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Cataract surgery consent form MANDATORY INFORMED CONSENT FORM FOR CATARACT OPERATION WITH OR WITHOUT PHAKOEMULSIFICATION AND/OR IMPLANTATION OF INTRAOCULAR LENS INTRODUCTION: This information is given to you so that you can make an informed decision about having eye surgery. Take as much time as you wish to make your decision about signing this informed consent. You have the right to ask questions about any procedure before agreeing to have the operation. Except for unusual problems, a cataract operation is indicated only when you cannot function adequately due to poor sight produced by the cataract. You must remember that the natural lens within your own eye with a slight cataract, although not perfect, has some distinct advantages over any man made lens. After your doctor has told you that you have a cataract, you and your doctor are the only ones who can determine if or when you should have a cataract operation - based on your own visual needs, and medical considerations, unless you have an unusual cataract that may need immediate surgery. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS:- I understand that I may decide Not to have a cataract operation, at all. However, should I decide to have an operation, I understand these are the three methods of restoring vision after surgery. 1. Spectacles (Glasses) - Cataract spectacles required to correct your vision are usually thicker and heavier than conventional eyeglasses. Cataract spectacles increase the size of object by about 25% and clear vision is obtained through the central part of cataract spectacles, which means you must learn to turn your head to see clearly on either side. Cataract spectacles usually cannot be used if a cataract is only in one eye (and the other is normal) because they may cause double vision. However, cataract spectacles have been, and are, the most common method of correcting vision after cataract surgery. 2. Contact Lens - A hard or soft contact lens increases the apparent size of objects only about 8%. Handling of a contact lens is difficult for some individuals. Most lenses must be inserted and removed daily and not everyone can tolerate them. For near tasks, plus power near reading glasses (Not cataract spectacles) may be required in addition to contact lenses. 3. Intraocular Lens - This is a small plastic artificial lens made of persplex methacrylate, silicone or HEMA material with polypropylene, nylon or methacrylate supports surgically placed inside the eye, permanently. With the intraocular lens, there is no apparent change in the size of objects seen. Conventional eyeglasses (not cataract spectacles) for both distance and near, are usually required in addition in an intraocular lens. TECHNIQUES FOR CATARACT REMOVAL :- There are three ways for cataract extraction whether an implant is inserted or not. A cataract is opacity in the human lens. Removal of the cataract refers to removal of the lens, either partly or fully. a) Intracapsular cataract extraction : Here the entire opaque lens consisting of the central hard nucleus region with the covering, the capsule is removed fully using a special instrument called a cryo extractor which uses cold to extract the lens. b) Extra capsular cataract extraction : The outer covering of the lens, namely the capsule is left almost intact while the central hard nucleus of the lens is removed through an opening in the eye. The residual lens matter is removed by either manual or automated aspiration techniques. This is the most commonly done procedure today. c) Phakoemulsification: In this method of cataract removal not only is the capsule left intact, but the central nucleus of the lens is softened and sucked out using ultrasound focused in the form of a beam along a needle inserted in the eye. This procedure is applicable to virtually all types of cataracts running the gamut from soft to immature to mature or even hyper mature cataracts. . It is the method of choice in children and young adults as the cataract is usually soft. The recovery time following the surgery is directly proportional to the density of the cataract. The very hard cataracts may take up to 2 months for full recovery of vision. . CONSENT FOR OPERATION:- In giving my permission for a cataract extraction and/or for the possible implantation of an intraocular lens in my eye, I declare, I understand the following information: 1. Cataract surgery, by itself, means the removal of the natural lens of the eye by a surgical technique: in order for an intraocular lens to be implanted in my eye. I understand, I must have cataract surgery performed either at the time of the lens implantation or before lens implantation. 2. If an intraocular lens is implanted, it is done by surgical method. It is intended that the small plastic lens (with supports) will be left in my eye permanently. At the time of surgery, my doctor may decide not to implant an intraocular lens in my eye, if for any reason he feels that the lens is not indicated or may prove deleterious to the well being of the eye even though I may have given prior permission to do so. 3. The visual results of surgery in my case cannot be guaranteed. Though the intraocular implant power is calculated on the basis of the latest formula, utilising an electronic computerised ultrasound biometer (A-Scan), since the Intraocular lens is fitted into the soft tissue of the eye, a maximum accuracy of about +/-2.00 dioptres is to be considered optimal which again depends upon the type of wound closure, and the rate of healing of the wound, which again differs from patient to patient, a residual astigmatism (number with an axis) of about 3-4 dioptres which may reduce with time is to be taken as inevitable and normal. Usually the astigmatism will decrease with time. Intraocular implants are being prescribed so that I may see without visual distortion, and be able to use both eyes simultaneously with the presence of glasses. Some glasses will be there for both distance and near and should be expected. 4. The caliber of vision obtained after a successful cataract surgery depends upon the status of the retina behind. In a mature cataract, even with the most sophisticated instruments in the world including an ultrasound B scan or CT scans, it is not possible to be certain that the retina inside is normal. Removal of the cataract is like opening a door to a room, if the retina is normal you will see well, but is not possible in a majority of advanced cataract cases to ascertain the visual status of the retina. The retina in your eye may be detached partially or totally, or may have wrinkles or oedema or have hemorrhages old or new or have a vascular blockade that may be impossible to ascertain before surgery. 