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causes maksud

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causes the purposes

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causes she cares for

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taken seriously

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as we all know that our country is now plagued by an outbreak (covid 19). it is a contagious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. the virus that causes covid 19 is transmitted through droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or breathes. you can be infected by inhaling the virus if you are near someone with covid 19, or by touching the contaminated surface and then your eyes, nose, or mouth. so i'll share some steps to prevent the spread of covid 19. wash your han

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as we all know that our country is now plagued by an outbreak (covid 19). it is a contagious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. the virus that causes covid 19 is transmitted through droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or breathes. you can be infected by inhaling the virus if you are near someone with covid 19, or by touching the contaminated surface and then your eyes, nose, or mouth. so i'll share some steps to prevent the spread of covid 19. wash your han

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project almanac is a 2015 science-fiction time-travel film directed by dean israelite. the plot is centered on three guys and two girls who stumble upon a time machine. the actors are good, and they each do a decent job in their roles. however, the characters are constructed in a way that you tend to disconnect with their objectives. this is a time travel movie, which means the rules of the time travel would drive the story. breaking those rules breaks the story. without further rambling, here’s the plot analysis and the ending of the film project almanac explained, spoilers ahead. in case you’re new to my site, here’s how it works. if the article doesn’t answer all of your questions, drop me a comment or an fb chat message, and i’ll get you the answer to your question. you can find other films using the search option on top of this page. contents here are links to the key aspects of the movie: – plot explanation – the time machine – time travel: trial on toy car – time travel : self trials – plot hole 1: revisits to the past – plot hole 2: clarity on the plane crash – plot hole 3: no ripple-effect for jessie – plot hole 4: only the camera stays – plot hole 5: the flicker logic – plot hole 6: the camera footage in the end – ending explained project almanac: plot explanation let’s start from top. david and christina are siblings. their two friends adam and quinn are helping david make a video to get an admit into mit. they are all geeks but the sister isn’t and she’s hot. she makes statements like “english please” in conversations that are slightly science oriented. she gets to hold the camera for many parts in the movie. (yeah it’s one of those annoying hand-held-see-the-whole-film-through-the-eyes-of-the-camera type movies). not stereotypical at all. when david doesn’t get a scholarship, his mom decides to sell the frikkin’ house because, you know, if it’s not mit then it’s off to a 3rd world country to beg at the signals. but david decides to check the basement out for any tech stuff that his dad may have partially worked on before he died. oh yeah, david’s dad is dead and has been since his 7th birthday. when david and christina are looking they find an old video camera. as they start to play it they see a recording of david’s 7th birthday party. my super-smart phone’s battery barely lasts a whole day when fully charged and sitting on a table. this video camera has been lying in a basement for 10 bloody years and it simply starts playing when turned on. could i have those batteries please, i’d like to use it to solve the world’s energy crisis in general. david in his birthday party the time machine they watch the video to notice that david in his current age, look and clothes is in the video of this 7th birthday. the 4 of them begin to search the basement for more dope and they find a hidden compartment with a strange device left by david’s dad. they begin to read the notes to understand that it’s a time machine. so they begin constructing the time machine. at school, david’s bag gets accidentally swapped with jessie’s, the 5th member of the group to form and the 2nd eye candy. david returns her bag and mumbles a conversation with her and leaves. time travel: trial on toy car when the group of 4 need more battery power, they decide to get jessie’s car into their parking and connect it to the time device. jessie who is there in the area to attend a party across the road is more than happy to park at david’s. they connect the car to the time travel device with a calculated risk that the car could explode. yes, explode. but instead the time travel machine appears to begin working. jessie joins the gang in the basement and watches their first test object – a toy car with a camera being sent back in time. this blows the fuse to the whole neighborhood. the toy car is found fused with the wall, when they play back the camera on the car they see the events of two hours prior recorded on it. looks like the time travel caused the camera to sit there and record two hours before they sent it back in time. since it was way up on the wall, they didn’t notice it. fair enough. this part makes sense. this proves to them that time travel works. time travel : self trials then, jessie, who knows squat about time travel or advanced science in general, suggests that the next obvious move is to test it on themselves. girl, that car went back in time and fused itself with a wall. do you understand how pretty you would continue to look if one half of you was fused with a bathtub? but that doesn’t seem to affect our 5 friends. they try it on themselves. they go back 24hrs. being the morons that they are, the first thing they do is go to quinn’s house, find the sleeping quinn from that timeline and draw a smiley on the sleeping quinn’s neck. they have a blast doing this. seriously? these guys can invent the time machine and the very