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Engels

Constructions

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Konstruksi

Laatste Update: 2010-06-01
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Referentie: Wikipedia

Engels

The development of building construction today has started to develop over time, and in the rapid development of development began many emerging Designers of buildings or the so-called architects, one of which is an architect from Iraq, namely Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid, a woman first and the first Muslim who won the Pritzker Architecture award, won it in 2004.

Indonesisch

Salah satu karya nya yaitu ‘The Opus’ yang berletak di Dubai. Bangunan ini memiliki ciri khas, di bagian tengah bangunan ini memiliki lubang cukup besar dengan bentuk yang tidak simetris.

Laatste Update: 2018-05-15
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Referentie: Anoniem

Engels

Construction of infrastructures on peat land is a very challenging task due to its properties of low shear strength, high compressibility and high water content. This paper summarizes various solutions which could be adopted for the construction of infrastructure on peat, as reviewed by the experts and panels during IConCEES International Workshop 2015. Engineers could (a) avoid peat, such as to transfer the load to the hard layers through end bearing piles or to replace the peat with the other soils, or (b) construct on peat with special precautions, such as by reducing the weight of the construction materials and dewatering the peat to improve the engineering properties. This paper serves to generate new ideas and give insights of the problems commonly encountered by the industry. Some of the proposed solutions might never be tested on peat. This would rely on the researchers to take up the challenge to further investigate and address the technical issues outlined in this paper.

Indonesisch

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Engels

other purposes of the great wall have included border controls ,allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the silk road ,regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of imigration and emigration.Furthermore,the defensive characteristics of the great wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers,troop barracks,garrison stations,signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire,and the fact that the path of the great wall also served as a transportation corridor.

