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Laatste Update: 2018-05-28
Emerson said, toward the end of his writing career, "I have taught one doctrine, namely, the infinitude of the private man." That's why we begin our study of American transcendentalism with this essay. His basic philosophical faith (one shared by many Americans) is that the ultimate source of truth is within ourselves. We recognize truth outside ourselves, in nature or in others, and the key word here is "recognize," even if only very dimly. We are often not "in touch" with ourselves or trust ourselves enough to find these truths and so must often depend on others, books, etc. to express it for us, but it is somehow within us. Now, there's no particular empirical evidence for this; Emerson is making a great intuitive leap of faith, and you either believe (because you've experienced it to some degree) or you don't. It is this concept of what some critics call the "imperial self" which lies at the heart of romanticism, both positively and negatively. However, this is not necessarily self-centered, because the truth which lies within is universal, shared and recognized by all (if they only knew it) and generated by Self (God, Over-soul, whatever). All we can really know is within us, but we must assume that other people have the same potential as we do--and assume that they do, in fact, exist (although you really can't prove it!) Presumably, trusting oneself means much more than that; it means trusting that somehow or other we have an innate wisdom which is a projection of the god within, and that every person has that wisdom, although few have much access to it. Those few we often call poets and prophets (but never politicians!) and we cherish the insights into our own truths that we glimpse through them. Theoretically, then, to believe in our selves and our deep capacity to understand and recognize truths is to believe in every self, though we have no access to any other self besides us. Practically it may be another matter, but Emerson is a bit of an idealist and not terribly practical (we can't all be everything!) One characteristic of Emerson's essays is the gaps he leaves the reader to fill (or to flounder in); it is probably their greatest strength (because you may personalize what you read) and greatest weakness (it can be confusing). For example, at the beginning of the essay he speaks of verses he has read which are original, but he does not tell you what those verses are. You have to imagine what "original" might be. His emphasis is not on these particular verses, or even the definition of originality in poetry, but a discussion on originality and recognizing your own ability to be original and not imitative. After all, he can't say what would be original for you, could he? But he wants you to imagine what that might be. This will happen repeatedly through the essay. Try your best to fill those blanks in ways that make sense to you and your experience, and if you can't, ignore them and keep going. One problem you may find with this essay is that you feel that he is hitting you over the head with the same idea over and over, like a big hammer labeled "believe in yourself." I'm sure you wished to cry out, "ok Ralphie, I've got it, I've got it!" He makes sure that you consider the implications of this idea in every way possible. It doesn't matter if there are gaps in what you understand; he'll catch up with you somewhere or other in the essay. A little overkill, perhaps. Why? Whom is he trying to convince? Perhaps himself as well as his reader. But the message seems to be one that we all need, especially today when the ever-present media assaults us with ideas and images of how we should live and what we should believe. Remember that we are reading this 150 years later or so. What seemed like a rather novel idea then has deteriorated into a cliche, embedded in just about every self-help "psychology" book in the local mall bookstore that you can find. It is hard for us to see the original force of this in 1838, when people felt far less secure about themselves, as individuals and as Americans (whatever that was). In many ways, this is as much a cultural/intellectual declaration of independence as it is an exhortation to believe in yourself. Its major power today is probably directed toward the younger reader, struggling with the very powerful forces toward conformity that seem endemic in American high schools. However, it also works in a class like this, where I am, in a sense, forcing you to express your ideas and not giving you such an easy way out as taking notes on what wisdom I might have to impart. Emerson had his own personal reasons for writing this. He was deeply insecure in many ways (aren't we all?), and a rather revolutionary speech about religion that he delivered at the Harvard Divinity School about this time (asserting the doctrine of the God within) caused a tremendous uproar and criticism from people he respected. There would be no job for him at Harvard! He had left the ministry a few years earlier and had lost his young wife to tuberculosis after 18 months of marriage. He didn't really have a career at that point; he just had the ideas he believed passionately and thought needed to be heard. He was involved in a very deep career crisis (which many of us can relate to). There simply was no way to earn a living doing what his heart told him that he must do--to write and to speak. Except, as it turned out, there were ways to realize his dream, as long as he didn't lose his faith in himself. The rhetoric of this essay shows signs of his years in the pulpit; it's like he's demanding you to listen and to go out and act. But he may well be exhorting himself just as much as, if not more than, his readers. What he wanted to do--to establish himself a place as a writer and thinker--was extraordinarily difficult to do outside of an institution like the church or the university (so what else has changed!), and it would take all the nerve he could summon. And after all, he was no kid; he was 35 years old and counting. It all sounds so simple: just make up your mind to trust your deepest instincts and go for it! I know it isn't that simple--and in fact, so did Emerson, and seeing the problems inherent in such a personally energizing idea