first thing they do is endanger their existence? as one would expect the sleeping quinn wakes up and starts spazzing along with the time traveller quinn and flickers out of existence. the group breaks the quinn’s eye contact and leave. they are happy that they are now in yesterday. before they can head back a dog joins them back to their original timeline. when they get back, they see posters of “missing dog” because it jumped a whole day with them and went missing for a 24hr period. no consequence of this though. it is shown to express the butterfly effect on messing with the past. they next come up with time travel rules. the obvious rule you’d expect is – don’t screw around with the past. but nope, the first rule they agree upon is to never travel in time alone. yeah they decide that all 5 of them will always go back in time together to screw around with the past. always using the camera is another rule. by now the viewers’ eyes are crying for mercy, this rule tells your cornea to shut it with the complaining. a few more idiotic, irrelevant rules later they start making changes to their past. first off, they help themselves win a lottery. they note a winning number and go back in time to buy the ticket. they goof up with the number and win a million plus instead of 300 million. christina gets her revenge on one of the girls who throws soda on her. what is clearly established so far is – when they travel back in time there are two instances of them. one from the original timeline and the other the time traveller. this makes sense. but when they go back in time to that same point in time a second time, they replace their previous time traveller self. project almanac: plot hole 1: revisits to the past repeating time travel to the same time magically removes and replaces the past time travels and their effects. so we’re just going to have to assume that in this type of time travel, the earlier time travel simply gets replaced by the later time travel. this explains how they can keep returning to the chemistry test, to help quinn pass, without running into their prior attempts. lollapalooza gang lollapalooza kiss the gang then travel back 3 months to the lollapalooza festival that they missed out on. david gets backstage used passes off ebay before travelling back in time. the gang has a blast. david has a moment with jessie but blows it by not kissing her. for the sake of bedding a hottie, he breaks the one stupid rule of traveling back in time without the group. he goes back to lollapalooza and this time around kisses jessie. here too his second trip back in time replaces himself from the first trip back in time. when he returns, jessie is in a towel in his house, they are now seeing each other. the gang lives happily for a short while and becomes famous too. however they now realize that there has been a plane crash killing a whole bunch of people. they also start seeing news about a bunch of other accidents and calamities that they don’t remember from their original timeline. they start suggesting that the reason this has happened is because of their trip to lollapalooza. david doesn’t agree with them because he will lose jessie if they undo the lollapalooza trip. the pilot of the plane was the star basketball player’s dad. somehow the time travel may have caused the basketball player to meet with the accident that results in him breaking his leg. this causes the team to not make the finals. given many don’t attend the finals, that gives rise to certain catastrophes. including, the star basketball player’s dad flying the plane instead of watching the finals and eventually causing the plane to crash. project almanac: plot hole 2: clarity on the plane crash after some thinking david figures out what changed the events to lead to the plane crash. that it was his fault. he tells adam that he jumped alone and that caused it. what does david do right after? he jumps to the night of the blackout they cause by sending the toy car back 2 hours. there he runs and leaps at the star basketball player getting him away from the car that would have otherwise hit him. people start cheering and david gets back. this event of the blackout has nothing to do with lollapalooza. this involved the whole gang. david makes no sense talking about him jumping back in time alone causing the plane crash. he didn’t have to travel back alone at all. it was the whole gang’s fault and has nothing to do with the festival 3 months ago. when david returns, the events of the plane crash and other calamities seem to be reverted back. everyone is fine except that adam is now critical in the hospital. they don’t know what actually causes it. looks like this is another butterfly effect that saving the basketball player has caused. david has no clue how to undo the last one with adam’s fate. he tries to calculate the string of events and decides he’s going back to tuesday, presumably the day of the basketball game. this time jessie intercepts him and enters the warp and travels back with david. david admits that he has been jumping alone and that he also jumped back to lollapalooza another time to kiss jessie. while jessie starts to get mad she also runs into her past self and flickers and gets erased from existence. david realizes that he has messed too many things up and now needs to go all the way back and destroy the time machine. david tells quinn his plans while the cops are out looking for him. project almanac: plot hole 3: no ripple-effect for jessie the cops are looking for david as he’s jessie’s (who is now missing) boyfriend. again if jessie went missing before their first experiment with the toy car, she should have never met david and the group and travelled in time with them. jessie can’t have gone back with the group to lollapalooza and therefore never became david’s girlfriend. yet somehow, the cops are looking for david. david school break-in david, who has run out of fuel for a time travel back, breaks into the school and fuels up and jumps all the way back to his 7th birthday. here he ends up being in the mirror reflection which is captured by the video camera which is filming the birthday party. this is the same video camera that david and christina find in the basement. david confronts his dad and explains to him why the time machine is a bad