioner is launched in France as Soupline. Today, fabric conditioners are sold in over 54 countries around the world. 1966 -Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced and today it is sold in over 35 countries. 1968 -Colgate toothpaste adds MFP Fluoride, clinically proven to reduce cavities. 1970 -Irish Spring launches in Germany as Irische Fr�hling and in Europe as Nordic Spring. In 1972, Irish Spring is introduced in North America. 1972 -Colgate acquires Hoyt Laboratories, which later becomes Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals. 1975 -Caprice hair care launches in Mexico. Today, hair care products are sold in over 70 countries, with variants to suit every type of hair need. 1976 -Colgate-Palmolive acquires Hill's Pet Nutrition. Today Hill's is the global leader in pet nutrition and veterinary recommendations. 1978 - The object of the offer for sale of shares made to the Indian public during November was to reduce the non-resident holding to 40%. This offer for sale was made by Colgate-Palmolive Company, U.S.A., to the resident-Indians public to comply with FERA, 1973. As a result, 11,79,000 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were offered at a premium of Rs 15 per share. 1982 - 19,65,000 Bonus equity shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1983 -Colgate Plus toothbrush is introduced. Today over 1.6 billion Colgate toothbrushes are sold annually worldwide. If you lined them up end to end, they would circle the globe 16 times. 1985 - 39,30,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. -Protex bar soap is introduced, and today offers all-family antibacterial protection in over 56 countries. -Colgate-Palmolive enters into a joint venture with Hong Kong-based Hawley & Hazel, a leading oral care company, which adds strength in key Asian markets. 1986 -The Chairman's You Can Make A Difference Program is launched, recognizing innovation and executional excellence by Colgate people. 1987 -Colgate acquires Softsoap liquid soap business from the Minnetonka Corporation. Today, Colgate is the global leader in liquid hand soap. - 78,60,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1988 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. It also registered with DGTD for production of 30,000 tonnes of toilet soap per annum. - Shares sudivided on 29.9.1978. 19,50,000 bonus shares were then issued in prop. 130:1. - Orders were placed for setting up a fatty acid plant with an annual capacity of 20,000 tonnes and a toilet soap plant with an annual finishing capacity of 15,000 tonnes. 1989 -Annual Company sales surpass the billion mark. - 1,57,20,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1991 - The Company launched new Colgate Gel Toothpaste, Palmolive Extra Care and new Palmolive soap and relaunched a high quality colgate Plus and other toothbrushes. - 1,88,64,000 bonus shares issued in prop. 3:5. 1993 - The Company participated in the global launch of Colgate Total Toothpaste and Asia/Pacific regional launch of Protex Soap. - The Company proposed to negotiate with appropriate global partners for the necessary technology needed to implement vertically integrated projects and diversification into high technology areas to effect import substitutions for a range of materials. - During September, 112,92,735 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each were allotted at a premium of Rs 50 per share to Colgate Palmolive Company, U.S.A. with a view to raise its shareholding to 51% of the subscribed capital. 615,96,735 bonus shares issued in prop. 1:1. 1994 - The Company acquired the oral hygiene business of Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd. - The Company offered 123,19,347 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 10 per share on Rights basis in the proportion 1:10 (all were taken up). 2,40,000 shares of Rs 10 each were issued to the employees at a premium of Rs 10 per share on an equitable basis (Details of allotment non-known). - Also, 2,49,795 No. of equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 1 per share were issued to Colgate Palmolive Co., U.S.A., on preferential allotment basis to maintain their shareholding at 51%. 1996 - The Company launched colgate fresh stripe tooth paste and palmolive naturals soap in personal care products segments, Keratin Treatment Shampoo and Palmolive optima in Hair care segment during the year. Axion dishwashing paste was test launched in Maharashtra. - The Company established a modern facility at Aurangabad to manufacture Dicalcium phosphate, a key ingredient for toothpaste. - Passion Trading & Investment Co., Ltd., Jigs Investments Ltd., Multimint Leasing & Finance Ltd. and Camelot Investments Company Ltd. are subsidiaries of the Company. - The Company established a wholly-owned subsidiary at Hetanda in Nepal in June 1988. The facility will manufacture tooth paste and tooth powder initially. 