kept him busy writing for some time. If you look carefully, you can see some awareness of this conflict in the essay, but it doesn't really blossom forth for a while. For one thing, he gives a lot of credit to innate goodness, and almost totally ignores the very crucial environmental shaping factors. He and his readers were raised in an extremely "moral" environment, and though they might rebel against church doctrine, they were deeply "indoctrinated" with those moral codes. This is not necessarily the case in the "murder capital of the world"! Another problem is the extreme "masculinity" of the essay--one of his favorite words is "manliness." I can just visualize this very assertive and muscular male as an underlying ideal (was Emerson insecure about that too? Probably, since writers/thinkers/preachers were considered rather feminized by his society, unlike those competitive, money-making businessmen so idealized by his compatriots.) I don't believe that self-trust is a male-marked trait, although I suspect that he does believe it (though, bless his heart, he doesn't really know it!). I know, I'm reading this from my own perspective, but as Emerson would say, isn't that the only way you can read? Actually, I think you can try to place yourself in another context, but that must be a work of imagination to some degree (I can try, anyhow; I'll just substitute woman for man and you can do whatever you like!) Emerson doesn't just keep preaching the same doctrine though, you may be relieved to hear, or at least not with the same simplistic fervour. There is a flip side to this: as exciting and energizing it may be to follow your deepest instincts and do/say what you think is right, it's also depressing to think that maybe all we can know is what is within us. In a sense, we may be imprisoned within our own perceptions and experiences, and can never really know what might be true. We can't even be sure if anyone or anything else exists, because all we can know is what's in our little individual heads. Emerson will come to see this, as well as the many limitations on our power that are imposed by circumstances and environment, which he calls Fate. He gets a lot more interesting when he confronts these conflicting forces. Wouldn't it be nice if all we had to do is "trust ourselves" and follow our own stars? Actually, it's rather amazing what people can accomplish if they do just that. However, that's not the whole story, and Emerson knew it, especially after life dealt him a few more tough blows--like his beloved 5 year old son dying of scarlet fever. Self-reliance can look like a pretty puny doctrine in light of a tragedy like that, but it did sustain him (although perhaps in a modified form).. So the important thing is not whether Emerson is right or wrong here. He's both--and we are to draw from the essay what means the most to us. That's one reason it's written as it is. Buried in there are sentences which strike right to the heart of readers, and suggest all kinds of possibilities for them. For example, many students trying to see their way ahead in life have found great comfort in this metaphor: The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks. See the line from a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself, and will explain your other genuine actions. You could interpret this in several ways. When you look at your life, especially when you are young, if you follow your "inner gyroscope" and do things and take courses that just "feel right," it might look to others (parents in particular) as if you just can't make up your mind and are zigzagging all over the place. The coherence will be an inner one, perhaps not even visible to you, but over time, it will probably make sense, just as you have to zigzag when sailing to reach a point most directly. One difference, of course, is that you (unlike the sailor) often haven't a clue where or what that "point" might be, and have to trust that by following your instincts and strengths, you'll actually reach some kind of point. I find that rather profound, as I look at my own life, and the decisions that I made that didn't make a lot of sense, perhaps, to others and seemed inconsistent, but that were in fact quite consistent with who I was and what I wanted to be, although I hadn't a clue what that might be (I never dreamed I'd end up teaching, etc.!) OK, that's my personal testimony (although I'll admit, I cruised past that passage when I was in college and needed to read it most)--you'll have your own, I imagine. If you'll be patient with Emerson (and his vocabulary and greater reading knowledge), he is likely to speak very personally to you, if not on this reading then maybe on another. Besides, just think of all the money you can save on those self-help books and therapy groups by going right to the source! ;
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Laatste Update: 2015-05-24
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Facebook! Sounds like “air, water and food”, right, without which you cannot survive?! Facebook, a social networking site, founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates, has developed from being limited to only the Harvard students to almost every person’s part of life in the world. The ease with which Facebook is used makes it No.1 in the field of social networking. If you are interested in knowing the history of Facebook then have a look it’s already there. Suggested Reading : Facebook Launches Hashtags To Its Service It is a common platform for everybody including people of all ages, religions, professions, interests, needs and many more. It binds people across the oceans and surely, you must have felt a sense of self-importance whenever you got a “like” on anything you share on Facebook. You know, there are more than 900 million Facebook users other than you. People are crazily connecting with anybody and everybody through this network and doing anything and everything through this networking site. It is the diversity of ways in which Facebook is used that has made everyone to “like” and “share” each others works. You can chat, play games, advertise, organize, show your interests, have a personal as well as a public or a limited audience talk with other people. Now, though it seems fascinating but it still has