idea. after his dad leaves, he collects all the blueprints, the time device and burns it. this causes david to flicker out from that timeline. project almanac: plot hole 4: only the camera stays if david destroys the time machine in the past, he creates an alternate universe where the group never finds the time device. this means they don’t travel in time and as a result david in the basement of the house on his 7th birthday disappears. fair enough (ignoring the grandfather paradox). but his bag and his own camera should have disappeared too. after all he brought them back with him though time. somehow the camera alone decides to stay. now back in the future, the film goes back to the scene where david and christina find the old camera. while christina finds the camera with the birthday party, david finds the camera his alternate time-travelling-self leaves as he flickers out of existence. project almanac: plot hole 5: the flicker logic why is it that when two instances of the same person see each other, they flicker and disappear from existence while two cameras that find themselves next to each other don’t give a damn? does it happen only to people? monkeys are good or do they get messed up too? we will never know because the flickering thingy doesn’t make any sense anyways. project almanac: plot hole 6: the camera footage in the end david plays the content of this second camera and we can hear the conversations from the alternate timeline – the conversation where david and christina find only one camera. let’s jump back to that scene when they find the camera and play the birthday footage. those scenes are captured by a whole other camera that christina owns, it is not captured in their dad’s old camera. recollect that christina has been shooting the mit prep footage right from the beginning. let’s call that camera christina’s camera (perhaps her phone). using that camera she films the footage in the basement where they find christina’s dad’s camera. she switches to using christina’s dad’s camera after that for the remaining movie. the dad’s camera gets left behind by the flickering-out david. it could never have the footage of them finding the camera. that would be in christina’s camera. yet the dad’s camera magically plays a footage that it never shot. in fact, the camera magically plays a footage of itself being found. project almanac ending explained the premise now is that the gang has seen the entire footage in christina’s dad’s camera. they are now aware of the various inventions and travels through time. david walks up to jessie to return her bag and instead of mumbling, begins to say jessie’s lines (because that is not creepy at all). after this he tells her that they are about to change the world. some people basically never learn. in all, the movie stopped caring about any of the paradoxical effects of time travel. the stupid camera shots makes your eye power increase and the consistency in the number of cameras are also ignored. while the movie starts of promisingly, it simply spirals from one flaw into another all the way down to the core where it pretty much self-destructs. sigh. this is how a time travel film should be made. your mind will be blown. click below to read the explanation of predestination: predestination explained this is barry barry is a technologist who helps start-ups build successful products. his love for movies and production has led him to write his well-received film explanation and analysis articles to help everyone appreciate the films better. he’s regularly available for a chat conversation on his website and consults on storyboarding from time to time

Inglês

project almanac is a 2015 science-fiction time-travel film directed by dean israelite. the plot is centered on three guys and two girls who stumble upon a time machine. the actors are good, and they each do a decent job in their roles. however, the characters are constructed in a way that you tend to disconnect with their objectives. this is a time travel movie, which means the rules of the time travel would drive the story. breaking those rules breaks the story. without further rambling, here’s the plot analysis and the ending of the film project almanac explained, spoilers ahead. in case you’re new to my site, here’s how it works. if the article doesn’t answer all of your questions, drop me a comment or an fb chat message, and i’ll get you the answer to your question. you can find other films using the search option on top of this page. contents here are links to the key aspects of the movie: – plot explanation – the time machine – time travel: trial on toy car – time travel : self trials – plot hole 1: revisits to the past – plot hole 2: clarity on the plane crash – plot hole 3: no ripple-effect for jessie – plot hole 4: only the camera stays – plot hole 5: the flicker logic – plot hole 6: the camera footage in the end – ending explained project almanac: plot explanation let’s start from top. david and christina are siblings. their two friends adam and quinn are helping david make a video to get an admit into mit. they are all geeks but the sister isn’t and she’s hot. she makes statements like “english please” in conversations that are slightly science oriented. she gets to hold the camera for many parts in the movie. (yeah it’s one of those annoying hand-held-see-the-whole-film-through-the-eyes-of-the-camera type movies). not stereotypical at all. when david doesn’t get a scholarship, his mom decides to sell the frikkin’ house because, you know, if it’s not mit then it’s off to a 3rd world country to beg at the signals. but david decides to check the basement out for any tech stuff that his dad may have partially worked on before he died. oh yeah, david’s dad is dead and has been since his 7th birthday. when david and christina are looking they find an old video camera. as they start to play it they see a recording of david’s 7th birthday party. my super-smart phone’s battery barely lasts a whole day when fully charged and sitting on a table. this video camera has been lying in a basement for 10 bloody years and it simply starts playing when turned on. could i have those batteries please, i’d like to use it to solve the world’s energy crisis in general. david in his birthday party the time machine they watch the video to notice that