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Английский

a. How many meaning for the idea of flexibility can you think of? As you consider these different meanings, examine the implication for skills, type of contract and overall motivation and satisfaction people at work.

Малайский

a. Berapa banyak makna idea fleksibiliti yang dapat anda fikirkan? Semasa anda mempertimbangkan makna yang berbeza ini, kaji implikasi kemahiran, jenis kontrak dan motivasi dan kepuasan keseluruhan orang di tempat kerja.

Последнее обновление: 2020-10-20
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Английский

Insulin Receptors and Insulin Binding Insulin mediates its actions through binding to insulin receptors. The insulin receptor was fi rst characterised in 1971. It consists of a heterotetramer consisting of 2 α and 2 β glycoprotein subunits linked by disulphide bonds and is located on the cell membrane.25 The gene coding for the insulin receptor is located on the short arm of chromosome 19.17 Insulin binds to the extracellular α subunit, resulting in conformational change enabling ATP to bind to the intracellular component of the β subunit.23 ATP binding in turn triggers phosphorylation of the β subunit conferring tyrosine kinase activity. This enables tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrate proteins known as insulin responsive substrates (IRS). The IRS can then bind other signalling molecules which mediate further cellular actions of insulin.25 There are four known specifi cally-named IRS proteins. IRS 1 and 2 have widely overlapping tissue distribution. IRS 1 is phosphorylated by both the insulin receptor and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1 see below) receptor, mediates the mitogenic effects of insulin and couples glucose sensing to insulin secretion with IRS 1 proposed to be the major IRS in skeletal muscle. IRS 2, proposed to be the main IRS in liver, mediates peripheral actions of insulin and growth of pancreatic β cells.25 IRS 3 and 4 are less well characterised. IRS 3 is found only in adipose tissue, β cells and liver and IRS 4 in thymus, brain and kidney.26,27 Phosphorylated IRS proteins bind specifi c src-homology-2 domain proteins (SH2), which include important enzymes such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHPTP2 (or Syp), and other proteins that lack enzymatic activity but which link IRS-1 and other intracellular signalling systems, e.g. the adaptor protein Grb2 which connects with the RAS (rat sarcoma protein) pathway. PI 3-kinase promotes the translocation of glucose transporter proteins, glycogen, lipid and protein synthesis, anti-lipolysis and the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis.27 PI 3-kinase acts via serine and threonine kinases such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC) and PI dependent protein kinases1& 2 (PIPD 1&2). The RAS pathway activates transcription factors and stimulates the growth promoting actions of insulin.25 Thus broadly, PI 3-kinase mediates insulin’s metabolic effects, e.g. cellular glucose uptake, while RAS signifi cantly mediates insulin’s mitogenic effects17,25 Clin Biochem Rev Vol 26 May 2005 I 23 Insulin and Insulin Resistance together with other less well described actions. These pathways are presented schematically in Figure 2. Glucose Transporter Proteins Glucose enters cells in an ATP-independent manner by means of glucose transporter proteins (GLUT), of which at least 5 subtypes have been identifi ed28,29 (Table 2). Differing in characteristics such as Km for maximal glucose transport and insulin dependency, they enable different cell types to utilise glucose according to their specifi c functions. For example, most brain cells, having GLUT 1 as the principal transporter protein, are able to move glucose intracellularly at very low blood glucose blood concentrations without the need for insulin. Thus these neurons, which are principally dependent on glucose for intracellular energy, are able to extract it from the circulation and function despite the low glucose and insulin levels seen during the fasting state. On the other hand, adipose cells and muscle cells have GLUT 4 as the major glucose transporter protein, which requires insulin for its action and has a much higher Km for glucose. This enables adipose tissue cells, whose function is to store excess energy, to respond to the higher glucose levels characteristic of the fed state, and allows glucose to enter the cells where fatty acid and glycerol synthesis is stimulated and lipolysis suppressed. However, where glucose and insulin levels fall to fasting values, glucose no longer enters the cells, promoting lipolysis. In muscle cells, intracellular glucose transport facilitates glycogen synthesis in the fed state.27 PI 3-kinase appears to be essential for the translocation of GLUT 4 to the cell membrane in muscle cells and adipocytes; this facilitates the downstream actions of this key intracellular enzyme.25 Actions of Insulin at the Cellular Level Insulin’s actions at the cellular level encompass carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism and mRNA transcription and translation. Carbohydrate Metabolism Insulin acts at multiple steps in carbohydrate