Indonesisch

QUERY LENGTH LIMIT EXCEDEED. MAX ALLOWED QUERY : 500 CHARS

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Engels

1 00:00:07,280 --> 00:00:12,400 Painting of a Gothic castle, artist unknown, circa 1920s. 2 00:00:12,760 --> 00:00:17,959 Oil on canvas, 20-by-28. Miss Franklin, where did you say you got this? 3 00:00:18,120 --> 00:00:23,638 I inherited it a few months ago. But it's been in my family for generations. 4 00:00:24,120 --> 00:00:27,157 The composition is so unusual. 5 00:00:27,320 --> 00:00:30,073 The artist used pure colour straight from the tube and then varnished 6 00:00:30,240 --> 00:00:33,994 - each layer over and... - I'm sorry for interrupting. 7 00:00:34,200 --> 00:00:35,997 But do I really need to be here? 8 00:00:36,160 --> 00:00:40,517 No, of course not. It's just that most people prefer to be at an appraisal, 9 00:00:40,680 --> 00:00:42,591 especially when they plan on selling the piece. 10 00:00:42,760 --> 00:00:46,036 - It's just that I'm kind of in a hurry. - Say no more. 11 00:00:46,200 --> 00:00:49,272 Just sign at the bottom, and you are free to go. 12 00:00:49,440 --> 00:00:53,353 Thank you. So how long do you think it'll take to sell it? 13 00:00:53,560 --> 00:00:56,632 Well, I'll need to see ownership records before I can do anything. 14 00:00:56,800 --> 00:01:00,076 I'll send you everything I have. So is that all, then? 15 00:01:00,240 --> 00:01:02,071 No, since you definitely wanna sell the piece, 16 00:01:02,240 --> 00:01:05,152 I'll need to confirm its authenticity, its physical condition. 17 00:01:05,320 --> 00:01:07,151 So if you'll just sign at the bottom, 18 00:01:07,360 --> 00:01:09,157 that will let us go ahead and x-ray the piece. 19 00:01:09,760 --> 00:01:11,751 Done. 20 00:01:12,240 --> 00:01:14,754 - Anything else? - Um... 21 00:01:15,320 --> 00:01:18,949 Well, yes, Miss Franklin. I would really like the time to research this. 22 00:01:19,160 --> 00:01:21,037 That way I can get you the best price. 23 00:01:21,200 --> 00:01:26,194 Look, I appreciate your professionalism. I really do. 24 00:01:26,360 --> 00:01:28,920 But I'm not interested in getting the best price. 25 00:01:29,080 --> 00:01:33,835 I just want you to sell that painting as soon as you can, all right? 26 00:01:34,840 --> 00:01:37,149 - Good night, Miss Halliwell. - Good night. 27 00:01:47,920 --> 00:01:50,832 Piper, it was an accident. It's not like I borrowed Prue's car 28 00:01:51,040 --> 00:01:53,679 - so I could drive it into a pole. - How bad's the damage? 29 00:01:53,840 --> 00:01:56,638 Not bad, but maybe expensive, which is why I need a favour. 30 00:01:56,800 --> 00:01:59,439 If you're calling to borrow money, I don't have any. 31 00:02:00,000 --> 00:02:04,152 No, it's not about money. It's just... I don't want you to tell Prue. 32 00:02:04,320 --> 00:02:07,517 She's been so supportive, and I don't wanna lose her trust again. 33 00:02:07,680 --> 00:02:11,116 - You mean you haven't told her? - Well, not yet, but I have a plan. 34 00:02:11,280 --> 00:02:12,508 Phoebe, you have to tell her. 35 00:02:12,680 --> 00:02:14,955 It's her car, and you don't have the money to fix it. 36 00:02:15,120 --> 00:02:17,759 But I will have the money to fix it. I'm at this company called 37 00:02:17,920 --> 00:02:20,912 Web San Francisco. It's an interactive network on the Internet. 38 00:02:21,120 --> 00:02:22,678 And I faxed them my résumé this morning, 39 00:02:22,840 --> 00:02:24,398 and they wanna meet with me tonight. 40 00:02:24,560 --> 00:02:26,869 I've gotta go, but I don't wanna be in the middle of this. 41 00:02:27,040 --> 00:02:30,077 - Just tell her, okay? - If I don't get the job, I will tell her. 42 00:02:34,120 --> 00:02:35,792 [SIGHS] 43 00:02:47,720 --> 00:02:51,998 Hello, I'm Phoebe Halliwell. I have an appointment. 44 00:02:55,120 --> 00:02:56,439 Thanks. 45 00:02:57,080 --> 00:03:00,231 All these people, they're here for the interview too, aren't they? 46 00:03:00,440 --> 00:03:03,034 Well, you won't have any trouble with this if you figured that out. 47 00:03:03,200 --> 00:03:06,158 It's an aptitude test. You can finish it at home. 48 00:03:06,320 --> 00:03:08,072 Great. Great. 49 00:03:12,560 --> 00:03:15,358 APPLICANT 1: You won a fellowship from the National Science Foundation? 50 00:03:15,520 --> 00:03:17,636 When I was at Harvard, yeah. How'd you know? 51 00:03:17,840 --> 00:03:20,912 I saw it on your résumé. I was cum laude also. 52 00:03:21,080 --> 00:03:22,832 APPLICANT 1: Except I was a Ford Foundation scholar. 53 00:03:23,080 --> 00:03:25,389 So then you must have gone to Stanford? 54 00:03:25,640 --> 00:03:27,392 Stanford? I went to Stanford. 55 00:03:29,080 --> 00:03:30,752 APPLICANT 2: Intimidating, isn't it? 56 00:03:31,120 --> 00:03:33,350 The Good Will Huntings or this aptitude test? 57 00:03:33,560 --> 00:03:37,189 Oh, who cares about linear algebra or differential? And that test is a snap. 58 00:03:37,360 --> 00:03:39,191 I mean, in this day and age, who can't write 59 00:03:39,360 --> 00:03:41,555 in HTML and numeric languages, right? 60 00:03:41,720 --> 00:03:42,709 [CHUCKLING] 61 00:03:42,880 --> 00:03:43,869 Right. 62 00:03:45,840 --> 00:03:49,833 Yeah, that's... That's for you. 63 00:04:04,800 --> 00:04:06,631 What? 64 00:04:13,680 --> 00:04:15,352 Oh... 65 00:05:41,720 --> 00:05:45,156 At first I just thought that it was a reflection off of something in the room. 66 00:05:45,400 --> 00:05:48,119 But then when I moved closer, I saw a man 67 00:05:48,280 --> 00:05:50,589 inside the painting, in the castle. 68 00:05:50,760 --> 00:05:54,958 Right, but the moment I saw him, he backed away from the window. 69 00:05:55,160 --> 00:05:58,436 And then there was this strange glow that went past the window again. 70 00:05:58,600 --> 00:06:00,591 It was just so... 71 00:06:02,320 --> 00:06:03,878 - Piper? - What? 72 00:06:04,960 --> 00:06:08,509 - We were talking? - I know, about a man in a painting. 73 00:06:08,720 --> 00:06:12,110 Listen to this one. "Hallway near club entrance too narrow." 74 00:06:12,280 --> 00:06:14,430 I thought that we had discussed your code violations. 75 00:06:14,600 --> 00:06:15,953 Well, I keep finding more. 76 00:06:16,120 --> 00:06:18,509 The plumbing, the electrical, the heating. 77 00:06:18,680 --> 00:06:20,830 - It... None of it is up to code. - Stop. 78 00:06:21,880 --> 00:06:24,440 - You're obsessing. - Well, it runs in the family. 79 00:06:25,040 --> 00:06:26,678 I don't obsess. 80 00:06:27,480 --> 00:06:32,349 I think intensely. Anyway, I can't really help it. 81 00:06:32,560 --> 00:06:35,552 I mean, we've seen so many bizarre things, why not a man in a painting? 82 00:06:35,720 --> 00:06:37,472 At least he's safe from building inspectors. 83 00:06:37,720 --> 00:06:40,109 I can't imagine that castle's up to code. 84 00:06:40,280 --> 00:06:43,556 I'm sorry, but I couldn't find anything in the Book of Shadows about people 85 00:06:43,720 --> 00:06:46,951 who may be trapped inside paintings. I looked everywhere. 86 00:06:47,440 --> 00:06:51,877 Hey, you were asleep by the time I got home. How did your interview go? 87 00:06:54,160 --> 00:06:55,752 It went fine. 88 00:06:56,000 --> 00:07:00,073 Actually, it's still going. I have to finish this take-home aptitude test, 89 00:07:00,240 --> 00:07:02,674 which I actually think I will start right now. 90 00:07:02,840 --> 00:07:05,149 So I will see you guys later. 91 00:07:05,360 --> 00:07:06,713 - Phoebe? PHOEBE: What? 92 00:07:06,880 --> 00:07:09,553 Aren't you forgetting something? My car keys? 93 00:07:13,400 --> 00:07:15,868 They'd be with your car... 94 00:07:16,880 --> 00:07:20,395 ...which is at the body shop, having an estimate. 95 00:07:20,960 --> 00:07:25,909 - An estimate? - Yeah, I bumped... 96 00:07:26,320 --> 00:07:30,598 No, actually I backed your car into a pole last night. 97 00:07:31,440 --> 00:07:33,158 A pole? 98 00:07:34,320 --> 00:07:35,548 You hit a pole? 99 00:07:35,720 --> 00:07:38,314 Yeah, you don't even have to say it. I know what you're thinking. 100 00:07:38,480 --> 00:07:41,836 How could I be so irresponsible? How could I be so stupid? 101 00:07:42,240 --> 00:07:46,518 Okay, irresponsible, yes. Stupid, no way. Where is that coming from? 102 00:07:46,680 --> 00:07:48,830 It's coming from the fact that I'm the youngest sister, 103 00:07:49,000 --> 00:07:51,958 the one who always makes mistakes, the one who always causes problems. 104 00:07:52,120 --> 00:07:54,793 I mean, if anybody were gonna back your car into a pole 105 00:07:54,960 --> 00:07:57,030 and not tell you right away, it'd be me, right? 106 00:07:57,880 --> 00:08:00,758 - I think I'll just be going now. - See? Even the middle sister, 107 00:08:00,920 --> 00:08:03,912 the one that's supposed to stay neutral when it comes to family problems, 108 00:08:04,080 --> 00:08:06,799 - checks out on this one. - Yes, you're right. You're on your own. 109 00:08:06,960 --> 00:08:09,428 Well, leave me out of it too. I don't wanna argue with you. 110 00:08:09,600 --> 00:08:12,956 - I just wanna find a cab. - Well, whatever it costs, 111 00:08:13,120 --> 00:08:15,680 I will pay for the damages. And whatever the cab costs, 112 00:08:15,840 --> 00:08:17,592 I will pay for that too. 113 00:08:20,760 --> 00:08:23,877 - What just happened here? - I don't know anything about anything. 114 00:08:24,080 --> 00:08:26,150 - I'm gonna go see Dan. - Piper! 115 00:08:26,320 --> 00:08:29,835 Just forget about the car. What about the man in the painting? 116 00:08:30,200 --> 00:08:34,352 Well, unless he's real and screaming for help, forget about him. 117 00:08:34,520 --> 00:08:37,353 We shouldn't go looking for trouble. We have enough around here. 118 00:08:37,960 --> 00:08:40,110 I'm going next door. 119 00:08:48,680 --> 00:08:50,671 - Dan. - Good morning. 