5. Complication of surgery to remove the cataract: As a result of the surgery, it is possible that my vision could be made worse. In some cases, complications may occur weeks, months or even years later. Complications may include a hemorrhage (bleeding), loss of corneal clarity, infection, detachment of the retina, glaucoma and or double vision. These and other complications may occur, as a complication of cataract surgery, whether or not a lens is implanted and may result in poor vision, total loss of vision, or even loss of the eye. 6. Complications due to the Cornea affection in cataract surgery. The innermost layer of the cornea, the clear watch glass in front of the eye has a layer of cells known as the Endothelial cell layer. This layer may have less cells which in doing a cataract surgery may diminish further leading to either temporary fall in vision or in the worst scenario, total corneal opacity requiring a corneal graft. This problem is amplified when Phakoemulsification is used. Especially in a patient who is ill or infirm or has a past history of injury, or has a very firm, hard or suprahard cataract of the ultrasound energy is liable to affect the endothelial cells. The use of the Laser assisted Phakoemulsification diminishes the risk, which nonetheless still exists. This is also the reason why in some patients with cataracts which are not mature recover their vision fast while other patients with very dense cataracts may need a longer time for recovery of their vision.. 7. Complications due specifically to the type of lens extraction method utilized. Intracapsular cataract extraction may lead to vitreous loss and hemorrhage. Extra capsular cataract extraction may lead to inflammatory reaction like uveitis, and to cortical remnants and to capsular thickening at a later stage. Phakoemulsification may lead to corneal opacity and to corneal oedema at a later stage and to vitreous prolapse and loss of lens fragments. 8. Specific complications of lens implantation: Insertion of an intraocular lens may induce complications which otherwise would not occur. In some cases complications may develop during surgery from implanting the lens or days, weeks, months or even years later. Complications may include loss of corneal clarity, infection, uveitis, iris atrophy, glaucoma, bleeding in the eye, inability to dilate the pupil, slippage of the lens from its proper place which may lead to reflections which may be multiple and to seeing coloured rings or distortion of objects. In some cases there is a possibility of a dislocation of the lens, either partial or total. Dislocation problems are also there with the new foldable implants that may suddenly shift out of place especially after any minor injury. Retinal problems are also liable to occur with or without an implant being inserted in the eye and irrespective of the type of cataract surgery used. It may range from simple hemorrhages to oedema in the back of the retina or the formation of fibrous bands or folds or even a retinal detachment, which may be partial, subtotal or total. All retinal complications could lead to partial or total loss of vision, which may or may not be possible to restore again. It is possible that at some future time the lens implanted in my eye may have to be repositioned or removed surgically. 9. Complications due to infection, prior, during, or after surgery, immediately, after a week, months, or even later may occur leading to fall in vision, late development of vision or even loss of vision. The infection may be from the body blood, throat or external. There is also a risk of late development of fungal infection, which may even, commence a month after surgery. Though every effort is made to minimise the chances of infection, it cannot be eliminated and the risk factor must be taken into account prior decision for surgery. However, intra ocular lenses are sterile, there is no additional risk of infection with an implant or without an implant. 10. Complications of surgery in general: As with all types of surgery, there is the possibility of other complications due to an anesthesia, drug reactions or other complications due to an anesthesia, drug reactions or other factors which may involve other parts of my body, including a possibility of brain damage or even death. Since it’s impossible to state every complication that may occur as a result of surgery, the list of complications in this form is incomplete. The basic procedures of cataract surgery and the advantages and disadvantages, risks and possible complications of alternative treatments have been explained to me by the doctor. Although it is impossible for the doctor to inform me of every possible complication that may occur, the doctor has answered all my questions to my satisfaction. I understand that the implanting of an intraocular lens in my eye requires periodic visits to the doctor by me for at least a year to assess the results of the operation. I also understand that in my case the speed at which the recovery of vision occurs is not possible to anticipate in advance. I also understand that it may be possible that I may need to be re-operated again to stabilise the problem that may have occurred or to solve a new problem that may have occurred. I am stating I have read this informed consent (or it has been read to me) and I fully understand it and the possible risks, complications and benefits that can result from the surgery. If I decide to have an operation, I know my surgeon is going to make every possible effort to assist me in the recovery of my eye, and I unequivocally confirm and agree not to hold my surgeon or his assistants, responsible in any way for the surgery, nor to institute, against him or his assistants, any proceeding, legal or otherwise, in any forum, in any fashion, of any type, with regards to the pre operative management, the diagnosis, the operation, the type of surgery or its technique, its results, any complications or problems, either during or after the surgery and the post operative care in the immediate or late future. Patient’s Name (Printed):______________________________________________ Age:__________ Patients signature:__________________________________________________________________ Witness Name:___________________________________ Witness signature:__________________ Date:_________________ Time:_________________________ Place:_______________________ Surgeon Doctor’s Name: Dr.. Surgeon Doctor’s Address Doctor’s signature:_________________________________________________________________ Be informed your physician will furnish any additional information you require to be certain you are fully informed about the operation and the lens.