1998 - The Company received a licence for producing 24,000 tonnes per annum of fatty acids. - The company paid a dividend of Rs.4.50 per share in 3 instalments first interim Rs.1.60 second interim Rs.1.60 and final of Rs.1.30 per share. - Colgate is the market leader in oral care with its toothpaste commanding a market share of over 60 per cent, followed by Hindustan Lever with around 35 per cent. - The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) has, in an interim order, directed Colgate to withdraw its long-standing Suraksha Chakra advertisement within two weeks. - HLL has taken Colgate to the MRTPC over claims made by its recently launched toothpaste - Colgate Dental Cream Double Protection (CDC-DP) - a variant of the popular Colgate Dental Cream (CDC). - Colgate-Palmolive is one of the few multinational stocks which have failed to outperform the market in the recent past. - In its recent launch the company has launched Colgate Double Protection tooth paste for the entire family. - Colgate-Palmolive has finally signed up with the depository even as Sebi has sent out a note of warning to the remaining six companies. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, a market leader in the toothpaste segment, suffered heavy setback during the first half of the current year due to stiff competition. - The company has established the Dicalcium Phosphate (DP) manufacturing facility at Aurangabad. - Colgate-Palmolive had launched the ad campaign for its new product Colgate Double Protection toothpaste in competition with rival brand Pepsodent from the Hindustan Lever stable. 1999 - The corporate has launched the `Colgate Double Protection', `Colgate Total' and `Colgate Sensation'. - The company started a new research and development centre, a manufacturing facility in Nepal, and completed a dicalcium phosphate facility in Aurangabad. - A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court allowed the appeal of Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd with regard to the use of `Suraksha Chakra' in the advertisements of the company's toothpaste. - The re-launch of Pepsodent in July, and launch of Rs 3.50 a sachet of Pepsodent with a convenient nozzle has helped Colgate-Palmolive to increase its market share. 2000 - The Company has introduced two new variants to its Palmolive Naturals sopa range and has revitalised its sandalwood soap. - The Company has launch of two new variants in its Palmolive Naturals range of beauty soap lime and milk cream. - The Company has relaunched Colgate Gel as `Colgate Fresh Energy Gel.' - Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd, has informed the stock exchange that a small group forcibly entered the plant of Colgate-Palmolive (Nepal) at Hetauda industrial estate and denoted two explosive devices. - The Company has launch of its International Palmolive Shave Gel and Palmolive Shave Foam in response to growing consumer interest in skin conditioning benefits. - Colgate has relaunched its Cibaca toothpaste as All New Cibaca Top. - The Company has entered into a strategic tie-up with Calcutta-based First-net Solutions Ltd, under which both partners will go for joint sales promotion of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel toothpaste on the Web portal, Yantram.com. - Oral care major Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has made a foray into a new category of herbal care with the launch of Colgate Herbal touted to be a vehicle for increasing the company's rural market penetration over a period of time. - Colgate-Palmolive has relaunched its moisturising cold cream Palmolive, Charmis in a new pack. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) has launched its new Zig Zag toothbrush. - Colgate India has launched Colgate Navigator toothbrush in India. - The Company has launched the double-action Palmolive shaving cream -- 2-in-1. - The Company has launched the Naturals Line of toilet soaps in transparent bars that come in see-through packaging. 2001 - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched its biggest national-level consumer promotion involving its toothpaste, toothbrush and soaps. - Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. has launched international cleaning product -- Ajax in the Indian household products category for summer. - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd on July 18, announced a special one-time dividend of Rs 4.75 per share. The company said this would entail a total outgo of Rs 123.63 crore including the Rs 11.44 crore tax on dividend. 