metabolism. Its effect on facilitated diffusion of glucose into fat and muscle cells via modulation of GLUT 4 translocation has been discussed. Glycogen synthesis is increased, and glycogen breakdown decreased, by dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase kinase respectively. Glycolysis is stimulated and gluconeogenesis inhibited by dephosphorylation of pyruvate kinase (PK) and 2,6 biphosphate kinase. Signalling intracellular energy abundance, insulin enhances the irreversible conversion of pyruvate to 24 I Clin Biochem Rev Vol 26 May 2005 Wilcox G Table 1. Mediators of insulin secretion. Stimulus Nutrient Hormone Neural Stimulatory Glucose Growth hormone β-adrenergic Amino acids Glucagon Vagal (Ketones) GLP-1 (parasympathetic) GIP Secretin Cholecystokinin Gastrin VIP Gastrin releasing peptide Inhibitory Adrenocorticosteroids α-adrenergic Somatostatin Adrenalin Noradrenalin Galanin Neuropeptide Y Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) Prostaglandin E Reference: Adapted from reference 17. Acetyl Co-A by activation of the intra-mitochondrial enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA may then be directly oxidised via the Krebs’ cycle, or used for fatty acid synthesis.30 Lipid Metabolism Insulin stimulates fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue, liver and lactating mammary glands along with formation and storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue and liver. Fatty acid synthesis is increased by activation and increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, while fat oxidation is suppressed by inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase. Triglyceride synthesis is stimulated by esterifi cation of glycerol phosphate, while triglyceride breakdown is suppressed by dephosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase. Cholesterol synthesis is increased by activation and dephosphorylation of HMG Co-A reductase while cholesterol ester breakdown appears to be inhibited by dephosphorylation of cholesterol esterase. Phospholipid metabolism is also infl uenced by insulin.28 Protein Synthesis Insulin promotes protein synthesis in a range of tissues. There are effects on transcription of specifi c mRNA, as well as translation of mRNA into proteins in the ribosomes. Examples of enhanced mRNA transcription include the mRNA for glucokinase, PK, fatty acid synthase and albumin in the liver, pyruvate carboxylase in the adipose tissue, casein in the mammary gland and amylase in the pancreas. Insulin action decreases mRNA for liver enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, a key enzyme in the urea cycle. Effects on translation are widespread and infl uenced by both insulin itself and by various growth factors, e.g. IGF-1.19,28 Other Ligands for the Insulin Receptor Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are so-called because they have signifi cant structural homology with proinsulin but mainly mitogenic effects, signifi cantly regulated by growth hormone.31 IGF-1 and 2 are coded for on the long arm of chromosome 12 and short arm of chromosome 11 respectively.32 They have specifi c receptors and bind with Clin Biochem Rev Vol 26 May 2005 I 25 Insulin and Insulin Resistance Figure 2. Schematic presentation of insulin signalling pathways. Adapted from references: 25, 28 & 35. See Footnotes on page 22 for Figure abbreviations. different affi nities to the various IGF binding proteins. Insulin can bind to the receptors for IGF-1 and 2 but with much lower affi nity (10-2 and 5x10-3) respectively. IGF-1 binds weakly to the insulin receptor, with only 1.25x10-3 the affi nity for the IGF-1 receptor; it binds the IGF-2 receptor with 1/4 the affi nity for the IGF-2 receptor. IGF-2 does not bind to the insulin receptor; it does bind the IGF-1 receptor but with 1/3 the affi nity for the IGF-2 receptor.29 Therefore overlap in physiological functions is more limited in vivo. Physiological Role of Insulin Insulin is the pivotal hormone regulating cellular energy supply and macronutrient balance, directing anabolic processes of the fed state.27 Insulin is essential for the intra-cellular transport of glucose into insulin-dependent tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue. Signalling abundance of exogenous energy, adipose tissue fat breakdown is suppressed and its synthesis promoted. In muscle cells, glucose entry enables glycogen to be synthesised and stored, and for carbohydrates, rather than fatty acids (or amino acids) to be utilised as the immediately available energy source for muscle contraction. Insulin therefore promotes glycogen and lipid synthesis in muscle cells, while suppressing lipolysis and gluconeogenesis from muscle amino acids. In the presence of an adequate supply of amino acids, insulin is anabolic in muscle.29 Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance Physiologically, at the whole body level, the actions of insulin are infl uenced by the interplay of other hormones. Insulin, though the dominant hormone driving metabolic processes in the fed state, acts in concert with growth hormone and IGF1; growth hormone is secreted in response to insulin, among other stimuli, preventing insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Other counter-regulatory hormones include glucagon, glucocorticoids and catecholamines. These hormones drive metabolic processes in the fasting state. Glucagon promotes glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. The ratio of insulin to glucagon determines the degree of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of the relevant enzymes.29 Catecholamines promote lipolysis and glycogenolysis; glucocorticoids promote muscle catabolism, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. Excess secretion of these hormones may contribute to insulin resistance in particular settings, but does not account for the vast majority of insulin resistant states. 