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Английский

ancestral origin

Телугу

పూర్వీకుల మూలం

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Английский

designation of origin

Телугу

ఆవిర్భావ నామకరణ

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Английский

Port of origin of destination

Телугу

యొక్క పోర్ట్ ఆఫ్ మూలం

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Английский

consignment dispatched from origin city

Телугу

Dispatch out consignment from origin station

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Английский

same family origin relative dead

Телугу

chanipoyaru naku milu vachindi

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Английский

The position of the origin of the actor

Телугу

నటుడు యొక్క మూలం యొక్క స్థానం

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Английский

For instance the formation of linguistic cultural and social groups outside one's state of origin helps to consolidate the unity and sense of community in a separate linguistic society.

Телугу

ఉదాహరణకు, ఒకరి మూల స్థితికి వెలుపల భాషా సాంస్కృతిక మరియు సామాజిక సమూహాల ఏర్పాటు ప్రత్యేక భాషా సమాజంలో సమాజ ఐక్యత మరియు భావాన్ని ఏకీకృతం చేయడానికి సహాయపడుతుంది.

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Английский

Kathak From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Kathak dancer Arushi Nishank performing at Lucknow Kathak Sansthan. Kathak is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance.[1] The origin of Kathak is traditionally attributed to the traveling bards of ancient northern India known as Kathakars or storytellers.[2] The term Kathak is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit word Katha which means "story", and Kathakar which means "the one who tells a story", or "to do with stories".[2][3] Wandering Kathakars communicated stories from the great epics and ancient mythology through dance, songs and music in a manner similar to early Greek theatre.[3] Kathak dancers tell various stories through their hand movements and extensive footwork, but most importantly through their facial expressions. Kathak evolved during the Bhakti movement, particularly by incorporating the childhood and stories of the Hindu god Krishna, as well as independently in the courts of north Indian kingdoms.[2][4] Kathak is found in three distinct forms, called "gharanas", named after the cities where the Kathak dance tradition evolved – Jaipur, Banaras and Lucknow.[5] While the Jaipur gharana focuses more on the foot movements, the Banaras and Lucknow gharanas focus more on facial expressions and graceful hand movements. Stylistically, the Kathak dance form emphasizes rhythmic foot movements, adorned with small bells (Ghungroo), and the movement harmonized to the music.[4][6] The legs and torso are generally straight, and the story is told through a developed vocabulary based on the gestures of arms and upper body movement, facial expressions, stage movements, bends and turns. The main focus of the dance becomes the eyes and the foot movements. The eyes work as a medium of communication of the story the dancer is trying to communicate. With the eyebrows the dancer gives various facial expressions.[4][7] The difference between the sub-traditions is the relative emphasis between acting versus footwork, with Lucknow style emphasizing acting and Jaipur style famed for its spectacular footwork.[4] Kathak as a performance art has survived and thrived as an oral tradition, innovated and taught and from one generation to another verbally and through practice.[8] It transitioned, adapted and integrated the tastes of the Mughal courts[9] in the 16th and 17th century particularly Akbar, was ridiculed and declined in the colonial British era,[10] then was reborn as India gained independence and sought to rediscover its ancient roots and a sense of national identity through the arts.[11][8] Part of a series on the Culture of India Ashoka Chakra.svg History People Languages[show] Mythology and folklore[show] Cuisine Religion Art[show] Literature[show] Music and performing arts[show] Media[show] Sport Monuments[show] Symbols[show] Flag of India.svg India portal vte Part of a series on Hinduism 1 Om.svg HindusHistory Origins[show] Main traditions[show] Deities[show] Concepts[show] Practices[show] Philosophical schools[show] Gurus, saints, philosophers[show] Texts[show] Society[show] Other topics[show] Glossary of Hinduism terms Aum Om red.svg Hinduism portal HinduSwastika.svg vte Contents 1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 History 2.1 Bhakti movement era 2.2 Mughal era 2.3 British Raj era 2.4 Post colonial era 3 Repertoire 3.1 Pure dance (Nritta) 3.2 Expressive dance (Nritya) 3.3 Costumes 4 Instruments 5 Music 6 Gharanas 7 Relationship with other art forms 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 11.1 Bibliography 12 External links Etymology and nomenclature The term Kathak is rooted in the Vedic term Katha (Sanskrit: कथा) which means "story, conversation, traditional tale".[2][4] Kathak refers to one of the major classical dance form primarily found in northern India, with a historical influence similar to Bharatanatyam in south India, Odissi in east India and other major classical dances found in South Asia.[4][12] It differs from the numerous folk dance forms found in north and other parts of the Indian subcontinent.[12] The Kathak dancers, in the ancient India, were traveling bards and were known as. Kathakas,[2] or Kathakar.[13][14] Kathak has inspired simplified regional variants, such as the Bhavai – a form of rural theatre focussing on the tales of Hindu goddesses (Shakti), and one which emerged in the medieval era, is presently found in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.[15] Another variant that emerged from ancient Kathak is Thumri.[16] History Performance arts and culture Let Nātya (drama and dance) be the fifth vedic scripture. Combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture and forward every art. — Nātyaśāstra 1.14–15[17][18] According to Mary Snodgrass, the Kathak tradition of India is traceable to 400 BCE.[19] The earliest surviving text with Kathak roots is the Natya Shastra,[19] attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[20][21] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[22] Kathak performance by Sharmila Sharma and Rajendra Kumar Gangani at the Guimet Museum (November 2007) The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[20][23] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathak.[20][24][25] Dance and performance arts, states this ancient Hindu text,[26] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[18][27] The 2nd century BC panels found in Bharhut show the dancers in a vertical stance with their arms' positions already suggesting today's Kathak movements. Most of the dancers have one arm near the ear in a ''pataka hasta'' (Mudra). In subsequent years, the hasta was lowered to the bust level.[28] The term Kathakas in the sense of "storytellers" appears in ancient Hindu texts, such as the Mahabharata:[2