david in his current age, look and clothes is in the video of this 7th birthday. the 4 of them begin to search the basement for more dope and they find a hidden compartment with a strange device left by david’s dad. they begin to read the notes to understand that it’s a time machine. so they begin constructing the time machine. at school, david’s bag gets accidentally swapped with jessie’s, the 5th member of the group to form and the 2nd eye candy. david returns her bag and mumbles a conversation with her and leaves. time travel: trial on toy car when the group of 4 need more battery power, they decide to get jessie’s car into their parking and connect it to the time device. jessie who is there in the area to attend a party across the road is more than happy to park at david’s. they connect the car to the time travel device with a calculated risk that the car could explode. yes, explode. but instead the time travel machine appears to begin working. jessie joins the gang in the basement and watches their first test object – a toy car with a camera being sent back in time. this blows the fuse to the whole neighborhood. the toy car is found fused with the wall, when they play back the camera on the car they see the events of two hours prior recorded on it. looks like the time travel caused the camera to sit there and record two hours before they sent it back in time. since it was way up on the wall, they didn’t notice it. fair enough. this part makes sense. this proves to them that time travel works. time travel : self trials then, jessie, who knows squat about time travel or advanced science in general, suggests that the next obvious move is to test it on themselves. girl, that car went back in time and fused itself with a wall. do you understand how pretty you would continue to look if one half of you was fused with a bathtub? but that doesn’t seem to affect our 5 friends. they try it on themselves. they go back 24hrs. being the morons that they are, the first thing they do is go to quinn’s house, find the sleeping quinn from that timeline and draw a smiley on the sleeping quinn’s neck. they have a blast doing this. seriously? these guys can invent the time machine and the very first thing they do is endanger their existence? as one would expect the sleeping quinn wakes up and starts spazzing along with the time traveller quinn and flickers out of existence. the group breaks the quinn’s eye contact and leave. they are happy that they are now in yesterday. before they can head back a dog joins them back to their original timeline. when they get back, they see posters of “missing dog” because it jumped a whole day with them and went missing for a 24hr period. no consequence of this though. it is shown to express the butterfly effect on messing with the past. they next come up with time travel rules. the obvious rule you’d expect is – don’t screw around with the past. but nope, the first rule they agree upon is to never travel in time alone. yeah they decide that all 5 of them will always go back in time together to screw around with the past. always using the camera is another rule. by now the viewers’ eyes are crying for mercy, this rule tells your cornea to shut it with the complaining. a few more idiotic, irrelevant rules later they start making changes to their past. first off, they help themselves win a lottery. they note a winning number and go back in time to buy the ticket. they goof up with the number and win a million plus instead of 300 million. christina gets her revenge on one of the girls who throws soda on her. what is clearly established so far is – when they travel back in time there are two instances of them. one from the original timeline and the other the time traveller. this makes sense. but when they go back in time to that same point in time a second time, they replace their previous time traveller self. project almanac: plot hole 1: revisits to the past repeating time travel to the same time magically removes and replaces the past time travels and their effects. so we’re just going to have to assume that in this type of time travel, the earlier time travel simply gets replaced by the later time travel. this explains how they can keep returning to the chemistry test, to help quinn pass, without running into their prior attempts. lollapalooza gang lollapalooza kiss the gang then travel back 3 months to the lollapalooza festival that they missed out on. david gets backstage used passes off ebay before travelling back in time. the gang has a blast. david has a moment with jessie but blows it by not kissing her. for the sake of bedding a hottie, he breaks the one stupid rule of traveling back in time without the group. he goes back to lollapalooza and this time around kisses jessie. here too his second trip back in time replaces himself from the first trip back in time. when he returns, jessie is in a towel in his house, they are now seeing each other. the gang lives happily for a short while and becomes famous too. however they now realize that there has been a plane crash killing a whole bunch of people. they also start seeing news about a bunch of other accidents and calamities that they don’t remember from their original timeline. they start suggesting that the reason this has happened is because of their trip to lollapalooza. david doesn’t agree with them because he will lose jessie if they undo the lollapalooza trip. the pilot of the plane was the star basketball player’s dad. somehow the time travel may have caused the basketball player to meet with the accident that results in him breaking his leg. this causes the team to not make the finals. given many don’t attend the finals, that gives rise to certain catastrophes. including, the star basketball player’s dad flying the plane instead of watching the finals and eventually causing the plane to crash. project almanac: plot hole 2: clarity on the plane crash after some thinking david figures out what changed the events to lead to the plane crash. that it was his fault. he tells adam that he jumped alone and that caused it. what does david do right after? he jumps to the night of the blackout they cause by sending the toy car back 2 hours. there he runs and leaps at the star basketball player getting him away from the car that would have otherwise hit him. people