Каннада

ಕಣ್ಣಿನ ಪೊರೆ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆ ರೂಪ

Последнее обновление: 2019-11-20
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

The plants and animals found in one particular area are termed to be the flora and fauna of that area. All the living organisms which include plants, animals and microorganisms should be conserved for many reasons. • Ecological balance should be maintained in order to restore biogeochemical cycles and food chains. • The variety of wild animals should be preserved in the form of gene bank to enhance breeding programmes. • Wild animals possess some aesthetic values.

Каннада

ಒಂದು ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುವ ಸಸ್ಯಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಆ ಪ್ರದೇಶದ ಸಸ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಸಸ್ಯಗಳು, ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮಜೀವಿಗಳನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿರುವ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಜೀವಿಗಳನ್ನು ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಬೇಕು. Ge ಜೈವಿಕ ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಚಕ್ರಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಆಹಾರ ಸರಪಳಿಗಳನ್ನು ಪುನಃಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಲು ಪರಿಸರ ಸಮತೋಲನವನ್ನು ಕಾಪಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು. ಸಂತಾನೋತ್ಪತ್ತಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಲು ವಿವಿಧ ರೀತಿಯ ಕಾಡು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಜೀನ್ ಬ್ಯಾಂಕ್ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಬೇಕು. • ಕಾಡು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳು ಕೆಲವು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯದ ಮೌಲ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿವೆ.