26 I Clin Biochem Rev Vol 26 May 2005 Wilcox G Table 2. Glucose transporter proteins.26,27 ISOFORM Tissue Distribution Affi nity for Glucose Km Characteristics Gene location GLUT 1 Brain microvessels, Red blood cells Placenta Kidney All tissues High 1 mmol/L Ubiquitous Basal transporter Chr 1 GLUT 2 Liver Kidney β cell Small intestine Low 15-20 mmol/L High Km transporter Insulin-independent Chr 3 GLUT 3 Brain neurons Placenta Foetal muscle All tissues High <1 mmol/L Low Km transporter Found in glucosedependent tissues Chr 12 GLUT 4 Muscle cells Fat cells Heart Medium 2.5-5 mmol/L Sequestered intracellularly and translocates to cell surface in response to insulin Chr 17 GLUT 5 Small intestine Testes Medium 6 mmol/L High affi nity for fructose Chr 1 Insulin resistance in most cases is believed to be manifest at the cellular level via post-receptor defects in insulin signalling. Despite promising fi ndings in experimental animals with respect to a range of insulin signalling defects, their relevance to human insulin resistance is presently unclear. Possible mechanisms include down-regulation, defi ciencies or genetic polymorphisms of tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, IRS proteins or PIP-3 kinase, or may involve abnormalities of GLUT 4 function.33 Sites of Insulin Action and Manifestations of Insulin Resistance The effects of insulin, insulin defi ciency and insulin resistance vary according to the physiological function of the tissues and organs concerned, and their dependence on insulin for metabolic processes. Those tissues defi ned as insulin dependent, based on intracellular glucose transport, are principally adipose tissue and muscle. However, insulin’s actions are pleotropic and widespread, as are the manifestations of insulin resistance and the associated compensatory hyperinsulinaemia.3 Muscle Glucose uptake into muscle is essentially insulin dependent via GLUT 4, and muscle accounts for about 60-70% of whole-body insulin mediated uptake.34 In the fed state insulin promotes glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. This enables energy to be released anaerobically via glycolysis, e.g. during intense muscular activity. Muscle cells do not rely on glucose (or glycogen) for energy during the basal state, when insulin levels are low. Insulin suppresses protein catabolism while insulin defi ciency promotes it, releasing amino acids for gluconeogenesis. In starvation, protein synthesis is reduced by 50%.35 Whilst data regarding a direct anabolic effect of insulin are inconsistent, it is clearly permissive, modulating the phosphorylation status of intermediates in the protein synthetic pathway. In experimental studies, the insulin dose promoting protein synthesis is signifi cantly greater than the dose required to suppress proteolysis. Insulin is anabolic in conjunction with growth hormone, IGF-1 and suffi cient amino acids.35 In insulin resistance, muscle glycogen synthesis is impaired; this appears largely mediated by reduced intracellular glucose translocation.28 In regard to protein turnover, one study reported no difference between insulin resistant type 2 diabetics and controls, though this was at the expense of hyperinsulinaemia in this hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study.36 Adipose Tissue Intracellular glucose transport into adipocytes in the postprandial state is insulin-dependent via GLUT 4; it is estimated that adipose tissue accounts for about 10% of insulin stimulated whole body glucose uptake.34 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake, promotes lipogenesis while suppressing lipolysis, and hence free fatty acid fl ux into the bloodstream. As adipocytes are not dependent on glucose in the basal state, intracellular energy may be supplied by fatty acid oxidation in insulin-defi cient states, whilst liberating free fatty acids into the circulation for direct utilization by other organs e.g. the heart, or in the liver where they are converted to ketone bodies. Ketone bodies provide an alternative energy substrate for the brain during prolonged starvation.30 In insulin resistance the effects on adipose tissue are similar, but in the liver the increased free fatty acid fl ux tends to promote hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) production37 whilst ketogenesis typically remains suppressed by the compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. Furthermore, since lipoprotein lipase activity is insulin-dependent and impaired by insulin resistance, peripheral uptake of