Телугу

కుచిపుడి పదార్థం

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Английский

Kuchipudi, like other classical dance forms in India, traces its roots to the Sanskrit Natya Shastra, a foundational treatise on the performing arts.[4][5] Its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[27][28] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[29] The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[27][30] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances.[27][31] Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text,[32] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[33] The dance-drama tradition in Andhra Pradesh is of ancient origins, and the region is mentioned in the Natya Shastra. Bharata Muni credits a graceful movement to Andhra region and discusses it as Kaishiki vritti. The pre-2nd century CE text calls one raga as Andhri, that is from Andhra.[34] The Andhri, is related to Gandhari and Arsabhi, and is discussed in many other 1st millennium Sanskrit texts.[35] Some, state Bruno Nettle and others, place the origins of Kuchipudi to 3rd century BCE.[15] Dance-drama performance arts related to Shaivism, in Telugu-speaking parts of South India, are evidenced in 10th-century copper inscriptions, and these were called Brahmana Melas or Brahma Melas.[8][36] The medieval era dance-drama performance artists were Brahmins.[37][38] This art was likely adopted by the musical and dancing Bhakti traditions of Vaishnavism which grew in the 2nd millennium, whose devotees were called Bhagvatulus in Andhra region and Bhagvatars in Tamil region of south India.[8] In Andhra, this performance art evolved into Kuchipudi, while in Tamil Nadu it became known as Bhagavata Mela Nataka.[8] According to Saskia Kersenboom, both the Telugu Kuchipudi and Tamil Bhagavata Mela are strongly related to the classical Hindu dance tradition of Yakshagana found in Karnataka, all three involve Carnatic music, but these dance-drama traditions have differences such as in costumes, structure, interpretation and creative innovations.[15]

Телугу

Kuchipudi, like other classical dance forms in India, traces its roots to the Sanskrit Natya Shastra, a foundational treatise on the performing arts.[4][5] Its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[27][28] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[29] The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[27][30] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances.[27][31] Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text,[32] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[33] The dance-drama tradition in Andhra Pradesh is of ancient origins, and the region is mentioned in the Natya Shastra. Bharata Muni credits a graceful movement to Andhra region and discusses it as Kaishiki vritti. The pre-2nd century CE text calls one raga as Andhri, that is from Andhra.[34] The Andhri, is related to Gandhari and Arsabhi, and is discussed in many other 1st millennium Sanskrit texts.[35] Some, state Bruno Nettle and others, place the origins of Kuchipudi to 3rd century BCE.[15] Dance-drama performance arts related to Shaivism, in Telugu-speaking parts of South India, are evidenced in 10th-century copper inscriptions, and these were called Brahmana Melas or Brahma Melas.[8][36] The medieval era dance-drama performance artists were Brahmins.[37][38] This art was likely adopted by the musical and dancing Bhakti traditions of Vaishnavism which grew in the 2nd millennium, whose devotees were called Bhagvatulus in Andhra region and Bhagvatars in Tamil region of south India.[8] In Andhra, this performance art evolved into Kuchipudi, while in Tamil Nadu it became known as Bhagavata Mela Nataka.[8] According to Saskia Kersenboom, both the Telugu Kuchipudi and Tamil Bhagavata Mela are stron

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Английский

Many of the concepts and analytical techniques we introduce have their origins in logic and the philosophy of language; we apply them to the study of actual human languages.