120 00:08:50,880 --> 00:08:53,792 - I'm sorry to bother you. - No, you're not bothering me, unless 121 00:08:54,080 --> 00:08:57,550 - you refuse to hand over my paper. - Oh, all yours. 122 00:08:57,720 --> 00:09:01,952 - Thanks. You wanna come in? - No, no, really, 123 00:09:02,160 --> 00:09:05,232 I just stopped by to ask a quick favour. My club received a visit 124 00:09:05,400 --> 00:09:07,755 - from the DBI last night... - And you got code violations. 125 00:09:07,960 --> 00:09:10,679 I have the War and Peace of code violations. 126 00:09:10,880 --> 00:09:14,475 And you were thinking what? Neighbour Dan, he's in construction, 127 00:09:14,880 --> 00:09:18,031 - maybe he could help, huh? - Of course I'd pay you something. 128 00:09:18,640 --> 00:09:21,916 JENNY: Uncle Dan, I'm late. Hey, Piper. - Hi, Jenny. 129 00:09:22,080 --> 00:09:26,517 See you later, Uncle Dan. And don't forget your promise. 130 00:09:27,920 --> 00:09:32,198 Okay, then, I'll tell you what I can do. I'll check out the code violations, 131 00:09:32,360 --> 00:09:35,272 see how serious they really are if you will help me with the promise 132 00:09:35,440 --> 00:09:38,159 - I made Jenny. - Deal. Wait, what's the promise? 133 00:09:38,320 --> 00:09:42,199 She needs help with a paper. It's... It's for bio class. You know, something 134 00:09:42,400 --> 00:09:46,473 - with the human reproductive system. - Oh, you mean sex. 135 00:09:47,440 --> 00:09:50,477 It's just way too awkward for me to talk to my niece about. 136 00:09:50,680 --> 00:09:54,309 Yeah. Sure, not to worry, I have plenty of experience. 137 00:09:54,880 --> 00:10:00,398 - Really? With sex? - No, I mean, talking about it. 138 00:10:02,880 --> 00:10:04,279 Yeah. 139 00:10:07,920 --> 00:10:09,876 So was there a problem with any 140 00:10:10,040 --> 00:10:11,792 of the ownership records that I sent over? 141 00:10:11,960 --> 00:10:13,632 No, everything's in order. 142 00:10:13,960 --> 00:10:15,916 Then I'm not sure why you wanted to meet with me. 143 00:10:16,080 --> 00:10:19,550 Look, Miss Franklin, I know that you don't really wanna be here, 144 00:10:19,720 --> 00:10:25,078 so I'll just be perfectly honest. There is something strange about that painting. 145 00:10:26,160 --> 00:10:28,549 - Have you seen him? - Him? 146 00:10:29,200 --> 00:10:32,590 - That's how it all starts, you know. - What do you mean? 147 00:10:32,760 --> 00:10:36,070 At first, you see him... 148 00:10:37,400 --> 00:10:38,799 ...the man inside the painting. 149 00:10:39,760 --> 00:10:45,039 At least you think you see him, but he just... He disappears so fast. 150 00:10:46,720 --> 00:10:49,951 And you start to think about it, but it doesn't make any sense. I mean, 151 00:10:51,200 --> 00:10:56,035 how could a man be inside a painting? And then you see him again. 152 00:10:56,560 --> 00:10:58,596 This time longer. 153 00:11:01,600 --> 00:11:03,352 And now you're sure. 154 00:11:03,520 --> 00:11:06,318 So you think that the painting is haunted by a ghost? 155 00:11:07,000 --> 00:11:11,312 Oh, no, no, I think he's definitely alive. 156 00:11:12,120 --> 00:11:14,588 I think he's trapped inside. 157 00:11:16,120 --> 00:11:19,590 - Do you know who he is? - No, I have no idea. 158 00:11:20,600 --> 00:11:22,272 Nobody does. 159 00:11:23,960 --> 00:11:27,748 Look, all I know is that if I don't get rid of that painting, 160 00:11:28,000 --> 00:11:30,878 I'm gonna end up just like everybody else in my family who ever owned it. 161 00:11:31,080 --> 00:11:33,071 - I'm gonna be completely insane. - Miss Franklin... 162 00:11:33,240 --> 00:11:35,196 No, you've only seen the beginning, Miss Halliwell. 163 00:11:35,400 --> 00:11:39,712 Just trust me when I tell you it's only gonna get worse. 164 00:11:48,880 --> 00:11:54,318 Spirits send the words from all... 165 00:11:54,480 --> 00:11:55,469 [KNOCKING] 166 00:11:55,640 --> 00:11:57,278 PIPER: It's me. Can I come in? 167 00:11:57,440 --> 00:11:59,795 Piper, I really just wanna be alone right now. 168 00:11:59,960 --> 00:12:02,633 I won't stay long, promise. 169 00:12:03,560 --> 00:12:05,630 All right, just give me a sec. 170 00:12:10,120 --> 00:12:11,394 Okay, you can come in now. 171 00:12:15,880 --> 00:12:19,998 I just wanted to tell you the body shop called. 172 00:12:20,440 --> 00:12:22,351 Yeah, I know, I heard the message, 1,200 bucks. 173 00:12:22,520 --> 00:12:25,876 - Did you tell Prue? - I didn't have to. She already knew. 174 00:12:26,040 --> 00:12:27,473 She called the body shop herself. 175 00:12:27,640 --> 00:12:29,551 That's why I have got to get this job, Piper. 176 00:12:29,760 --> 00:12:31,796 It's the only way that I could pay for the damages. 177 00:12:32,000 --> 00:12:33,558 The only way I can make things right. 178 00:12:33,760 --> 00:12:35,637 All the more reason you just should've told her. 179 00:12:35,840 --> 00:12:38,274 Okay, well, maybe a smarter person would've figured that out. 180 00:12:38,600 --> 00:12:42,036 Then again, a smart person wouldn't have backed the car into a pole. 181 00:12:42,280 --> 00:12:45,272 A smart person would've realised that it was a $1,200 pole. 182 00:12:45,480 --> 00:12:49,837 That's because smart people don't do stupid things, only stupid people do. 183 00:12:50,000 --> 00:12:52,719 - Phoebe, I didn't mean to upset you. - I know. 184 00:12:53,080 --> 00:12:56,277 - Maybe we should just talk later. - Okay. 185 00:12:57,560 --> 00:13:00,677 - You sure you're gonna be okay? - Yeah. Why? 186 00:13:00,840 --> 00:13:03,479 Phoebe, I know you think getting this job is the answer, but please, 187 00:13:03,640 --> 00:13:06,438 - just don't do anything... - What, stupid? 188 00:13:06,600 --> 00:13:09,672 No, just don't do anything I wouldn't do. 189 00:13:11,880 --> 00:13:13,677 Don't worry, I won't. 190 00:13:17,360 --> 00:13:19,669 You would never cast a smart spell. 191 00:13:20,920 --> 00:13:21,955 Okay. 192 00:13:24,400 --> 00:13:27,756 For 24 hours, from 7 to 7, I will understand all meaning 193 00:13:28,040 --> 00:13:33,717 of the words from here to heaven. 194 00:13:42,680 --> 00:13:45,831 Spirits, send the words From all across the land 195 00:13:46,000 --> 00:13:49,390 Allow me to absorb them Through the touch of either hand 196 00:13:49,560 --> 00:13:51,630 For 23 hours, from 7 to 7 197 00:13:51,800 --> 00:13:56,351 I will understand all meaning Of the words from here to heaven 198 00:13:57,040 --> 00:13:59,508 Oh, and P.S., there will be no personal gain. 199 00:14:17,120 --> 00:14:20,317 Abaca, strong fibre obtained from a banana leaf. 200 00:14:20,480 --> 00:14:24,473 Zygote, a cell formed by the union of two gametes. 201 00:14:27,080 --> 00:14:28,672 Cool. 202 00:14:33,120 --> 00:14:36,430 - Hey, Joe, that was fast. JOE: No line at the x-ray machine. 203 00:14:36,640 --> 00:14:38,756 So did the x-ray confirm its authenticity? 204 00:14:38,920 --> 00:14:41,354 It did a lot more than that. Check out the x-ray. 205 00:14:41,520 --> 00:14:43,715 It's got definitive underwriting on the canvas. 206 00:14:44,200 --> 00:14:47,033 - It has a pentimento? - Yeah, I couldn't believe it either. 207 00:14:47,280 --> 00:14:50,636 But you can see it on the x-ray. The text is in Latin. 208 00:14:50,840 --> 00:14:53,308 I've never seen anything like it before. 209 00:14:53,640 --> 00:14:57,872 "Absolvo, amitto, amplus, brevis." 210 00:14:58,240 --> 00:15:03,394 - To free what is lost say these words. - Wow, you speak Latin? 211 00:15:04,160 --> 00:15:08,039 - Yes. Good night, Joe. - Okay. 212 00:15:08,240 --> 00:15:10,595 Well, why don't I just return the painting to the vault, 213 00:15:10,760 --> 00:15:12,034 say, tomorrow. 214 00:15:12,240 --> 00:15:14,117 - Good idea. - Okay. 215 00:15:25,600 --> 00:15:27,192 "Help." 216 00:15:31,760 --> 00:15:33,557 Okay. 217 00:15:36,680 --> 00:15:40,958 "Semper mea." Mine forever. 218 00:15:43,400 --> 00:15:48,030 Absolvo amitto amplus brevis. Semper mea. 219 00:15:51,600 --> 00:15:53,033 Oh, no. 220 00:15:54,000 --> 00:15:55,831 Oh! Oh! 221 00:16:12,720 --> 00:16:14,597 [GASPING] 222 00:16:17,040 --> 00:16:18,837 Who's there? 223 00:16:19,880 --> 00:16:20,869 [SCREAMS] 224 00:16:21,040 --> 00:16:22,837 - Quick, follow me! - What? 225 00:16:23,040 --> 00:16:25,076 This way. Ladies first. 226 00:16:27,280 --> 00:16:28,918 I see you read Latin too. 227 00:16:29,200 --> 00:16:30,679 Okay, what has happened? Where am I? 228 00:16:30,840 --> 00:16:32,353 - You're in the castle. - Where is that? 229 00:16:32,520 --> 00:16:35,432 - Inside a painting. - I'm trapped inside a painting? 230 00:16:35,640 --> 00:16:38,108 Yes, and if you don't get to that bookcase, you're dead. 231 00:16:38,920 --> 00:16:40,353 Who are you? 232 00:16:40,600 --> 00:16:43,398 My name's Malcolm, and you were supposed to help me, not join me. 233 00:16:43,600 --> 00:16:44,589 Who are you anyway? 234 00:16:44,760 --> 00:16:46,478 My name is Prue, and I was helping you. 235 00:16:46,640 --> 00:16:49,837 - You were supposed to come out. - Great, now we're both trapped. Hurry! 236 00:16:52,880 --> 00:16:54,950 What the hell? What are you? How'd you do that? 237 00:16:55,160 --> 00:16:57,879 Oh, okay, never mind. We're gonna get killed. Will you hurry up? 238 00:17:04,040 --> 00:17:05,029 [MEOWING] 239 00:17:05,200 --> 00:17:06,952 Hi, Phoebe. You're up early. What's up? 240 00:17:07,120 --> 00:17:10,874 Oh, the Dow Jones, housing prices and the space shuttle Discovery. 241 00:17:11,040 --> 00:17:14,032 - Huh? - Read the paper. 242 00:17:14,280 --> 00:17:16,919 Oh. Um... 243 00:17:17,080 --> 00:17:19,116 - Have you seen Prue this morning? - Not yet. 244 00:17:19,320 --> 00:17:21,959 Oh, Dan just called, said he'd meet you at the club at noon. 245 00:17:22,360 --> 00:17:23,634 Okay. 246 00:17:23,840 --> 00:17:26,354 - Did you hear her come in last night? - Nope. 247 00:17:26,800 --> 00:17:28,711 PIPER: This is really strange. 248 00:17:28,880 --> 00:17:29,915 [CAT MEOWING] 249 00:17:

Indonesisch

the video player

Laatste Update: 2016-04-06
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Referentie: Anoniem
Waarschuwing: Bevat onzichtbare HTML-opmaak

Engels

A large number of Haitians cross the border on a daily basis, usually illegally, to look for work as construction workers or to work as street vendors selling fruit, candy or other small, inexpensive items.

Indonesisch

Banyak masyarakat Haiti yang menyebrang ke Dominika sehari-harinya, biasanya secara ilegal, untuk mencari kerja sebagai pekerja bangunan atau penjual buah di pinggir, permen atau barang-barang kecil dan murah lainnya.

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Referentie: Anoniem

Engels

A lot of us know Saeed; those of us whose work involves the construction and understanding of web design.

Indonesisch

Banyak dari kami yang mengenal Saeed; kami yang pekerjaannya meliputi pembuatan dan pemahaman desain web.

Laatste Update: 2016-02-24
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A short documentary on the Macedonian graffiti scene in the context of the state-sponsored art/construction boom, made by two female scientists and bloggers-Vasilka Dimitrovska and Ilina Jakimovska-has been shown at the renowned archeological conference Buffalo TAG 2012.

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Sebuah film dokumenter pendek pada adegan grafiti Makedonia dalam konteks seni yang disponsori negara/ ledakan konstruksi, dibuat oleh dua ilmuwan dan narablog-Vasilka Dimitrovska dan Ilina Jakimovska–telah dipertunjukkan pada konferensi arkeologi terkenal Buffalo TAG 2012.

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Another user also agreed that the authorities should be held accountable for their decision to keep the grandiose construction work going.

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Pengguna lainnya juga sepakat bahwa otoritas yang berwenang harus dianggap bertanggung jawab atas keputusannya membiarkan pekerjaan konstruksi muluknya tetap berjalan.

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Multi-Billion Construction Work Kills 107 Pilgrims in Mecca Just Weeks Before Hajj · Global Voices

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Konstruksi Multi-Miliar Menewaskan 107 Jemaah di Mekkah Seminggu Sebelum Haji

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On Thursday 29 September, 2011, President Sarkozy of France visited Morocco to oversee the launch of construction work on a new TGV rail link between the cities of Tangier and Casablanca.

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Kamis 29 September, 2011, Presiden Prancis Sarkozy mengunjungi Maroko untuk memantau peluncuran proyek jalur kereta TGV yang akan menghubungkan kota Tangier dan Casablanca.

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When a red and white construction crane collapsed into Mecca's Grand Mosque on Friday, it killed 107 people and injured 238 others as of 12:40 a.m. local time, the Saudi Civil Defence reported on social media.

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Sebuah derek konstruksi berwarna merah dan putih ambruk menimpa Masjidil Haram pada hari Jumat, menewaskan 107 orang dan sedikitnya mencederai 238 lainnya terhitung pada pukul 12:40 AM waktu setempat, begitu dilaporkan otoritas pertahanan sipil Arab Saudi di media sosial.

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You wake up each day on the dirt floor of a shack you and your family lashed together with cast-off materials from a nearby construction site for a five-star hotel.

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Anda bangun setiap hari di lantai beralaskan tanah di dalam sebuah gubuk yang anda dan keluarga anda dirikan dari material sisa berasal dari situs konstruksi hotel bintang lima terdekat.