start cheering and david gets back. this event of the blackout has nothing to do with lollapalooza. this involved the whole gang. david makes no sense talking about him jumping back in time alone causing the plane crash. he didn’t have to travel back alone at all. it was the whole gang’s fault and has nothing to do with the festival 3 months ago. when david returns, the events of the plane crash and other calamities seem to be reverted back. everyone is fine except that adam is now critical in the hospital. they don’t know what actually causes it. looks like this is another butterfly effect that saving the basketball player has caused. david has no clue how to undo the last one with adam’s fate. he tries to calculate the string of events and decides he’s going back to tuesday, presumably the day of the basketball game. this time jessie intercepts him and enters the warp and travels back with david. david admits that he has been jumping alone and that he also jumped back to lollapalooza another time to kiss jessie. while jessie starts to get mad she also runs into her past self and flickers and gets erased from existence. david realizes that he has messed too many things up and now needs to go all the way back and destroy the time machine. david tells quinn his plans while the cops are out looking for him. project almanac: plot hole 3: no ripple-effect for jessie the cops are looking for david as he’s jessie’s (who is now missing) boyfriend. again if jessie went missing before their first experiment with the toy car, she should have never met david and the group and travelled in time with them. jessie can’t have gone back with the group to lollapalooza and therefore never became david’s girlfriend. yet somehow, the cops are looking for david. david school break-in david, who has run out of fuel for a time travel back, breaks into the school and fuels up and jumps all the way back to his 7th birthday. here he ends up being in the mirror reflection which is captured by the video camera which is filming the birthday party. this is the same video camera that david and christina find in the basement. david confronts his dad and explains to him why the time machine is a bad idea. after his dad leaves, he collects all the blueprints, the time device and burns it. this causes david to flicker out from that timeline. project almanac: plot hole 4: only the camera stays if david destroys the time machine in the past, he creates an alternate universe where the group never finds the time device. this means they don’t travel in time and as a result david in the basement of the house on his 7th birthday disappears. fair enough (ignoring the grandfather paradox). but his bag and his own camera should have disappeared too. after all he brought them back with him though time. somehow the camera alone decides to stay. now back in the future, the film goes back to the scene where david and christina find the old camera. while christina finds the camera with the birthday party, david finds the camera his alternate time-travelling-self leaves as he flickers out of existence. project almanac: plot hole 5: the flicker logic why is it that when two instances of the same person see each other, they flicker and disappear from existence while two cameras that find themselves next to each other don’t give a damn? does it happen only to people? monkeys are good or do they get messed up too? we will never know because the flickering thingy doesn’t make any sense anyways. project almanac: plot hole 6: the camera footage in the end david plays the content of this second camera and we can hear the conversations from the alternate timeline – the conversation where david and christina find only one camera. let’s jump back to that scene when they find the camera and play the birthday footage. those scenes are captured by a whole other camera that christina owns, it is not captured in their dad’s old camera. recollect that christina has been shooting the mit prep footage right from the beginning. let’s call that camera christina’s camera (perhaps her phone). using that camera she films the footage in the basement where they find christina’s dad’s camera. she switches to using christina’s dad’s camera after that for the remaining movie. the dad’s camera gets left behind by the flickering-out david. it could never have the footage of them finding the camera. that would be in christina’s camera. yet the dad’s camera magically plays a footage that it never shot. in fact, the camera magically plays a footage of itself being found. project almanac ending explained the premise now is that the gang has seen the entire footage in christina’s dad’s camera. they are now aware of the various inventions and travels through time. david walks up to jessie to return her bag and instead of mumbling, begins to say jessie’s lines (because that is not creepy at all). after this he tells her that they are about to change the world. some people basically never learn. in all, the movie stopped caring about any of the paradoxical effects of time travel. the stupid camera shots makes your eye power increase and the consistency in the number of cameras are also ignored. while the movie starts of promisingly, it simply spirals from one flaw into another all the way down to the core where it pretty much self-destructs. sigh. this is how a time travel film should be made. your mind will be blown. click below to read the explanation of predestination: predestination explained this is barry barry is a technologist who helps start-ups build successful products. his love for movies and production has led him to write his well-received film explanation and analysis articles to help everyone appreciate the films better. he’s regularly available for a chat conversation on his website and consults on storyboarding from time to time. click to browse all his film articles

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Malaio

hydration hydration basically increases water content within the cells, causing them to “swell” and become plump and bouncy, thus increasing its ability to reflect light. this is what gives our skin that glowing, dewy look. lack of water, on the other hand, will lead to dehydration which then causes skin cells to shrivel, translating to skin that appears dull and lacklustre.