2002 -Graeme Dalziel, appointed as MD Of Colgate Palmolive India for a period of 5 years -Colgate has hiked its market share from 45.9% to 50.2% in the toothpowder segment with the new strategies of consumer centric promotional initiatives, impactful visibility and an add campaign featuring sunil shetty. -Percept D'Mark has signed a deal with Colgate Palmolive, to offer miniature of cricket stars in the dental pack. -Colgate Palmolive has succeeded in the appeal challenging the MRTP Commission order. -Colgate-Palmolive launched its first miniature collectibles of India's Top Cricketer's 'collect your cricketer' promotion. 2003 -Colagate-Palmolive has divested its stake in its subsidiary Camelot Investment Company. -Colgate has decided to concentrate on its non-oral care division, by launching an international range of Palmolive Aeromatherapy persoanl care products. -Introduced 'Colgate Simply White', at-home teeth whitening gel which is priced at Rs.600 for 10ml. -Colgate has relaunched colgate dental cream with what the company calls a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -The Company commences shipment of the New Superior Colgate Dental Cream -The Herbal range was expanded with the launch of a Herbal White toothpaste for whitening combined with the benefits of Herbal ingredients -Navigator Plus was launched with its unique characteristics as a premium toothbrush -An all new range of Aromatherapy products - Shower Gel, Liquid Hand Wash and Bar Soap in 2 variants each were launched under the Palmolive brand as a major thrust in the Personal Products portfolio - Colgate Palmolive Nepal Ltd a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company has temporarily suspended its operations in view of deterioration in general security situation in Hetauda (Nepal) -Colgate unveils `Simply White' its at-home teeth whitening gel. -Relaunched Colgate Dental Cream with a fresher taste and improved germ-fighting performance. -Mr Peter Dam resigned as Director and Chairman of the Board effective close of business hours on December 31, 2003 consequent upon his transfer to Brazil. -Mr Fabian T Garcia has been appointed as a non-retiring Director and Chairman of the Board effective January 01, 2004 in place of Mr Peter Dam. 2004 -Vikram Kaushik resigns from the Board of Colgate Palmolive India -Colgate-Palmolive launches shower gel variant - Unveils Palmolive Aroma Sensual Shower Gel, enriched with a blend of Orchid extract and pure essential oils of jasmine and rose, the gel is priced at Rs 90 for a 250 ml pack. -Ties up with IDA to creat promote oral health campaign -Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with the dental community. 2005 -Colgate-Palmolive unveils Colgate Active Salt toothpaste -Colgate emerges top brand -Colgate parent to transfer 20-pc stake to Singapore arm 2006 -Colgate enters the fast-growing Naturals segment by purchasing Tom�s of Maine, a leader in that market in the United States. -Colgate-Palmolive conducts free dental check-ups -Colgate Palmolive rolls out Colgate Max Fresh Gel -Colgate to acquire 84 pc shares of Tom's of Maine 2007 - Colgate-Palmolive India, the market leader in toothpaste in India, declared the acquisition of three domestic companies in south India recently 2009 - Colgate Palmolive India Ltd has appointed Mr. Mukul Deoras as Managing Director of the Company. 2010 - Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd has appointed Mr. Paul Alton as the Whole-time Director of the Company effective September 01, 2010, subject to the approvals of the Central Government and Shareholders of the Company. Mr. Alton will head the Finance function and be the Chief Financial Officer of the Company. 2011 - Mr. Niket S. Ghate has been appointed as Vice-President - Legal, Company Secretary & Compliance Officer of the company. 2012 -Colgate retains top spot as most trusted brand. - Dr. (Mrs.) lndu Shahani is been apponted as an Additional Director (Non-Executive Director) of the Company. 2013 -Colgate recognized as Most Social Company- Blueocean Market Intelligence for Economic Times Newspaper. -In the Brand Footprint Report - Colgate topped the charts for brands that consumers reach out the most. 2014 - The Ethical Brand in FMCG Sector was awarded to Colgate - World CSR Congress. -Colgate awarded the Best Supplier of the Year 2013 - Tesco India at their Supplier Conference. -Colgate ranked the No.1 Most Chosen Consumer Brand - In Kantar Worldpanel Brand Footprint Report. -Commencement of Commercial Production of toothpaste. 2015 -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited, has launched Colgate Sensitive Pro-ReliefTM (CSPR) Enamel Repair -Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited recently launched a new television commercial for its popular youth toothpaste brand - Colgate MaxFresh -The Company has allotted the Bonus Shares to its shareholders in the Ratio of 1:1. ogle Translator