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Robert Watson-Watt From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sir Robert Watson-Watt Born Robert Alexander Watson-Watt 13 April 1892 Brechin, Angus, Scotland, UK Died 5 December 1973 (aged 81) Inverness, Scotland, UK Known for Radar Notable awards • Hughes Medal (1948) • Elliott Cresson Medal (1957) • Fellow of the Royal Society[1] • KCB • FRAeS Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, KCB, FRS, FRAeS (13 April 1892 – 5 December 1973) was a pioneer and significant contributor to the development of radar. Radar was initially nameless and researched elsewhere but it was greatly expanded on 1 September 1936 when Watson-Watt became Superintendent of a new establishment under the Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station near Felixstowe, Suffolk. Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called Chain Home along the east and south coasts of England in time for the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. This system provided the vital advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain.[1][2] Contents • 1 Early years • 2 Early experiments • 3 RADAR o 3.1 The air defence problem o 3.2 Aircraft detection and location o 3.3 Civil Service trade union activities • 4 Contribution to Second World War • 5 Honours • 6 Legacy • 7 Family life • 8 References • 9 Sources • 10 External links Early years Born in Brechin, Angus, Scotland, on 13 April 1892 Watson-Watt (the hyphenated name is used herein for consistency, although this was not adopted until 1942)[3] was a descendant of James Watt, the famous engineer and inventor of the practical steam engine. After attending Damacre Primary School and Brechin High School,[4] he was accepted to University College, Dundee (then part of the University of St Andrews but became the University of Dundee in 1967). Watt had a successful time as a student, winning the Carnelley Prize for Chemistry and a class medal for Ordinary Natural Philosophy in 1910.[5] He graduated with a BSc in engineering in 1912, and was offered an assistantship by Professor William Peddie, the holder of the Chair of Physics at University College, Dundee from 1907 to 1942. It was Peddie who encouraged Watson-Watt to study radio, or "wireless telegraphy" as it was then known and who took him through what was effectively a postgraduate class of one on the physics of radio frequency oscillators and wave propagation. At the start of the Great War Watson-Watt was working as an assistant in the College's Engineering Department.[6] Early experiments In 1916 Watson-Watt wanted a job with the War Office, but nothing obvious was available in communications. Instead he joined the Meteorological Office, which was interested in his ideas on the use of radio for the detection of thunderstorms. Lightning gives off a radio signal as it ionizes the air, and his goal was to detect this signal to warn pilots of approaching thunderstorms. The signal occurs across a wide range of frequencies, and could be easily detected and amplified by naval longwave sets, in fact, lightning was a major problem for communications at these common wavelengths.[7] His early experiments were successful in detecting the signal and he quickly proved to be able to do so at ranges up to 2,500 km. However, there was some difficulty in determining location. This was accomplished by rotating a loop antenna to maximise (or minimise) the signal, thus "pointing" to the storm. However, the strikes were so fleeting that it was very difficult to turn the antenna in time to positively locate one. Instead, the operator would listen to many strikes and develop a rough average location.[7] At first, he worked at the Wireless Station of Air Ministry Meteorological Office in Aldershot, Hampshire. In 1924 when the War Department gave notice that they wished to re-occupy their Aldershot site, he moved to Ditton Park near Slough, Berkshire. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) was already using this site and had two main devices that would prove pivotal to his work.[7] The first was an Adcock antenna, an arrangement of four masts that allowed the signal to be directed through phase differences. Using these as two separate loop antennas at right angles, one could make a simultaneous measurement of the lightning's direction in two axes. However, displaying the fleeting signals was a problem. This was solved by the second device, the WE-224 oscilloscope, recently acquired from Bell Labs. By feeding the signals from the two antennas into the X and Y channels of the oscilloscope, a single strike caused the appearance of a line on the display, indicating the direction of the strike. The scope's relatively "slow" phosphor allowed the signal to be read long after the strike had occurred.[8] Watt's new system was being used in 1926 and was the topic of an extensive paper by Watt and Herd.[9] The Met and NPL radio teams were amalgamated in 1927 to form the Radio Research Station with Watt as director. Continuing research throughout, the teams had become interested in the causes of "static" radio signals, and found that much could be explained by distant signals located over the horizon being reflected off the upper atmosphere. This was the first direct indication of the reality of the Heaviside layer, proposed earlier but at this time largely dismissed by engineers. To determine the altitude of the layer, Watt, Appleton and others developed the 'squegger' to develop a 'time base' display, which would cause the oscilloscope's dot to move smoothly across the display at very high speed. By timing the squegger so that the dot arrived at the far end of the display at the same time as expected signals reflected off the Heaviside layer, the altitude of the layer could be determined. This time base circuit was key to the development of radar.[10] After a further reorganization in 1933, Watt became Superintendent of the Radio Department of NPL in Teddington. RADAR The air defence problem During the First World War, the Germans had used Zeppelins as long-range bombers over London and other cities and defences had struggled to counter the threat. Since that time aircraft capabilities had improved considerably and the prospect of widespread aerial bombardment of civilian areas was causing the government anxiety. Heavy bombers were now able to approach at altitudes that anti-aircraft guns of the day were unable to reach.[11] With enemy airfields across the English Channel potentially only 20 minutes’ flying-time away, bombers would have dropped their bombs and be returning to base before any intercepting fighters could get to altitude. The only answer seemed to be to have standing patrols of fighters in the air at all times but, with the limited cruising time of a fighter, this would require a huge air force. An alternative solution was urgently needed and in 1934, the Air Ministry set up a committee, the CSSAD (Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence), chaired by Sir Henry Tizard to find ways to improve air defence in the UK. Nazi Germany was rumoured to have a "death ray" using radio waves that was capable of destroying towns, cities and people. In January 1935, H.E. Wimperis, Director of Scientific Research at the Air Ministry, asked Watson-Watt about the possibility of building their version of a death-ray, specifically to be used against aircraft.[citation needed] Watson-Watt quickly returned a calculation carried out by his colleague, Arnold Wilkins, showing that the device was impossible to construct, and fears of a Nazi version soon vanished. However, he also mentioned in the same report a suggestion that was originally made to him by Wilkins, who had recently heard of aircraft disturbing shortwave communications, that radio waves may be capable of detecting aircraft: "Meanwhile attention is being turned to the still difficult, but less unpromising, problem of radio detection and numerical considerations on the method of detection by reflected radio waves will be submitted when required." Wilson's idea, checked by Watt, was promptly presented by Tizard to the CSSAD on January 28.[12] Aircraft detection and location Memorial at the Daventry site of the first successful RADAR experiments. 52.195982°N 1.050121°W Closeup of memorial plaque On 12 February 1935, Watson-Watt sent the secret memo of the proposed system to the Air Ministry, Detection and location of aircraft by radio methods. Although not as exciting as a death-ray, the concept clearly had potential but the Air Ministry, before giving funding, asked for a demonstration proving that radio waves could be reflected by an aircraft.[13] This was ready by 26 February and consisted of two receiving antennas located about 6 miles (9.7 km) away from one of the BBC's shortwave broadcast stations at Daventry. The two antennas were phased such that signals travelling directly from the station cancelled themselves out, but signals arriving from other angles were admitted, thereby deflecting the trace on a CRT indicator (passive radar).[14] Such was the secrecy of this test that only three people witnessed it: Watson-Watt, his colleague Arnold Wilkins, and a single member of the committee, A. P. Rowe. The demonstration was a success; on several occasions a clear signal was seen from a Handley Page Heyford bomber being flown around the site. Most importantly, the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, was kept quietly informed of radar's progress. On 2 April 1935, Watson-Watt received a patent on a radio device for detecting and locating an aircraft. In mid-May 1935, Wilkins left the Radio Research Station with a small party, including Edward George Bowen, to start further research at Orford Ness, an isolated peninsula on the Suffolk coast of the North Sea. By June they were detecting aircraft at a distance of 16 miles (26 km), which was enough for scientists and engineers to stop all work on competing sound-based detection systems. By the end of the year the range was up to 60 miles (97 km), at which point plans were made in December to set up five stations covering the approaches to London. One of these stations was to be located on the coast near Orford Ness, and Bawdsey Manor was selected to become the main centre for all radar research. In an effort to put a radar defence in place as quickly as possible, Watson-Watt and his team created devices using existing available components, rather than creating new components for the project, and the team did not take additional time to refine and improve the devices. So long as the prototype radars were in workable condition they were put into production.