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Malaio

istilah pada industri automotif .. rtr - racing throttle response awd - all wheel drive asg - automatic-shift gearbox a/f - air fuel ratio acm - airbag control module acc - automatic climate control or adaptive cruise control a/c - air conditioning aat - ambient air temperature abs – antilock braking system cvt – continuous variable transmission mpfi – multi point fuel injection crdi – common rail direct injection crde - common rail diesel engine ddis – direct diesel injection system dicor – direct injection common rail tdi – turbocharged direct injection tcdi - turbocharged common rail direct fuel injection tdci – turbo diesel common rail injection fgt – fixed geometry turbocharger wgt – waste gas turbocharger vgt – variable geometry turbocharger vnt – variable nozzle turbine gdi – gasoline direct injection dts-i – digital twin spark ignition dts-si – digital twin spark swirl induction dts-fi – digital twin spark fuel injection dts-i – digital triple spark ignition bhp – brake horse power hp – horse power vtvt –variable timing valve train vvt/vtec - variable valve timing vvti - variable valve timing with intelligence sohc - single overhead camshaft dohc - double overhead camshaft suv - sport utility vehicle tsi - turbocharged stratified injection muv – multi utility vehicle sae – society of automotive engineers hcv - heavy commercial vehicle lcv - light commercial vehicle cvti - charged motion variable time ignition ccvti - controlled combustion variable timing ignition ebd - electronic brakeforce distribution bmep - brake mean effective pressure bsfc - brake specific fuel consumption cc - cubic capacity cdi - capacitor discharge ignition c.i. engine - compression ignition engine cng - compressed natural gas dfi - digital fuel injection di engine - direct injection engine ec engine - external combustion engine fhp - frictional horse power gvw - gross vehicle weight hvac - heating ventilating and air conditioning i.c. engine - internal combustion engine ihp - indicated horse power imep - indicated mean effective pressure isfc - indicated specific fuel consumption kph - kilometer per hour kpl - kilometer per liter ohv - over head valve sfc - specific fuel consumption s.i. engine - spark ignition engine vdb - ventilated disc brake 4wd - four wheel drive fwd – front wheel drive rwd – rear wheel drive 2wd – two wheel drive tc - traction control esc - electronic stability control arai - automotive research association of india egr - exhaust gas recirculation evrv - electronic vacuum regulator valve srs airbag - supplemental restraint system lspv - load sensing proportioning valve dgs - direct shift gearbox worth asking the question. automotive acronyms acronym name definition abc active body control the suspension alters its characteristics to keep body roll to a minimum under hard cornering. abs antilock braking system prevents the wheels of a car locking up and skidding under heavy braking so control and steering is maintained. ac acceleration control for a/t this system curbs sudden acceleration when the driver steps on the accelerator by mistake, by unintentional pedal operation. the system comes into effect if the driver presses the accelerator pedal more than a prescribed amount when the vehicle is stopped and the laser sensor detects an obstacle in front. it checks sudden acceleration by curbing engine output while alerting the driver with an alarm and a warning light displayed on the meter display.(mazda) acc active cruise control using a front-mounted radar, acc detects slower vehicles ahead and will maintain a relative speed to ensure a safe following distance. also known as adaptive cruise control. afs adaptive front-lighting system the adaptive front-lighting system (afs) optimizes distribution of light from the headlights according to driving circumstances. depending on vehicle speed and steering input, the system points the low-beams headlights in the direction the driver intends to travel. afm active fuel management during light operation the engine can shut off cylinders so less fuel is used. also known as mds (multi displacement system), vcm(variable cylinder management),or cod(cylinder on demand) a pillar vehicle body structure the steel body panel on the side of the windscreen going from the bonnet line to the roof. b pillar vehicle body structure the steel body panel running from the floor to the roof between the front and rear doors. c pillar vehicle body structure the steel body panel next to the rear window, running from the boot line to the roof. ancap australasian new car assessment program organisation set up to provide new car buyers with independent and information on the level of occupant protection provided by vehicles in serious front and side crashes. anc active noise cancellation (anc) is designed to dramatically reduce low frequency noise in the interior. asr anti-slip regulation traction control. function of electronic stability control (esc) designed to prevent loss of traction of the driven road wheels. ass auto start stop or auto stop start system that automatically shuts down and restarts the internal combustion engine to reduce the amount of time the engine spends idling, thereby reducing fuel consumption and emissions. atc active traction control used primarily in off road 4x4 applications atc brakes spinning wheels and diverts torque to other wheels to gain traction in slippery surfaces. also often referred to as a-trac. ats active torque split the ats all-wheel-drive system uses real-time input data on steering angle, yaw rate, lateral g-force and engine status to determine road surface and driving conditions. the elecronic diffirentials are adjusted accordingly. auc active understeer control the active understeer control system utilizes intelligent control logic and high-response brake actuators to brake the inside front wheels during cornering (as required) to increase yaw-moment using the vehicle dynamic control (vdc)/traction control system (tcs) as its base. avm around view monitor avm enables you to have a bird's-eye view of your vehicle while you park, ensuring that you're aware of all of your surroundings. (nissan) awd all wheel drive popular terminology for permanent four-wheel drive systems. vehicle can distribute power to all four wheels rather than just to the front or rear wheels only. also 4wd, 4x4. bas brake assist system (kia)bas (brake assist system) instantly increases braking power in an emergency situation to shorten the braking distance. blis blw blind spot information system system using radar to inform