Последнее обновление: 2019-10-29
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when your blood pressure increases to unhealthy levels. Your blood pressure measurement takes into account how much blood is passing through your blood vessels and the amount of resistance the blood meets while the heart is pumping. Narrow arteries increase resistance. The narrower your arteries are, the higher your blood pressure will be. Over the long term, increased pressure can cause health issues, including heart disease. Hypertension is quite common. In fact, since the guidelines have recently changed, it’s expected that nearly half of American adults will now be diagnosed with this condition. Hypertension typically develops over the course of several years. Usually, you don’t notice any symptoms. But even without symptoms, high blood pressure can cause damage to your blood vessels and organs, especially the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys. Early detection is important. Regular blood pressure readings can help you and your doctor notice any changes. If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may have you check your blood pressure over a few weeks to see if the number stays elevated or falls back to normal levels. Treatment for hypertension includes both prescription medication and healthy lifestyle changes. If the condition isn’t treated, it could lead to health issues, including heart attack and stroke. What causes high blood pressure? There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause. Primary hypertension Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension. This kind of hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. Most people have this type of high blood pressure. Researchers are still unclear what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include: Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents. Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase. Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for hypertension. Secondary hypertension Secondary hypertension often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include: kidney disease obstructive sleep apnea congenital heart defects problems with your thyroid side effects of medications use of illegal drugs alcohol abuse or chronic use adrenal gland problems certain endocrine tumors What are the symptoms of hypertension? Hypertension is generally a silent condition. Many people won’t experience any symptoms. It may take years or even decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious. Even then, these symptoms may be attributed to other issues. Symptoms of severe hypertension can include: headaches shortness of breath nosebleeds flushing dizziness chest pain visual changes blood in the urine These symptoms require immediate medical attention. They don’t occur in everyone with hypertension, but waiting for a symptom of this condition to appear could be fatal. The best way to know if you have hypertension is to get regular blood pressure readings. Most doctors’ offices take a blood pressure reading at every appointment. If you only have a yearly physical, talk to your doctor about your risks for hypertension and other readings you may need to help you watch your blood pressure. For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This helps you and your doctor stay on top of any possible issues before they become problematic. Diagnosing high blood pressure Diagnosing hypertension is as simple as taking a blood pressure reading. Most doctors’ offices check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. If you don’t receive a blood pressure reading at your next appointment, request one. If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day. If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor will likely conduct more tests to rule out underlying conditions. These tests can include: urine test cholesterol screening and other blood tests test of your heart’s electrical activity with an electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes referred to as an ECG) ultrasound of your heart or kidneys These tests can help your doctor identify any secondary issues causing your elevated blood pressure. They can also look at the effects high blood pressure may have had on your organs. During this time, your doctor may begin treating your hypertension. Early treatment may reduce your risk of lasting damage. How to understand high blood pressure readings Two numbers create a blood pressure reading: Systolic pressure: This is the first, or top, number. It indicates the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats and pumps out blood. Diastolic pressure: This is the second, or bottom, number. It’s the reading of the pressure in your arteries between beats of your heart. Five categories define blood pressure readings for adults: Healthy:A healthy blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Elevated:The systolic number is between 120 and 129 mm Hg, and the diastolic number is less than 80 mm Hg. Doctors usually don’t treat elevated blood pressure with medication. Instead, your doctor may encourage lifestyle changes to help lower your numbers. Stage 1 hypertension: The systolic number is between 130 and 139 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is between 80 and 89 mm Hg. Stage 2 hypertension: The systolic number is 140 mm Hg or higher, or the diastolic number is 90 mm Hg or higher. Hypertensive crisis: The systolic number is over 180 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is over 120 mm Hg. Blood pressure in this range requires urgent medical attention. If any symptoms such as chest pain, headache, shortness of breath, or visual changes occur when blood pressure is this high, medical care in the emergency room is needed. A blood pressure reading is taken with a pressure cuff. For an accurate reading, it’s important you have a cuff that fits. An ill-fitting cuff may deliver inaccurate readings. Blood pressure readings are different for children and teenagers. Ask your child’s doctor for the healthy ranges for your child if you’re asked to monitor their blood pressure.

Каннада

kannada

Последнее обновление: 2019-05-09
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