[15] They soon conducted "full scale" tests of a fixed radar radio tower system that would soon be known as Chain Home, an early detection system that attempted to detect an incoming bomber by radio signals.[15][16] The tests were a complete failure, with the fighter only seeing the bomber after it had passed its target. The problem was not the radar, but the flow of information from trackers from the Observer Corps to the fighters, which took many steps and was very slow. Henry Tizard with Patrick Blackett and Hugh Dowding immediately set to work on this problem, designing a 'command and control air defence reporting system' with several layers of reporting that were eventually sent to a single large room for mapping. Observers watching the maps would then tell the fighter groups what to do via direct communications.[15] By 1937 the first three stations were ready, and the associated system was put to the test. The results were encouraging, and an immediate order by the government to commission an additional 17 stations was given, resulting in a chain of fixed radar towers along the east and south coast of England.[15][16] By the start of the Second World War, 19 were ready to play a key part in the Battle of Britain, and by the end of the war over 50 had been built. The Germans were aware of the construction of Chain Home but were not sure of its purpose. They tested their theories with a flight of the Zeppelin LZ 130, but concluded the stations were a new long-range naval communications system. As early as 1936, it was realized that the Luftwaffe would turn to night bombing if the day campaign did not go well, and Watson-Watt had put another of the staff from the Radio Research Station, Edward Bowen, in charge of developing a radar that could be carried by a fighter. Night time visual detection of a bomber was good to about 300 m, and the existing Chain Home systems simply did not have the accuracy needed to get the fighters that close. Bowen decided that an airborne radar should not exceed 90 kg (200 lb) in weight, 8 ft³ (230 L) in volume, and require no more than 500 watts of power. To reduce the drag of the antennas the operating wavelength could not be much greater than one m, difficult for the day's electronics. "AI" - Airborne Interception, was perfected by 1940, and was instrumental in eventually ending the Blitz of 1941. Bowen also fitted airborne radar to maritime patrol aircraft (known in this application as "ASV" - Air to Surface Vessel) and this eventually reduced the threat from submarines.[citation needed] Watson-Watt justified his choice of a non-optimal frequency for his radar with his often-quoted “cult of the imperfect,” which he stated as “Give them the third-best to go on with; the second-best comes too late, [and] the best never comes.” Civil Service trade union activities Between 1934 and 1936, Watson-Watt was president of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants, now a part of Prospect, the "union for professionals". The union speculates that at this time he was involved in campaigning for an improvement in pay for Air ministry staff.[17] Contribution to Second World War Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, ca. 1944 In his English History 1914–1945, historian A. J. P. Taylor paid the highest of praise to Watson-Watt, Sir Henry Tizard and their associates who developed and put in place radar, crediting them with being fundamental to victory in the Second World War.[18] In July 1938 Watson-Watt left Bawdsey Manor and took up the post of Director of Communications Development (DCD-RAE). In 1939 Sir George Lee took over the job of DCD, and Watson-Watt became Scientific Advisor on Telecommunications (SAT) to the Ministry of Aircraft Production, travelling to the USA in 1941 to advise them on the severe inadequacies of their air defence efforts illustrated by the Pearl Harbor attack. He was knighted in 1942.[19] Sir Robert descends from a plinth in Trafalgar Square, London in 1961 after speaking at a rally protesting at the spread of nuclear weapons Ten years after his knighthood, Watson-Watt was awarded £50,000 by the UK government for his contributions in the development of radar. He established a practice as a consulting engineer. In the 1950s he moved to Canada and later he lived in the USA, where he published Three Steps to Victory in 1958.[citation needed] Around 1958 he appeared as a mystery challenger on the American television programme To Tell The Truth. Watson-Watt reportedly was pulled over for speeding in Canada by a radar gun-toting policeman. His remark was, "Had I known what you were going to do with it I would never have invented it!"[citation needed] He wrote an ironic poem ("Rough Justice") afterwards: Pity Sir Robert Watson-Watt, strange target of this radar plot And thus, with others I can mention, the victim of his own invention. His magical all-seeing eye enabled cloud-bound planes to fly but now by some ironic twist it spots the speeding motorist and bites, no doubt with legal wit, the hand that once created it.[20] Honours • In 1945 Watson-Watt was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on Wireless. • In 1949 a Watson-Watt Chair of Electrical Engineering was established at University College, Dundee.[21] • In 2013 he was one of four inductees to the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame.[22][23] Legacy Memorial to the Birth of Radar, at Stowe Nine Churches, naming Watson-Watt and Arnold Wilkins On 3 September 2014 a statue of Sir Robert was unveiled in Brechin by HRH the Princess Royal.[24] On 4 September Watson-Watt featured in the BBC Two drama Castles in the Sky, with Eddie Izzard in the role. Reviewing the film The Daily Telegraph concluded: "Overall, it all felt a bit worthy. This was history that everybody should know, but the erection of a statue might have done the job just as well."[25] Family life Watson-Watt was married[26] on 20 July 1916 in Hammersmith, London to Margaret Robertson, the daughter of a draughtsman; they later divorced and he remarried in 1952 in Canada.[27] His second wife was Jean Wilkinson, who died in 1964.[28] He returned to Scotland in the 1960s. In 1966, at the age of 72, he proposed to Dame Katherine Trefusis Forbes, who was 67 years old at the time and had also played a significant role in the Battle of Britain as the founding Air Commander of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, which supplied the radar-room operatives. They lived together in London in the winter, and at "The Observatory" – Trefusis Forbes' summer home in Pitlochry, Perthshire, during the warmer months. They remained together until her death in 1971. Watson-Watt died in 1973, aged 81, in Inverness. Both are buried in the churchyard of the Episcopal Church of the Holy Trinity at Pitlochry. References 1. Ratcliffe, J. A. (1975). "Robert Alexander Watson-Watt 13 April 1892 -- 5 December 1973". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 21: 548–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1975.0018. 2. Watson-Watt, Sir Robert; The Pulse of Radar, Dial Press, 1959 3. London Gazette Issue 35618 published on 3 July 1942. Page 39 4. "Sir Robert Watson-Watt". Dick Barrett. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 5. "100 years ago...". Archives Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 6. Shafe, Michael (1982). University Education in Dundee 1881–1981: A Pictorial History. Dundee: University of Dundee. pp. 58, 75 and 88. 7. Brown 1999, p. 45. 8. Brown 1999, p. 46. 9. R. A. Watt and J. F. Herd, "An instantaneous direct-reading radiogoniometer", Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 64 (February 1926), pp. 611-622. 10. O. S. Puckle, "Time Bases, Their Design and Development", Chapman & Hall, 1943 11. Evans, R.J. (18 September 2008). "Hitler and the origins of the war, 1919–1939". Lecture transcript. Gresham College. Retrieved 16 August 2009. 12. Buderi, Robert (1996). The Invention That Changed the World: How a Small Group of Radar Pioneers Won the Second World War and Launched a Technical Revolution (1998 ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 55. ISBN 0-684-83529-0. 13. "Robert Watson-Watt". The Radar Pages. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 14. "Passive Covert Radar – Watson-Watt's Daventry Experiment Revisited". IET. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 15. Corrigan, R. (24–25 September 2008). "Airborne minefields and Fighter Command's information system" (pdf). Andrés Guadamuz/The University of Edinburgh, School of Law. Retrieved 16 August 2009. 16. "Tribute plan for radar inventor". BBC. 1 November 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2009. 17. "under the Radar?". Prospect. p. 10. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 18. Taylor, A. J. P. (1992). English history, 1914-1945. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 392. 19. London Gazette Issue 35586 published on 5 June 1942. Page 2 20. Administrator. "Microwaves101 – A Rough Justice". microwaves101.com. 21. Shafe, Michael (1982). University Education in Dundee 1881–1981: A Pictorial History. Dundee: University of Dundee. p. 106. 22. "Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame". engineeringhalloffame.org. 23. "Scottish engineering greats inducted into hall of fame". thecourier.co.uk. 24. "BBC News – Statue of radar pioneer Watson-Watt unveiled in Brechin". BBC News. 25. Jake Wallis Simons (5 September 2014). "Cas