driver of vehicles in the proximity of the rear of the car. handy when changing lanes. or bsw blind spot warning (nissan). bsm blind spot monitoring a blind spot monitor is a vehicle-based sensor device that detects other vehicles located to the driver’s side and rear. warnings can be visual, audible, vibrating or tactile.however, blind spot monitors are an option that may include more than monitoring the sides of the vehicle. it can include "cross traffic alert," "which alerts drivers backing out of a parking space when traffic is approaching from the sides" cba city brake assist or city-brake active system gives audio and visual warnings to the driver when the system recognises a high risk of collision. if no action taken, will automatically apply the brakes to avoid collision. cbc cornering brake control the cbc (cornering brake control) system is activated when the car goes round a bend while braking. in this case, the braking pressure is discharged individually onto each wheel in order to maintain vehicle stability, minimising any understeer or oversteer. crd common rail diesel a single, highly pressurised fuel line supplies diesel to all cylinders allowing for finer control over fuel use. vastly reduces diesel engine's noise and improves fuel economy. cv joint constant velocity joint a mechanical coupling that allows drive shafts not in the same plane, to spin at the same speeds. cvt continuously variable transmission a continuously variable transmission is an automatic transmission that can vary drive ratios seamlessly using an internal belt and cone arrangement. dac downhill assist control a safety feature intended for off-road use. the vehicle's abs and throttle control systems to maintain a gradual, more controlled decent on steep or slippery off-road surfaces. dohc double overhead camshaft a now very common engine design that places two camshafts (one to operate inlet valves, one to operate exhaust valves) mounted above the cylinder head. drl daytime running lamps vehicle front lamps used to increase visability for daytime driving. dst dynamic steering torque this function integrates the electric steering into the operation of vdc. this active electronic steering system improves both driving safety and handling performance. in all driving conditions, the electronic steering suggests the correct manoeuvres for the driver to perform, allowing excellent grip performance and providing a great sense of safety. dsg direct shift gearbox a computer controlled manual gearbox that pre selects additional gears to the current driven gear. no clutch pedal is required and the next gear can be engaged very rapidly. dpf diesel particulate filter a devise designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. dsc dynamic stability control dsc helps prevent understeer or oversteer by managing the braking force and engine torque delivered to individual wheels, maximising traction on the road surface. dtc diagnostic trouble code a code retrieved from a vehicle self diagnostic system. obtained by a manufacture special scan tool. alerting the vehicle operator by way of warning light or display. eba emergency brake assist brake-assist monitors brake pedal force and input speed to determine when emergency braking is occurring. when detected, it automatically applies maximum braking force to all wheels. ebd electronic brake distribution electronically controls and distributes appropriate brake pressure to all brakes dependant on load and braking force. replaces traditional mechanical brake proportioning valve. ecu electronic control unit an ecu is an electronic "brain" which controls a system in a car, such as the engine management system, transmission or body electrics. ect engine coolant temperature used to monitor engine coolant temperature, giving an indication of engine temperature. via gauge or light. ects electronic control throttle system provides an all-electronic system able to detect throttle pedal position by means of a series of sensors. it then relays that information to a computer which instantaneously activates the throttle by means of a dc motor.also know as fly by wire/drive by wire. ecm electronic control module an ecm is an electronic "brain" which controls a system in a car, such as the engine management system, transmission or body electrics. edc electronic damper control an edu-controlled wheel suspension system that adjusts the shock absorbers and regulates damper forces electronically adapting to changing road, load or driving conditions. edl electronic diff lock electronically brakes a spinning wheel, transferring torque across the axle to the opposite wheel. efi electronic fuel injection efi systems replace carburettors as fitted to older vehicles. the electronically controlled fuel injectors deliver fuel more efficiently, improving economy, emissions and drivability. egr exhaust gas recirculation a proportion of exhaust gasses are redirected back into the engine to help burn fuel more efficiently and significantly reduce harmful emissions. egt exhaust gas temperature used to monitor the exhaust gas temperature of an internal combustion engine. elr emergency locking retractor seatbelts which are always unlocked except in emergency situations such as rapid deceleration, rapid acceleration or hard cornering manoeuvres. eps electric power steering uses an electric motor to provide directional control to the driver, without any hydraulic systems. esp electronic stability programme dramitically helps in correcting vehicle instability during uncontrollable under or over steer situations by measuring lateral acceleration at the car's centre of gravity. and applying the brakes to individual wheels to keep the vehicle heading in the right direction. also known as vsa, dsc, esc. ess emergency signal system the emergency signal system (ess) causes the hazard lights to flash at high speed if the driver suddenly brakes when traveling at high speed. fcm forward collision mitigation radar is used to identify obstructions ahead and warn of a potential collision. if the risk remains, this system applies the brakes to mitigate a collision. fow forward obstruction warning forward obstruction warning (fow) detects vehicles or obstacles in front of the car using a millimeter-wave radar. the system calculates the distance to the object in front and, if the car gets close enough that there is a risk of collision, sounds an alarm and displays a visual alert, prompting the driver to apply the brake. fsi fuel stratified injection petrol is injected at high pressure directly into the combustion chamber; the air fuel mixture can run far