essay on environment HOW TO CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY A GUIDE TO MAKING 5 JUNE 2015 A SUCCESS! Who this toolkit is for. • Want to know what WED is about? • Need ideas on how to celebrate or start preparing? • Want to know what others are doing to celebrate this year? • Want to make your actions count? This toolkit is right for you! There is an alarmingly high rate of unsustainable consumption of resources as, exemplified in the areas of food, water and energy. Largely driven by increasing household incomes (particularly in cities), the current collective lifestyles of people all over the world exceed our planet’s regenerative capacity to replenish natural resources. Today the human race consumes resources the equivalent of 1.5 planets. This means it now takes one year and six months for the Earth to regenerate what we use in a year. If current consumption and production patterns remain the same, and with a rising population, we will need two planets by 2030 to sustain our ways of living and consumption. This year’s theme for WED – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – expresses the challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. For all seven billion of us, our present and our future depend on the sustainable consumption of our planet’s resources. On WED, let us pledge one less thing we will do without, in order to restore our planet’s natural regenerative ability? This guide is designed to inspire you with exciting ideas and we’ll give you practical suggestions for organising your event. Make your environment efforts known by celebrating WED and registering them on our website – www.unep.org/wed WELCOME! Welcome to your quick guide to celebrating World Environment Day (WED) on 5 June, 2015. WHY CELEBRATE WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY? When we see or experience the negative effects of climate change, environmental degradation or resource depletion it is easy to blame others - governments for not prioritising environmental policy; corporate organisations for raising greenhouse gas emissions; NGOs for not lobbying strongly enough for the environment; and individuals for not taking action. World Environment Day however is a day we put aside our differences and instead celebrate the achievements we’ve made towards protecting the environment. By celebrating WED, we remind ourselves and others of the importance of caring for our environment. Remember that every action counts, so join us: every year, everywhere, everyone! THEME RATIONALE Sustainable consumption can be described as “the use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life-cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations” (Oslo Symposium, 1994). ABOUT WED World Environment Day (WED) is the United Nations’ campaign for encouraging worldwide awareness and action for the environment. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly to mark the opening of the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. Over the years it has grown to be a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated by stakeholders in over 100 countries. It also serves as the people’s day for doing something positive for the environment, inspiring individual actions into a collective power that generates an exponential positive impact on the planet. WED is celebrated around the world in many ways, including street rallies, bicycle parades, green concerts, essay and poster competitions in schools, tree planting, recycling efforts, clean-up campaigns and much more. CURRENT RATE OF NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION By 2050, humanity could devour about 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year – three times its current appetite – unless economic growth rate is ‘decoupled’ from the rate of natural resource use. Over 60 percent of the ecosystems and their services upon which we rely are degraded, overexploited or already lost. With an additional 3 billion middle class consumers expected to enter the global economy by 2030, more natural resources will be lost forever if ‘business-as-usual’ prevails. Evidence is building that people are consuming far more natural resources than what the planet can sustainably provide. The well-being of humanity, the environment, and the functioning of the economy, ultimately depend upon the responsible management of the planet’s natural resources. Many of the Earth’s ecosystems are nearing critical tipping points of depletion or irreversible change, pushed by high population growth and economic development. The WED 2015 campaign therefore captures sustainable consumption in the context of the planet’s regenerative capacity. Supported by the slogan – Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care – WED this year therefore aims to raise awareness on the unsustainable rate at which we are consuming the planet’s resources, and shift individual and collective behaviour towards sustainable lifestyles. FOOD While substantial environmental impacts from food occur in the production phase (agriculture, food processing), households influence these impacts through their dietary choices and habits. This consequently affects the environment through food-related energy consumption and waste generation. ENERGY Despite technological advances that have promoted energy efficiency gains, energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35%[ERROR] by 2020. Commercial and residential energy use is the second most rapidly growing area of global energy use after transport. In 2002 the motor vehicle stock in OECD countries was 550 million vehicles (75%[ERROR] of which were personal cars). A 32%[ERROR] increase in vehicle ownership is expected by 2020. At the same time, motor vehicle kilometres are projected to increase by 40%[ERROR] and global air travel is projected to triple in the same period. WATER Even though households are relatively low consumers of water, population growth and expanded water use have outweighed the effect of water saving technology and behaviour. THREE MAIN AREAS OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION Environmental pressures will intensify in three areas of household consumption. PLANNING FOR WED? 5 QUICK STEPS 1 DETERMINE THE INTERESTS FOR WED Discuss the possibility of organising an event around WED with your colleagues, your community, environmental co-ordinators, other NGOs and local government. Brainstorm on possible areas of interest. Review any past experiences with WED or similar events. See unep.org/wed 2 DETERMINE WHAT ACTIVITIES ARE PLANNED AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL Find out what is being prepared for celebrations at the international, regional and national levels – unep.org/wed/regional-features. Speak with organisers of these events and see how you can support them. 3 LINK THE WED THEME TO YOUR ACTIVITIES The official theme for 2015 is Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care. This theme reflects challenge of creating opportunities for inclusive and sustainable economic development while attempting to stabilise the rate of resource use and reduce environmental impacts. This year’s theme gives you plenty of room to be creative. Figure out clever ways to link your activities to the official theme! Think of punchy messaging that will attract the most attention and motivate others to get involved! 4 PREPARE A PLAN Early planning is essential to your success. Draw up a basic plan of action for discussion with friends, colleagues or senior management. Set objectives and determine a preliminary series of activities as well as a provisional timetable. Make sure you get permission or clearance from your relevant local authorities well in advance – especially if you are planning public demonstrations or other open activities – to avoid disappointment on the day of celebration. Seek partnerships and possible financial support for your activities (e.g. local companies to help you print t-shirts, caps, posters and banners with WED messaging). Download artwork from the WED website multimedia section. 5 CELEBRATE WITH US This is the most important step of your planning. Why celebrate alone? You can get instant visibility for your activities by registering them on our website. Also think of smart, quirky or funny ways to motivate people around you. Invite the local media to your event! Engage leaders, celebrities and government officials that will help attract the media! NEED TO USE THE WED LOGO? Download the WED logo and style guide from the multimedia section of unep.org/wed. The logo is available in the official UN languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish WHO DO I SPEAK TO IF I NEED MORE INFORMATION? Our website www.unep.org/wed is a great place to begin but feel free to talk to us in person. Contact: Ms. Lucita Jasmin Division of Communications and Public Information United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Tel: 254-20-7623401 /7621551 Email: worldenvironmentday@unep.org THIS SOUNDS EXPENSIVE Participation in World Environment Day does not require a huge financial investment. WED is a people’s event so the objective is to get everyone to participate in one way or another. By including local communities and other partners in your WED events, the possibilities of finding interested sponsors are more likely. All you need is passion for the cause, and well-planned activities. Good luck! SUGGESTED WAYS OF CELEBRATING WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY Various events and practical activities, identified below, highlight what actions can be taken to celebrate WED. This list is not exhaustive and many activities may spring to mind that will be better suited to your local needs and conditions. If each of us contributes a little to this celebration, it will be a far greater success. The most important goal of this day is to raise awareness on the rate of overconsumption in the areas of food, energy and water. • Arts and Crafts Exhibitions/ Film Festivals • Ceremonies and Celebrities • Competitions • Concerts • Demonstration Activities • Drama and Poetry • Environmental Education and Awareness-Raising • Flash Mobs • Information Kits • Online and Social Media Activities • Publicity and Media Coverage • Sports Activities • Other Ideas: create your own ideas and guidelines, and submit to us! ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS What is involved? Why support this activity? • Paintings related to any of the main areas of household consumption: food, energy and water. • Displays of pottery, wooden figurines, stone articles, grass baskets, clothes etc. • Demonstration on how energy-saving stoves are manufactured and maintained. • Crafts made with recycled materials, e.g. plastics or tins. • Posters and photo exhibitions carrying the essence of consumption levels in food, energy and water. • Screening of compelling films on the environment made by different communities. • Art uses symbolic messages to capture an audience and communicate a message in unconventional ways. What begins as an appreciation for art could develop into a true passion for the environment. • Many art forms use environmentally sustainable and natural resources that complement the objectives of your exhibit. • Film, as a medium, engages all people without necessarily being limited by literacy levels. Films can attract large crowds. How to organise it? • Decide what will happen with the artwork or films you will collect, whether the artists maintain rights or if you will use them for promotion afterwards. Seek legal advice concerning rights if you intend to use the artwork beyond your exhibition and especially if there will be a commercial aspect. • After you have decided on your theme and identified partners (including sponsors) publish a call for submissions in your local news outlets. • Consider a prize for winners. • Select a jury from reputable and or renowned artists and filmmakers. • Set up displays of arts and crafts of various cultural/local origins. ARTS AND CRAFTS EXHIBITIONS/ FILM FESTIVALS Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Invite your local community to submit artwork. • Encourage the participation of marginalised groups (e.g. women, children and orphans) by creating appropriate categories for their submissions. • If local authorities, government, implementing partners, or conservation agencies are receptive to your concept, bring them on board as partners. • Seek sponsorship from governments, agencies, museums, existing film festivals and the corporate sector (arts and crafts or ethnological museums/funds could be interested). • Invite the media, advertise, take pictures, and register activity on the WED website. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • A speech on the environment, focusing on the WED theme and with special emphasis on the environmental challenges in the community and their possible solutions. • Identify and approach a goodwill ambassador that is well known by your target audience. • The involvement of prominent local personalities who are authoritative voices on the environment could lend credibility to your event. • You can reach a large number of people in a short time, which makes sponsorship and media coverage more likely. • The presence of a celebrity attracts attention from the media and a crowd. The media acts as a multiplier for your efforts through their ability to increase attention towards your efforts. How to organise it? • Your primary objective is to add significance to WED by encouraging governments, local authorities, communities or corporate organisations to announce new environmental commitments, targets, policies or programmes on the day itself. This means you must conduct ground research in order to make meaningful suggestions to your target authority. Once you have ‘sold them’ to your idea, convince them to announce it at a ceremony on World Environment Day. • It is common to mark a special event like WED with a ceremony or presentation. It can be short, with introductory speeches by celebrities, politicians or sponsors. • Invite government representatives, local authorities or respected persons from your local community. • Enlist your partners and sponsors to help organise and publicise the ceremony. • Make sure your celebrities are well-briefed in advance and that they re-iterate your planned messages. CEREMONIES AND CELEBRITIES Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Ideally, the speech venue should be open to all. • Partner with governments, ministries, implementing agencies, as well as with local businesses (present them with an opportunity to use their company logos). They may also be willing to provide some form of sponsorship. Investigate the core principles of each institution and ensure they tally with your ideas before requesting funding. • Invite the media! – unep.org/wed. Don’t expect them to show up on their own. Prepare a media pack: a few fact sheets or notes that you will give away to the media. If you have a specific message that you would like them to carry, make sure that you spell this out in the media pack. This way they will have the necessary details to write or film a piece on your event. Come up with catchy short phrases that the press can quote. Remember to give background information on your objectives, supported by facts. • Download the WED logo and posters, and clearly display them on the day to give your event context – unep.org/wed. How to organise it? (continued) What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Drawing, painting, films and essay competitions on issues of over consumption in areas of food, energy and water. Note: Where funds permit, small awards such as t-shirts, stickers or pens are ideal prizes for successful participants. Winners of contests should receive some sort of public recognition and prize. • Competitions are an ideal ways to engage and involve young people especially in celebrations of this nature. • Competitions encourage people to think of their own actions, how these might impact the environment, and what steps they might take to change their behaviour. Set guidelines and rules for the competition, stating who can participate. Ensure that your competition entry guidelines emphasize the WED theme. • Make sure you advertise widely in order to enrich the quality of your entries. Target schools, for example. • Decide on a reward for winners that will make it worthwhile for participants. • Set up a jury with, preferably, experts in the field of competition. • The process should be as transparent as possible ensure successful results. • Include students and youth groups in competitions. • Partnerships can be sought with agencies working with education, local schools and teachers. COMPETITIONS CONCERTS What is involved? Why support this activity? How to organise it? Participation/ Partnerships/ Sponsors • Performances of musicians and artists. • Green concerts: have low energy consumption or mechanisms to offset (such as asking audience to walk, cycle or take public transport to the event and using only food packaging that is recyclable). • Concert with musical instruments made from natural resources. • Play music related to the theme. • Music is a good way to attract people. • Music crosses barriers, and so it can help to open discussions on difficult issues. • Music enhances the ambience of a gathering. • Hire musicians and prepare a stage where they can perform. • Include a well-known musician from the hosting community or country. • Try to include other artists (e.g. acrobats and fire-walkers) while the music plays to make it an audio-visual show. • Include visibility material around the stage (like WED posters and banners, downloadable from the WED website) and include short speeches on the purpose of the event at the beginning of the show. • By inviting local musicians you can rally up a big crowd and foster goodwill with the local community. • Partnerships can be found within government or local businesses (display their logo on the stage, together with WED visibility material). • Seek sponsorship by partnering with organisations and availing advertising opportunities. • Charge an entry fee to offset the cost of your event. DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES What is involved? Why support this activity? • Display of posters on positive actions we can take to reduce food, energy and water consumption. • Awareness-raising of the value of natural resources (prevention of pollution, careful use/reuse of water, identifying certified forest products etc.) • Workshop on how different resources can be used in several ways and several times (e.g. washing, cleaning or watering plants with grey water, i.e. water that has already been used for something else and is no longer considered safe for consumption). • Demonstration can include the building of fuel-efficient stoves, alternative fuels, additional use of good cooking/fire management practices, the sustainable agriculture, sustainable use of forest resources; fish farming techniques, school or kitchen gardens. • Demonstration activities can be both instructive and entertaining, for local communities. • They are often the best way of introducing new ideas and sharing knowledge and experience: people are more comfortable using new techniques once they can see that others have benefited from them. • Demonstration a