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Construction management

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Manajemen konstruksi

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Hurry! Save 60% on the passenger tariff information you use every day. Are your interline tickets ever disputed or rejected due to data entry or calculation errors? IATA’s Composite Manual will give you peace of mind that every ticket you issue will be done right. The IATA Composite Manual is your single source for current interline rules universally adopted by airlines at the Passenger Tariff Coordinating Conferences, including standards for: • Fare construction rules for interline journeys, pricing units and fare components • Mileage calculations • Currency application and conversion principles • Interline baggage acceptance rules • Standard industry fare definitions Don’t delay! Order the Composite Manual before 31 December 2014 and save 60% off the regular price. Starting at only $136! Available in two convenient formats: 1. The Composite Manual 2. e-Composite An electronic version that’s easy to navigate and search. Includes regular updates and comments on the status of government approvals. e-Composite is sold in conjunction with IATA’s Online Library, an indispensable online tool for accessing IATA Tariff Coordination news, documents, and results. Please email us to get a promo code for the E-Composite.

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terjemahaan

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transleteTo : Ali Zafran, S.Pd. From : Muhammad Genta, M.Pd. Date : June 21st, 2013 Subject : Data of School Budget Plan In the next three weeks, we will make a special meeting with the parents. The meeting will discuss the plan management for the school budget. We must give a correct understanding of the funds in details. It is a must because the funds will be used for a school construction. I personally hope you can make the data in detail. Your data is based on the financial report for the last six months.

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translete

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CURRENT METHODS FOR MONITORING IAQ Diagnostic techniques used for IAQ evaluations are usually divided into a qualitative and a quantitative phase.73 Instrumentation used during the qualitative IAQ evaluation is limited and is intended primarily to supplement the investigators visual observations. Direct-reading instruments are used to measure relative humidity, room temperature, O3, CO, CO2, and particulate concentrations. The qualitative evaluation for microbial contaminants includes an assessment of the building and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for water damage and moisture problems, including condensation and the presence of visible mold or musty odors indicative of mVOCs.26 The qualitative evaluation for VOCs includes an observance of odors, building renovation, specialized office equipment, pressed wood products, and cleaning products used. Methodologies for collecting and culturing dust, bulk, and air sampling are discussed in more detail elsewhere.73,74 Environmental testing should be restricted to specific situations that warrant further assessment of the relationship between IAQ and clinical symptoms. HOW TO CREATE A HEALTHIER INDOOR ENVIRONMENT Building procedures The allergy specialist should have some familiarity with building a healthy home because patients are frequently presenting with health complaints related to poor IAQ attributed to their home or workplace. The 3 primary considerations in improving IAQ are (1) evaluation of construction failures that allow moisture into the walls of a building, (2) poor ventilation causing excessive humidity and accumulation of gaseous and/or chemical exposure from materials in the living space, and (3) poorly designed or failing HVAC systems that contribute to poor air circulation. An extensive overview of building sciences and the guidelines for new home construction can be found at http://www.healthhouse. org. Building a healthy home should take into account costs versus energy savings and improved health outcomes. Further studies are needed to confirm the health benefits of healthy home construction. IAQ standards In contrast with the industrial workplace setting, quantitative standards for chemical, biological, and particulate exposures as well as ventilation requirements have not been well established and are not routinely monitored. Although some government entities provide guidelines related to IAQ concerns, these generally take the form of recommendations for the control or elimination of sources and strategies for exposure reduction, rather than for achieving pollutant levels below some specific air concentration (Table I). Legislation such as Clean Indoor Air acts ban or restrict smoking in workplaces and in public places and reduce exposures to ETS for workers and patrons.75 The Environmental Protection Agencys IAQ Tools for Schools program addresses IAQ management in schools by providing guidance for those aspects of building maintenance, housekeeping, and daily school operations that can influence IAQ, such as the importance of preventing water intrusion; carefully selecting, using, and storing cleaning and pesticide products; and ensuring proper ventilation. This program also provides resources and strategies for remediation of allergen and irritant-induced IAQ problems and strategies to maintain good IAQ over time.76 These voluntary programs are gaining widespread acceptance.76 Conclusion This review was prepared with the goal of providing allergists with a balanced perception of indoor pollution and how to apply this information in the evaluation of individual patients who present with suspected symptoms arising from poor IAQ. As the patients foremost advocate, the allergy consultant should be prepared to acquire and maintain expertise in environmental factors that directly affect genetic susceptibilities inherent in allergic diseases. Evaluation of an individual patients exposure also requires that the allergist be familiar with methodologies for monitoring IAQ and interpreting results in the context of the patients exposure history. Finally, the allergist should be informed about existing indoor and outdoor air quality standards with the goal of advising patients about rational environmental control interventions.