leaner than conventional efi systems so is more efficient. also known as di (direct injection) or gdi (gasoline direct injection). fwd front wheel drive engine power is delivered through the front wheels. more common today than rear wheel drive. also 2wd, 2x4 gvw gross vehicle weight the maximum recommended weight for a vehicle, including: the weight of the vehicle itself, fuel and other fluids, passengers, and all cargo. gdi gasoline direct injection very high pressure fuel injection directly into the engine combustion chamber. enabling increased efficiency of engine operation. also known as di,fsi. i-eloop intelligent energy loop a brake energy regeneration system. mazda uses this to power to relieve the engine from the need to produce this electricity for your in-car stereo, navigation system, lights, and anything else electrical. ipas intelligent parking assist system apgs advanced parking guidance, automatic parking. assists drivers parking their vehicles, with little input from the user. hac hill assist control a safety feature intended for off-road use. helps prevent the vehicle from rolling backward or slipping sideways when performing hill start on steep or slippery gradients. hbc high beam control high beam control (hbc) detects oncoming and preceding vehicles and automatically switches between high and low beams during night driving, making it easier for the driver to recognize hazards. hdc hill decent control allows a smooth and controlled hill descent in rough terrain without the driver needing to touch the brake pedal. when on, the vehicle will descend using the abs brake system to control each wheel's speed. if the vehicle accelerates without driver input, the system will automatically apply the brakes to slow down to the desired vehicle speed. hsa hill start assist keeps the brakes applied even when the driver has taken their foot off the brake pedal. brake releases when the vehicle starts moving. hev hybrid-electric vehicle vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. hid high intensity discharge high intensity discharge lighting technology uses electric inducers to provide an arc inside a gas-filled bulb, enhancing night driving. only trained technicians should maintain the system. hdi/tdi high-pressure direct injection diesel direct injection engine. also referred as tdi. injecting high pressure fuel directly into the engine combustion chamber. improving engine efficiently. ima integrated motor assist. the ima uses an electric motor mounted between the internal combustion engine and transmission to act as a starter motor, battery charger, and assist the internal combustion engine with extra power and torque. isofix international standards organisation method to fit child seats into cars easily as well as safely, in america this standard is called latch (lower anchor and thethers for children). ldw lane departure warning the system recognizes the lane in which the car is traveling. when the driver unintentionally drifts out of the travelling lane, the system alerts the driver with a visual warning on the display and an audible signal. led light emitting diodes semiconductors that emit light when an electric current is applied. increasingly popular in vehicle lighting as they have a much quicker response time and last longer. lev low-emission vehicle vehicle which emits low levels of exhaust emissions, anti polution. lkas lane keep assist system lane keep assist system is designed to keep you from drifting out of your lane. only available when travelling above 72kph – the system uses a camera to detect lane markings.if activated and you move out of your lane without indicating, you’ll get visual and audible alerts. if you don’t react, the steering will be automatically adjusted to get you back on track.(honda) lpg liquid petroleum gas lpg is a popular alternative fuel to petrol or diesel. the cost per litre is less than petrol but it is less fuel efficient. lsd limited slip differential a limited slip differential allows two driving wheels to operate in unison when one breaks traction. it provides improved control and traction in slippery conditions. lwb long wheel base front and rear axles are further apart therefore the body or cargo deck of a commercial vehicle will be longer than other model variations. mil malfunction indicator lamp also known as a check engine light, is a tell-tail to indicate malfunction of a computerized engine management system mmi multimedia interface mmi consists of a single integrated interface, which controls a variety of devices and functions of the car. the system consists of the mmi terminal and the mmi display screen mod moving object detection by detecting moving objects around the car and alerting the driver, this technology enhances safety when pulling out of a parking space, helping give drivers better awareness of their surroundings and increased peace of mind. mrcc mazda radar cruise control uses a millimeter wave radar to judge the relative speed and distance to the car ahead and automatically controls vehicle speed. msr motor slip regulation msr is a system to prevent the engine locking during over-run that gradually adapts engine braking action to the driving situation. ncap new car assessment programme the new car assessment programme is an independent assessment of the safety performance of a motor vehicle. vehicles are crash tested and awarded a number of stars for their safety performance. known as ancap (australasian new car assessment programme). oem original equipment manufacturer manufacurer/supplier of components fitted to a new car at the time of manufacture. pas power assisted steering a system designed to reduce the effort required to steer the vehicle, particularly at low parking speeds. can be hydraulic, electric or a combination of both. pdc park distance control an audible warning device that alerts the driver when their car is getting close to other cars or objects when parking. rpm revolutions per minute how fast the engine is turning i.e. how many times the crankshaft rotates in one minute. rsc roll stability control control system to prevent the vehicle from rolling over. rvm rear vehicle monitoring system the rear vehicle monitoring system (rvm) uses a rear bumper-mounted quasi-milliwave radar to measure the distance to cars approaching from behind or in neighboring lanes. it warns the driver by alarm and warning lamp if there is a danger of collision when changing lanes. rwd rear wheel drive engine power is delivered through the rear wheels. less common today than fwd. sat-nav s

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