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ಪರಿಸರದ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

If you get up at Sunrise, you will be healthy, wealthy and wise. After a gloomy night, sunrise brings new hopes and aspirations. It spreads a golden light all around. Birds and beasts, men and angels eagerly wait for it. It is a time when the nature is at its best. It is a time to pray to God. Sunrise is a time when there is calm and quiet, the atmosphere is pure and fresh and there is no dust, no smoke, and no noise. We can inhale a lot of pure oxygen. A man who goes out for a long walk at sunrise never falls ill. The rising sun gives us light and warmth. It gives new life to withering plants and a new lease of life .to all living creatures. That is why even the gods worship the rising sun.

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ಸೂರ್ಯೋದಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಕನ್ನಡ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Последнее обновление: 2017-07-11
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

National festivals India is a land of fairs and festivals. As different communities belonging to different religions live here, therefore many festivals are celebrated regularly every year. Among these festivals, some are religious; some are based on seasons while some are of national importance. All the festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm in a colourful atmosphere. Diwali, Dussehra, Raksha Bandhan, Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha, Christmas, Mahavir Jayanti, Gurunanak Jayanti, Ganesh Chaturhi etc. are the religious festivals of India. These festivals are celebrated by different communities but they are celebrated as a whole. We can see festive atmosphere everywhere in India. Holi, Baisakhi, Basant Panchami, Bihu, Pongal, Onam etc. are seasonal or harvest festivals. The spirit of Holi is colour-rich and vibrant, flung into the air and smeared with immense joy on friends and dear onces. This festival marks the end of winter season and advent of bright days of summer. Baisakhi, a harvest festival, is celebrated in North India, particularly in Punjab and Haiyana, when the Rabi crop is ready for harvesting. In South India, during the same period, 'Pongal' is celebrated. The farmers worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. And then there is Basant Panchami. It marks the arrival of sweet spring the season of pleasant breeze, flowers and fragrance. All fill life with vigour and vitality. Hence people celebrate this festival with great zeal and excitement. Then comes our national festivals- the Independence Day, The Republic day and the Gandhi Jayanti these festivals are celebrated by all communities through out the country. The Independence Day celebrated on 15th August every year reminds us those numerous freedom fighters that made the Britishers leave the country. They gave us our long-cherished freedom. The Republic day, which falls on 26th January, is observed with national feeling. This festival fills us with pride that now we live in a sovereign democratic republic country with a constitution of our own. On this day colourful parade starts from Vijay Chowk which ends at the Red Fort. Similarly Gandhi Jayanti is also celebrated nation wide. It falls on 2nd October, the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of Nation. Whole nation pays heartiest tribute to our revered soul, who lived and died for the country. The festivals make our life colourful and enthusiastic. They bring people together. They come every year to make us forget all ill-will and communal hatred the festivals strengthen the feeling of oneness too people, without any malice, meet with one another and wish for bright future. Thus, festivals are very important and they must be celebrated with pomp and show by all.