triglycerides from VLDL is also diminished. These mechanisms contribute to the observed hypertriglyceridaemia of insulin resistance.38 In addition to free fatty acids, adipose tissue secretes a number of cytokines which have systemic effects on insulin resistance. These include IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), angiotensinogen and leptin which are associated with increased insulin resistance, and adiponectin with reduced insulin resistance.39 TNFα and IL-6 impair insulin signalling, lipolysis and endothelial function. IL-6 production is enhanced by sympathetic nervous system activation, e.g. stress.39 Adipose tissue depots differ in their response to insulin.35 Adipocytes from diabetic and insulin resistant individuals have reduced GLUT 4 translocation, impaired intracellular signalling via reduced IRS-1 gene and protein expression, impaired insulin-stimulated PIP-3 kinase and Akt (protein kinase B).34 Liver While glucose uptake into the liver is not insulin-dependent, it accounts for about 30% of whole body insulin-mediated glucose disposal,34 with insulin being needed to facilitate key metabolic processes. Through intracellular signalling described above, glycogen synthesis is stimulated while protein synthesis and lipoprotein metabolism are modulated.30 Gluconeogenesis and ketone body production are inhibited. Mitogenic effects of insulin (and growth hormone) are mediated via hepatic production of insulin-like growth factors and potentially via suppression of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) production.28 Whilst in insulin defi ciency, e.g. starvation, these processes are more uniformly affected, this is not necessarily the case with insulin resistance. Compensatory hyperinsulinaemia, differential insulin resistance and differential tissue requirements may dissociate these processes.3 Resistance to Clin Biochem Rev Vol 26 May 2005 I 27 Insulin and Insulin Resistance insulin’s metabolic effects results in increased glucose output via increased gluconeogenesis (as in starvation), however, unlike starvation, compensatory hyperinsulinaemia depresses SHBG production and promotes insulin’s mitogenic effects. Alterations in lipoprotein metabolism represent a major hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance. Increased free fatty acid delivery, and reduced VLDL catabolism by insulin resistant adipocytes, results in increased hepatic triglyceride content and VLDL secretion.38 Hepatic synthesis of Creactive protein, fi brinogen and PAI-1 is induced in response to adipocyte-derived pro-infl ammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. Insulin may also increase factor VII gene expression.39 Endothelium and Vasculature Insulin and its actions play an important role in various aspects of endothelial function, e.g. nitric oxide production, while insulin resistance is strongly associated with endothelial dysfunction. Whether these associations are causal, or mediated by common mechanisms, awaits clarifi cation. The functions of vascular endothelial cells are critical to many aspects of cardiovascular biology, with endothelial dysfunction being seen at a very early stage of atherosclerosis and its associated clinical risk factors. Endothelial cells not only provide the physical lining of the blood vessels but secrete various factors infl uencing vessel tone, platelet function, coagulation and fi brinolysis. Clinical problems develop when these processes are in imbalance. Nitric oxide (NO) is the major factor in large arteries mediating endothelial dependent relaxation. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, cell adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation. NO is synthesised from L-arginine, molecular oxygen and NADPH, via the activity of endothelial enzyme nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and its cofactors tetrahydrobiopterin, fl avin adenine dinucleotide and fl avin mononucleotide. Interestingly, arginine is a potent secretatogue for insulin and there is a fi nal common pathway for the intracellular signalling of both eNOS and insulin. Insulin enhances tetrahydrobiopterin production by stimulating its biosynthetic enzyme GTP cyclohydrolase, and stimulates eNOS by calcium-independent phosphorylation of eNOS at serine and threonine residues via PIP-3 kinase and Akt (protein kinase B). Thus nitric oxide production is enhanced. Insulin also promotes release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin while TNFα decreases eNOS expression and induces von Willebrand Factor release. In insulin resistance tetrahydrobiopterin levels are reduced, the pathways for eNOS stimulation are downregulated, and vasodilator responses to insulin and cholinergic agonists are impaired. Insulin’s ability to counteract the TNFαmediated Akt dephosphorylation in endothelial cells is also lost. Free fatty acids, elevated in insulin resistant states, also inhibit eNOS activity, decreasing NO production. The compensatory hyperinsulinaemia that accompanies insulin resistance is associated with increased levels of procoagulant factors such as PAI-1. These factors are thought to contribute to the enhanced platelet aggregation seen in insulin resistant states. Endothelin 1 secret