some drawbacks. ADVANTAGES Let us first consider some advantages of being a Facebook user. To connect with family, friends, work and colleges group It is the latest medium of connecting with your dear ones. You can even customize the settings to be “offline” or “online” for some selected ones and still chat with them easily. Facebook conversation does not even require money which is sometimes a reason for some people for not calling up their pals. Information Since you connect globally here, you get the news of the world. There are some pages and communities that are created on Facebook to keep a track of the latest updates in any specific field like sports, educational, political entertainment etc. Information about the people across the seas as well as the ones near you are also readily available to you. Whatever happens in anybody’s life they tend to update it through their “status”, or photographs. So, you are there and then informed about any such updates and thus Facebook proves to be very informative. Entertainment There are many ways in which Facebook can be used as a source of entertainment. First of all, the gossips that you have with your friends is the biggest way that could never leave you to bore. Then, there are videos of your interests, lots of interactive games, applications and quizes for fun. You can even invite your Facebook pals to play games or take the quizes. To find a date You have the freedom to browse the profiles of other people on Facebook until and unless they have not customized and hidden it from the public. Your access to their profiles can help you find people of your interests and you can easily send a “friend request” to them OR send a private message. So, if you describe yourself in a charming fashion in your profile, someone might wish to be your date! ;) Image and Video hosting You can use facebook to host your images and videos. You get a direct download link of whatever you upload. There is unlimited hosting and unlimited bandwidth. Facebook provides this free of cost, whereas other websites offer this service with limited bandwidth, and there are some that have this service a paid one. So, this is for a big benefit for all the bloggers and website owners.Right! Business Promotion Facebook is an intelligent place to market your products. The immensely increasing facebook users can be your future potential customers. Marketers can create a page for their products where they can have the images, videos and detailed descriptions about the products. The users will visit this page more than the official site of your products to get issues resolved and thus, this is a very good way to reach out to your customers. To find a job Through facebook you can easily contact the manager or create professional contacts with any number of hiring people. Keep updating your status regularly about your job requirements and someone will surely come up to help you. Video calling The tool for video calling of Facebook helps you to have a normal video chat, as the name specifies. Your distant relatives and friends can easily come close to you, as you are in front of each other “live”…. Many a times, you can have an interview or meeting with your professional counterparts and thus it helps in establishing relationships. As personal portfolio If you are an artist, then create a page for yourself and then create a portfolio where you can display your art and maintain the collection. A portfolio of all the memorable snaps can also be uploaded so that they are there as a backup. Social protest Facebook is such a powerful weapon that any kind of social issue can gain momentum and can create a wave of enthusiasm amongst the people that any other media cannot, in a short time. DISADVANTAGES Now, as we know that excess of anything is bad, Facebook also has some disadvantages that you need to take care of. Let us have a look. Breach to privacy and personal info Whatever safety measures you take to protect your profile, there will always be some hackers and stalkers looking to enter your profile and do unwanted things. Your personal photographs and videos that you upload can be easily stolen by them. So, it is better not to give too private information on the profile and not share pics that are too personal. Personal status published publicly just to seek attention It is a human tendency that people take more interest in others lives rather than their own. The same applies to Facebook too. Maximum of the people post their personal status publicly so that they can seek the attention of others. This misleads people and wastes a lot of time getting involved in such a thing. Fake Facebook profiles Sometimes people create fake profiles just for fun or to stalk on other people. There are millions of fake profiles existing there because some strange people create profiles for a non-human entity such as their “pets”. Many people enter into online personal relationships with wrong persons and that could lead to their ruin. People try to pose as someone else and try to fool others. Some businessmen add their own-created Facebook friends so as to show their customers how much they are in demand. This makes it very difficult for people who really desire to be safe on Facebook. Writing worthless things Facebook does not stop anyone from writing anything on places like “walls” of their own or their friends, comments, messages etc. This tends to waste a lot of time because many a times these kinds of things uselessly attract the attention of others and they cannot stop themselves from reading it and actually taking part in the conversation. Time consuming Facebook is an addiction. Once you join it, you are likely to spend most of your free time doing something or the other on Facebook. And it does not stops here. Some people even start compromising their family get-togethers and professional meetings for this Facebook. CONCLUSION Ultimately, you are the user. So, it depends on the way you use it that Facebook proves to be a Friend or an Enemy to you. Use it wisely and safely, so that at least the good purpose of Facebook is not lost. Read more at http://techsmaz.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-facebook-a-discussion/#AiD9XZUsHEA4QreA.99
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Laatste Update: 2014-12-09