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Dynamics of a Rural Land Market Experiencing Farmland Conversion to Acreages: The Case of Saunders County, Nebraska David J. Drozd and Bruce B. Johnson ABSTRACT. This study analyzes an urban-influenced real estate market that is experiencing land use transitions. Evaluating a three-year period of unimproved real estate sales in Saunders County, Nebraska, has identified components that contribute to farmland values. Applying these components illustrates that buyers havingspecial motivations often pay premiums to obtain agricultural land. A model based on farmland productivity determines a crossoverpoint where it becomes economically justifiable to convert farmland into acreage tracts, illustrating productivity levels where concerns over development hold merit. Areas experiencing farmland development will obtain valuable informationfor land use and planning decisions from applying this research. (JEL Q1.5) I. INTRODUCTION The rapid development of acreages near urban centers has become a highly influential factor in the real estate market for farmland. Buyers of agricultural land for acreage use have been paying substantial premiums above farmland values to obtain desirable parcels for home construction. Enticed by these premiums, landowners have been splitting farmland parcels into acreage tracts rather than selling property to agricultural producers for continued farmland use. However, people have been discussing whether converting farmland into acreages is an optimal land use. An intense debate has developed concerning farmland conversion to other uses such as acreages and if such changes are economically efficient. Questions have arisen over the appropriateness of allowing the development of highly agriculturally productive "prime farmland," includinghow,or if, this development should continue. Some believe more efforts should be taken to preserve prime farmland, while others indicate the market will determine what is economically optimal. Discussion emphasis has been given to population density, commuting distance, and personal space-fundamentally important aspects of the land use debate (Castle 2001, 27). Acreage development is being driven by personal desires to escape the stressful, fastpaced city life and its associated traffic,noise, congestion, and crime. A recent Gallup survey confirms that nationally, 60% of adults prefer to live outside of cities and suburbs (The Gallup Organization 1998). People also desire the positive aspects of urban centers, however, such as increased employment opportunities and a wider variety of retail outlets and entertainment activities. Living on a quiet, serene, rural acreage and commuting to work provides the "best of both worlds" for many people. Thus, a large demand for acreageshas arisen in areas that surround a metropolitan center. Agricultural producers own the majority of land subject to acreage development. Over the last several generations their demographic profile has been steadily changing. The decline in the percentage of the workforce in production agriculture is well documented, with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicating farm sector employment has dropped from approximately 20% at the start of World War 11,to lessthan 2% today (USDA 2001). Moreover, with fewer young adults entering production agriculture, the farming population has been growing older (Gale 1993,138,14445). Many producers/rural landowners are either at, or nearing retirement age; they must plan for the dissolution of their business. Obtaining the best price for their assets is typically a high priority. Thus, the high land prices being paid by acreage buyers are appealing to many landowning farmers. Rather than maintaining ownership of their land and receiving cash rent from another farmer, some landowners are choosing to subdivide the land for sale as acreage tracts, using the proceeds for retirement or non-farm investments. Virtually all metropolitan areas with a surrounding agricultural corridor are subject to this type of land use conversion and its associated controversy. In Nebraska, the major urban centers are Omaha and Lincoln. Rural agricultural areas are located on all sides of these cities. Thus, both metropolitan expansion on the urban edge and acreage development 10 to 50 miles beyond the city limits are having increased impacts upon surrounding farming areas. "Border wars" and other disputes have arisen between farmers and their new neighbors concerning increased traffic, livestock facilities and their associated odors, rising property tax valuations, dust and noise from farming, and how farmland conversion may force land values beyond the "economic reach" of agricultural producers (Lincoln Journal Star 2001). It is this final issue of the market price for agricultural land that is the focus of this research. It is critical to understand how the real estate market functions in complex transitional areas that are greatly affected by the interface of urban influences and strong agricultural traditions. It is the market prices influenced by the varying motivations of market participants (acreage buyers, farm producers, speculators/property investors, existing landowners) acting within the bounds of institutional policy and the law that will ultimately determine future land use patterns. The primary objective of this research was to analyze real estate values in both the farmland and acreage property markets and identify how the price structure in these markets was influencing farmland development. More specifically, this research was designed to identify and apply the concept of a crossover point, in terms of market value, where rational sellers of farmland would be economically enticed to change the land use and subdivide farmland into acreage tracts. Up to this crossover point, rational sellers would continue to provide land for the agricultural market, where a higher selling price could be attained by maintaining the farmland in agricultural production. Beyond this point, however, changing the land use would provide increased net returns for the seller. Accordingly, a model was developed to analyze how characteristics of a tract of land determine its value per acre in both the farmland and acreage markets. By knowing these property values and subdividing costs, patterns in farmland conversion to acreage use could be identified; and, based on a certain parcel's characteristics, the model could predict whether that specific parcel was likely to be sold for acreage use or remain in agricultural production. This study provides insight into a dynamic real estate market witnessing land use transitions from farmland to acreages. Quantitative, economic analyses were completed for a specific local market (Saunders County, Nebraska) to define (1) factors determining farmland values; and (2) the level of farmland productivity where economic forces indicate acreage development pressure will cease. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW Numerous studies have been completed regarding the general topic of agricultural land values. Many current studies have tended to focus on urban influences and the development potential of farmland. Most relevant to this research were studies evaluating components of farmland values in rural areas, as the analyses in this project dealt primarily with properties located 10 to 40 miles beyond the urban fringe. Studies Utilizing Rural Real Estate Sales Data Kennedy et al. (1997) used the Louisiana Rural Land Market Survey to compile 948 sales of rural real estate across the state of Louisiana (excluding the New Orleans Metropolitan area) that occurred over the 1.5-year period from January 1993 to June 1994. They performed a hedonic analysis, finding factors such as tract size, distance to the largest town in the parish (county), improvement values, and paved road access had significant impacts on parcel values in most subdistricts of Louisiana. Percentages of cropland, pastureland, and timber in the tract along with road frontage were factors contributing significantly to farmland values in some subdistricts, but overall could not be classified as strong determinants of farmland values. Similarly, Elad, Clifton, and Epperson (1994) completed a hedonic estimation for the fannland market in Georgia. They used the unpublished Farm-Rural Land Market surveys completed by the University of Georgia to analyze 1,375 statewide (excluding the greater Atlanta area) individual land sales occurring over the four-year period of 1986 to 1989. They concluded that smaller tract size, the presence of buildings, and being located closer to Atlanta made significant positive contributions to farmland values. Their analysis showed that the number of cropland acres in the tract did not have a major influence on land values. They concluded that regional locations have such an influence and local markets have such variations, that making determinations regarding the overall "farmland market" is difficult. In earlier work, Miranowski and Hammes (1984) relied on the Iowa Land Value Survey to determine county average farmland prices plus a collection of 94 farmland sales occurring over a six-year period to determine how soil characteristics impact land values. They sought to determine whether farmland buyers properly discounted land values as soil quality and soil productivity declined. They found high significance in topsoil depth and pH values positively affecting farmland prices, while potential erosivity had a highly significant negative affect. Location factors expressed through dummy variables had little to no effect on farmland values during the 1974- 1979 study period. The study concluded that improving soil productivity and reducing soil erosion led to higher land values, but was uncertain if the farmland market properly discounted values as productive capacity declined. In a recent study, Nickerson and Lynch (2001) determined differences in sales prices of properties with unrestricted development rights and those parcels selling with conservation easements or other restrictions. They accessed Maryland's Tax and Assessment database to find 224 sales transactions in three counties over a 3.5- year period. Two hundred of the sales between January 1994 and August 1997 had unrestricted development rights, while 24 sold with a conservation easement or other farmland preservation method. The analytical framework used by Nickerson and Lynch involved a hedonic approach, developing a model to indicate what factors gave the unrestricted parcels value, and then applying the model to the characteristics of the restricted parcels. This effectively showed the price the restricted parcels would have sold for if no preservation measures had been taken, all else being equal. Similar to previous hedonic models, larger parcel size, longer distances to urban centers, and less farmable land significantly lowered values for unrestricted farms. The Nickerson and Lynch model showed the 24 restricted parcels would have sold for an average of $5,066 per acre according to the market for unrestricted parcels versus an actual selling price average of $3,761 per acre. Thus, the average value of development rights based on these Maryland sales is viewed at near $1,300 per acre during the period analyzed. While the differential on some individual sales was much larger at $4,000-$5,000 per acre, there was no case where the restricted parcel's actual

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