Малайский

Последнее обновление: 2021-04-26
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Английский

What are the implications of academic dishonesty towards the transfer of knowledge?

Малайский

Последнее обновление: 2020-12-24
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Английский

A UN Crisis Management Team was activated as a result, allowing coordination of the entire United Nations response, which the WHO states will allow them to &quot;focus on the health response while the other agencies can bring their expertise to bear on the wider social, economic and developmental implications of the outbreak&quot;.

Малайский

Hasilnya satu pasukan Pengurusan Krisis PBB telah diaktifkan, membolehkan koordinasi keseluruhan tindak balas Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, yang dikatakan oleh WHO akan membenarkan mereka untuk &quot;memfokus pada tindak balas kesihatan manakala agensi lain boleh membawakan kepakaran mereka untuk menanggung kesan buruk yang lebih luas terhadap sosial, ekonomi dan pembangunan akibat wabak itu&quot;.

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Английский

Continued investigations in this area will elucidate the evolutionary pathway of SARS-CoV-2 in animals, with important implications in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in humans.

Малайский

Penyiasatan yang berterusan dalam kawasan ini akan menjelaskan laluan evolusi SARS-CoV-2 dalam haiwan, dengan implikasi penting dalam pencegahan dan kawalan COVID-19 dalam manusia.

Последнее обновление: 2020-08-25
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Английский

Identifying the animal hosts has direct implications in the prevention of human diseases.

Малайский

Mengenalpasti hos haiwan mempunyai implikasi terus terhadap pencegahan penyakit manusia.

Последнее обновление: 2020-08-25
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In addition, the requirements for successful host switches and the implications of virus evolution on disease severity are also highlighted.

Малайский

Sebagai tambahan, keperluan untuk pertukaran hos yang berjaya serta implikasi terhadap evolusi virus terhadap keterukan penyakit turut ditegaskan.