Каннада

ನಮ್ಮ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಹಬ್ಬಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

Последнее обновление: 2017-07-01
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

WLE Austria Logo (no text).svg The beautiful white bengal tiger, Abhishek Chikile, CC BY-SA 4.0. Hide Participate in Wiki Loves Earth India 2016 Photo contest Upload Photos of Natural Heritage sites of India to help Wikipedia & win fantastic Prizes Check out the rules here Educational technology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "E-learning" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Education Disciplines Evaluation History Organization Philosophy Psychology (school) Technology (Electronic marking) International education School counseling Special education Teacher education Curricular domains Arts Business Early childhood Engineering Language Literacy Mathematics Science Social science Technology Vocational Methods Case method Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Factor analysis Factorial experiment Focus group Meta-analysis Multivariate statistics Participant observation v t e Educational technology is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS) educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and communications technology (ICT)". Contents 1 Definition 2 Related terms 3 History 4 Theory 4.1 Behaviorism 4.2 Cognitivism 4.3 Constructivism 5 Practice 5.1 Synchronous and asynchronous 5.2 Linear learning 5.3 Collaborative learning 6 Media 6.1 Audio and video 6.2 Computers, tablets and mobile devices 6.3 Social networks 6.4 Webcams 6.5 Whiteboards 6.6 Screencasting 6.7 Virtual classroom 6.8 E-learning authoring tools 6.9 Learning management system 6.10 Learning objects 7 Settings 7.1 Preschool 7.2 K–12 7.3 Higher education 7.4 Corporate and professional 7.5 Public health 7.6 ADHD 7.7 Disabilities 7.8 Identity options 8 Benefits 9 Disadvantages 9.1 Over-stimulation 9.2 Sociocultural criticism 10 Teacher training 11 Assessment 12 Expenditure 13 Careers 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading Definition Richey defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[2] The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."[3][4][5] As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Related terms Early 20th century abacus used in a Danish elementary school. Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.[6] However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[7] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),[8] internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education. Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features.[9] However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment.[10] Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle.[9] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning;[11] nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology.[9] In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology.[9] Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world,[12][13] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[14][15] In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.[16] As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning milieu.[17] Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have to do anything in order to learn, they just have to be there.[17][18] The combination of adaptive learning, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning.[19][20][21] Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept.[22][23] Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the "e" of e-learning should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic."[24] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[25] These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology.[24] History Main article: Educational software 19th century classroom, Auckland Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls.[26][27] Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium.[28] From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th century[29] with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all multiple choice, large scale assessment was the Army Alpha, used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using films and other mediated materials, such as overhead projectors. The concept of hypertext is traced to description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. Cuisenaire rods Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s. In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely linked device like a television or audio device.[30] In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California.[31][32] Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction. Working with Stanford and others he helped develop computer-assisted instruction. Working with the Rand Corporation, Luskin's landmark UCLA dissertation in 1970 analyzed obstacles to computer-assisted instruction. Artistic portrait of Ivan Illich by Amano1. In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology[33] as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada.[34] In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning[35] (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86). By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge. Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with Museum Education. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue; and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant.[36] The Open University in Britain[34] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning,[37] making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students.[38] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[39] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.[40] Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams. The National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component.[41] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.[42] Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media.[43][44] Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance.[45] Theory Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education) and Educational philosophies Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. Behaviorism This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.[46] B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior[47][48] and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",[49][50] an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. Cognitivism Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.[51] Constructivism Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012[52]). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.[53]:224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology.[53][54] Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most contro

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ಬಿನ್ ಜೊತೆ transalate

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