最終更新: 2017-02-06
使用頻度: 1
品質:

参照: 匿名
警告:見えない HTML フォーマットが含まれています

英語

विद्वान सेटिंग 1 Students’ Research Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ISSN 2249 - 5835 Sponsored by the University of Calcutta/ www.caluniv.ac.in Summer Issue / June 2012 Vol. 3/No.1 GENDER REFLECTIONS IN MAINSTREAM HINDI CINEMA Nidhi Shendurnikar Tere Junior Resea rch Scholar Department of Political Science, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Gujarat , India Website: http://www.msubaroda.ac.in Email: mailtonidhi@sify.com , Blog: www.68pagesofmylife.blospot.com Abstract : Cinema is meant and believed to entertain, to take the viewer to a world that is starkly different from the real one, a world which provides escape from the daily grind of life. Cinema is a popular media of mass consumption which plays a key role in moulding opinions, constructing images and reinforcing dominant cultural values. The paper deals with representations of women characters in mainstream Bollywood movies. It is deemed appropriate to exami ne this issue because women are a major chunk of the country‟s population and hence their portrayal on screen is crucial in determining the furtherance of already existing stereotypes in the society. The paper begins with a discussion on the field of femin ist film criticism and how mainstream Hindi Cinema has restricted itself to defined sketches of womanhood. It also undertakes some glimpses from popular films to analyse this process of stereotyping the „other‟ – considering that reality in mainstream cine ma is constructed from the male view point. A section is devoted to discussion on contemporary realistic brand of cinema and its understanding of women . In conclusion , a debate ensues on whether mainstream Hindi cinema has been successful in portraying Ind ian women of different shades in a society dominated by patriarchal values. Key Words : Cinema, popular, media, women, Bollywood, movies, stereotypes, feminist, mainstream, patriarchal Feminist Film Criticism The issues of media, identity and gender are being discussed all over today. They have become integral to the discipline of media studies. The reason is the popularity and diversity of media as a source of mass consumption and its influence on constructing ideas and generating debate. The media scene in India has expanded in the recent times as there is a plethora of media choices available to the audiences. Media structures and systems have also undergone a sea change with privatization and globalization. Huge corporations with their own profit motiv es own media houses. Media has been able to transcend borders and look at issues more holistically rather than in the context of nationalism. Hence, these developments are bound to affect the manner in which media scrutinizes and covers any issue – gender being an important one. Women are also major consumers of mass media and thus the way they are represented in media coverage is a major concern for the discipline. Several international forums have recognized the ramifications of such a transformed media e nvironment on women‟s access to media, their role in the media structure and the presentation of their perspective in media coverage. i In this paper, there has been an attempt to examine the relationship between women and popular Hindi cinema. While cinema in India is in itself a diverse strand of expression incorporating mainstream cinema which holds popular appeal, art/parallel cinema that engages with social issues, middle cinema and regional language cinema. The explorations in this paper are limited to mainstream/popular Hindi cinema better known as 2 „Bollywood‟ 1 because such cinema is seen to exercise widespread influence over people and enjoys mass appeal. Popular cinema and culture derive from each other. Films are believed to be the opium of the Indi an masses as people rely on this medium to help them escape to a world of fantasy. ii In a very explicit way, cinema 2 has shaped the cultural, social and political values of people of this country. While, the other forms of cinema are also important when it comes to the representation of women, restricting to popular cinema is the core concern of the paper. The interest in films taken by feminists stems from concern about the under - representation and misrepresentation of women in cinema. It adopts a critical approach towards gender bias on celluloid. The feminist approach to cinema asks a few pertinent questions like how women are represented on screen, how women‟s issues are treated in cinema, what does feminism mean to film - makers, how does the feminist age nda manifest on screen, how is the women character positioned vis a vis the male character and what is the role of women film - makers and women writers in depicting women‟s issues through cinema. iii Feminist critique of cinema has helped to view the reality p resented by cinema in a different way and thus has contributed significantly to the discipline of media studies as well as film studies. Certain underlying aspects of a popular medium can only be brought to surface by criticism, scrutiny and introspection and feminists have attempted to do it with cinema as well as with other fields of study and practice. The links between Women‟s Studies and Cinema are evident. After the women‟s movement, the field of women‟s studies has allied with almost every disciplin e to provide an alternative perspective of knowledge and reality as viewed by the practitioners and academia of the discipline. Feminist theory took up a distinct stance in relation to the objectification, exclusion and silence of women in cinematic narrat ives. It also evaluated the stereotyping of female characters in cinema. For eg: In „Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema‟ (Laura Mulvey, 1975) , the male character was identified as the driver of the film‟s narrative, the character followed by the camera. The female character served as a spectacle to provide pleasure to the male spectator, for which Mulvey used the term „gaze‟ . iv The theory of „Absences and Presences‟ was concerned with the absence of a certain type of female characters in films and the pres ence of the other type, which was seen to be influenced by patriarchal values. Thus feminist theory in its critique of films incorporated the valorisation of women‟s experiences thereby posing a challenge to gender hierarchy as well as opening up new realm s for a post - gendered future. The paper in its ensuing sections will build an argument about the portrayal of women in Hindi cinema based on various strands of f eminist film criticism which have certainly enriched our understanding of women on screen. The Leading Lady’s Sketch Though there exists a body of feminist film making in Hindi cinema, the leading lady of Hindi films has more or less played defined roles which conform to the values upheld by Indian society. Women in Bollywood have been uni - dimensi onal characters, who are good or bad, white or black. There are no shades of grey. This dichotomy was reinforced in popular films which distinguished between the heroine and the vamp, the wife and the other woman. Films have also been inspired to a large e xtent from religion and mythology whereby women characters were seen as the epitome of virtue and values, those who could do no wrong. The image of women as „Sita‟ has been repeatedly evoked in many films after independence. Through the ideas of loyalty an d obedience to the husband, Hindi cinema successfully institutionalized patriarchal values. Films like „Dahej‟ (1950), „Gauri‟ (1968), „Devi‟ (1970), „Biwi ho to Aisi‟ (1988), „Pati Parmeshwar‟ (1988) depicted women as passive, submissive wives as perfect figure s and martyrs for their own families. In these films, though the practices of 1 According to Wikipedia, Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi - language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra . The term is often incorr ectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema ; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing films in regional langua ges . It is one of the largest centers of film production in the world. 2 The term ‘Cinema’ henceforth in this paper will signify mainstream/popular Hindi films

ヒンズー語

विद्वान सेटिंग

最終更新: 2015-08-16
使用頻度: 1
品質:

参照: 匿名

人による翻訳を得て
4,401,923,520 より良い訳文を手にいれましょう

ユーザーが協力を求めています。



ユーザー体験を向上させるために Cookie を使用しています。弊社サイトを引き続きご利用いただくことで、Cookie の使用に同意していただくことになります。 詳細。 OK