Последнее обновление: 2020-08-25
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Английский

Privacy campaigners voiced their concern regarding the implications of mass surveillance using coronavirus apps, in particular about whether surveillance infrastructure created to deal with the coronavirus pandemic will be dismantled once the threat has passed.

Малайский

Juru kempen privasi meluahkan kebimbangan mereka mengenai kesan pengawasan massa menggunakan aplikasi koronavirus, khususnya tentang sama ada infrastruktur pengawasan dicipta untuk menangani pandemik koronavirus akan dihentikan sebaik sahaja ancaman itu berlalu.

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Английский

Students enrolled in higher education programmes at colleges, universities, and community colleges are often refereed to in countries such as United States as &quot;college students.&quot;The closure of colleges and universities has widespread implications for students, faculty, administrators, and the institutions themselves.

Малайский

Pelajar yang mendaftar dalam program pendidikan tinggi di kolej, universiti, dan kolej komuniti sering dipanggil &quot;pelajar kolej&quot; di negara seperti Amerika Syarikat. Penutupan kolej dan universiti mempunyai implikasi yang meluas terhadap pelajar, ahli fakulti, pentadbir dan institusi itu sendiri.

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The use of the term &quot;social distancing&quot; had led to implications that people should engage in complete social isolation, rather than encouraging them to stay in contact with others through alternative means.Some authorities have issued sexual health guidelines for use during the pandemic.

Малайский

Penggunaan istilah &quot;penjarakan sosial&quot; telah membawa kepada implikasi bahawa orang ramai harus menjalani pengasingan sosial sepenuhnya, bukannya menggalakkan mereka untuk kela berhubung dengan orang lain melalui cara alternatif. Sesetengah pihak telah mengeluarkan garis panduan kesihatan seksual untuk digunakan semasa pandemik.

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There are no data yet concerning the implications of COVID-19 infections for labour.

Малайский

Tiada data lagi berkenaan implikasi jangkitan COVID-19 untuk kelahiran.

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Английский

This might also guide or facilitate the search for the reservoir, intermediate and amplifying animal host(s) of SARS-CoV-2, with important implications in the prevention of future spillovers.

Малайский

Ini juga mungkin memandu dan memudahkan pencarian hos binatang reservoir, perantara dan pengguat bagi SARS-CoV-2, dengan implikasi penting dalam pencegahan limpahan pada masa akan datang.

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Английский

What are the implications for public health practice?

Малайский

Apakah implikasi COVID-19 terhadap amalan kesihatan awam?

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Английский

. The empirical results suggest that KMO is significantly influences to SCI and FP. The result also indicates that SCI has significant relationship to FP. The role of SCI as a mediator between relationship of SCI and FP is exists based on the empirical finding. This study leads to theoretical contribution and practical implications. In theoretical perceptive, the influence generated from KMO must fully be utilised among suppliers, the focal firm, and customers in SCI to achieve competitive advan

Малайский

. Hasil empirik menunjukkan bahawa KMO berpengaruh signifikan terhadap SCI dan FP. Hasilnya juga menunjukkan bahawa SCI mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan FP. Peranan SCI sebagai perantara antara hubungan SCI dan FP wujud berdasarkan penemuan empirikal. Kajian ini membawa kepada sumbangan teori dan implikasi praktikal. Dalam persepsi teori, pengaruh yang dihasilkan dari KMO harus digunakan sepenuhnya di antara pembekal, firma fokus, dan pelanggan di SCI untuk mencapai kemajuan yang kompetitif

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Английский

As a result, closely connected to this commercial contact, the compatibility of thoughts and data, counting culture and devout hones has, either has specifically or by implication, an affect on both the in comers and on the inborn population.2 In this manner, the Malays ingested much of their early culture and religion most particularly, agreeing to a few researchers, from Hinduism. The impacts of these complex non Muslim conviction frameworks will be extended upon briefly underneath

Малайский

Akibatnya, berkaitan erat dengan hubungan komersial ini, keserasian pemikiran dan data, budaya menghitung dan nada yang taat mempunyai, baik secara khusus atau implikasinya, mempengaruhi kedua-dua pendatang dan populasi bawaan.2 Dengan cara ini, orang-orang Melayu menyerap sebahagian besar budaya dan agama awal mereka, dengan menyetujui sebilangan penyelidik, dari agama Hindu. Kesan kerangka keyakinan bukan Islam yang rumit ini akan dilanjutkan sebentar lagi di bawahnya

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Английский

In this paper, we provide evidence suggesting that class attendance significantly improves student performance. We rely on variation induced by a mandatory attendance policy, where students scoring below the median on the midterm were required to attend lecture during the second half of the course. This has potential policy implications for faculty looking for ways to improve student performance. First, our results suggest that attendance can be improved by instituting a mandatory attendance policy

Малайский

Dalam makalah ini, kami memberikan bukti yang menunjukkan bahawa kehadiran kelas meningkatkan prestasi pelajar dengan ketara. Kami bergantung pada variasi yang disebabkan oleh dasar kehadiran wajib, di mana pelajar yang mendapat skor di bawah median pada pertengahan waktu diminta untuk menghadiri kuliah pada separuh kedua kursus. Ini mempunyai implikasi dasar yang berpotensi untuk fakulti mencari kaedah untuk meningkatkan prestasi pelajar. Pertama, hasil kajian kami menunjukkan bahawa kehadiran dapat ditingkatkan dengan menetapkan pol kehadiran wajib

Последнее обновление: 2020-05-01
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Английский

1. INTRODUCTION: According to Amartunga, (2001), Facility management is an interdisciplinary field including the concept of property management, chiefly dedicated to the upkeep and maintenance of outsized saleable or official edifice properties, such as inns, resorts, institutes, workplace centres, sporting stadiums, or settlement centres. Responsibilities may comprise of the maintenance of air conditioning, electrical clout, sanitation and light structures; housework; beautification; estates charge and safety. A number of these functions can be supported by computer catalogues. It is the responsibility of the facility management department to co-ordinate and control the safety, security, and environmentally sound operations and preservation of these assets in a price operative custom intended at long-standing conservation of the property asset worth. The term “facility management” is similar to “property management” and but is characteristically functional to generously proportioned industrial properties where the organization and function of the edifices is additionally multifaceted. The concept of facilities management has transformed spectacularly. Definitely from comparatively modest considerations, the work of facilities manager now includes a variety of crucial and demanding responsibilities, often transversely into complete areas. There are various definitions of facilities management. Amongst them the most prominent ones are given below: According to the International Facility Management Association “It is a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology”. (IFMA, 1993) The definition provided by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and acknowledged by the British Standards is “Facilities management is the integration of processes within an organization to maintain and develop the agreed services which support and improve the effectiveness of its primary activities”. (CEN, 1991) Barett and Baldry, (2003) has opined that the main operational functions of the facility management include property management. Basically property management is managing facility to maximize profit. There is no downbeat implication to the word profit. In fact several large property management companies could give management lessons to facility managers. In a nutshell the concept of facilities management includes broader perspective than property management but still it is very much similar to property management and

Малайский

perbualan

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Английский

Set not up with Allah any other ilah (god), (O man)! (This verse is addressed to Prophet Muhammad SAW, but its implication is general to all mankind), or you will sit down reproved, forsaken (in the Hell-fire).

Малайский

Janganlah engkau adakan tuhan yang lain bersama Allah (dalam ibadatmu), kerana akibatnya engkau akan tinggal dalam keadaan tercela dan kecewa dari mendapat pertolongan.

Последнее обновление: 2014-07-03
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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

LibraryAbstract Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children’s latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

Малайский

soaring

Последнее обновление: 2013-10-22
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Источник: Wikipedia

Английский

Abstract Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children’s latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

Малайский

darnon

Последнее обновление: 2013-09-29
Частота использования: 1
Качество:

Источник: Анонимно

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