Телугу

తర్కాన్ని మరియు భాష యొక్క తత్త్వ శాస్త్రంలో మనకు అనేక మూలాలు మరియు విశ్లేషణ పద్ధతులు ఉన్నాయి; వాస్తవమైన మానవ భాషల అధ్యయనానికి మేము వాటిని అన్వయిస్తాము.

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Английский

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression. Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, national origin, colour, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, or disability;[1][2][3] and individual rights such as privacy, the freedoms of thought and conscience,speech and expression, religion, the press, assembly and movement. Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote. Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights.[4] They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights. Protection of rights[edit] T.H. Marshall notes that civil rights were among the first to be recognized and codified, followed later by political rights and still later by social rights. In many countries, they are constitutional rights and are included in a bill of rights or similar document. They are also defined in international human rights instruments, such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1967 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Civil and political rights need not be codified to be protected, although most democracies worldwide do have formal written guarantees of civil and political rights. Civil rights are considered to be natural rights. Thomas Jefferson wrote in his A Summary View of the Rights of British America that "a free people [claim] their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate." The question of to whom civil and political rights apply is a subject of controversy. In many countries, citizens have greater protections against infringement of rights than non-citizens; at the same time, civil and political rights are generally considered to be universal rights that apply to all persons. According to political scientist Salvador Santino F. Regilme Jr., analyzing the causes of and lack of protection from human rights abuses in the Global South should be focusing on the interactions of domestic and international factors — an important perspective that has usually been systematically neglected in the social science literature. In order to equip an individual with thorough knowledge of Peace and its Dignity, we have come forth with these details which can be elaborated once understood well. Please learn to understand each of these words are the keys to the doors of life that can fill one person with safety and health on an environmental scale.

Телугу

పౌర మరియు రాజకీయ హక్కులు ప్రభుత్వాలు, సామాజిక సంస్థలు మరియు ప్రైవేటు వ్యక్తులు అతిక్రమణ నుండి వ్యక్తుల స్వేచ్ఛను రక్షించే, మరియు వివక్షగా లేదా అణగదొక్కడం లేకుండా సమాజం మరియు రాష్ట్ర పౌర మరియు రాజకీయ జీవితం పాల్గొనేందుకు తీసుకునే సామర్ధ్యాన్ని నిర్ధారించడానికి హక్కుల వర్గానికి చెందినవి.

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Английский

jSome of the important Merits and the Demerits of Joint Family System in India are as follows: In India, the joint family system has continued down the ages for various reasons. As we all know, a particular social institution continues to exist so long as it has a purpose to serve. It always responds to the social requirements of the times. It stagnates and finally withers away only when there is no proper leadership to direct it. Family Image Courtesy : jrobertsphotography.com.au/files/2713628/uploaded/20001.jpg In the Indian context, the system continued due to a host of factors. First, our country was under foreign domination for several centuries. Secondly, the leadership, perhaps unimaginatively, believed in continuity for its own sake, rather than in change. Thirdly, there was a sort of indifferent passivity on the part of the leaders. It could, of course, be also due to the exhaustion of the will to act. Be it as it may, let us now discuss the merits and the demerits of the system. Merits of the Joint Family: (1) Simple division of labour: Joint family system enjoys all the advantages of a simple division of labour. Here the work is distributed among the members on the basis of age and sex keeping individual ability in view. In an agricultural economy much manpower is needed for sowing, ploughing, harvesting and also protecting crops from heat and wind. The male members are engaged in such work as furrowing, sowing and irrigation. Children, old persons and women watch the crops in the field particularly during the harvesting period. In this way, the co-operation of all members helps to save money that would have otherwise been paid to outside labourers. Moreover, every member of the family is ensured of at least some food, clothing and shelter, which are very essential for a healthy and developed economy. (2) Avoids fragmentation of land: So far as the joint family is concerned, the property is held in common. As such it does away with the evils of subdivision and fragmentation of land and promotes scientific farming. It enjoys all the advantages of large scale production. (3) Money saving device: A joint family is advantageous from the economic standpoint. Since things are consumed in a large quantity, they can be procured at a cheap rate. Again so far as accommodation is concerned, the joint family saves money that would have otherwise been paid for establishing separate households. Besides, the family saves considerable amount of money by not employing outside labour. (4) Insurance against odds: Favouring the joint family system Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has remarked that it is an insurance against difficult times. It provides social security to its members, especially to the old, the children, the insane, the widows, the physically handicapped and the helpless. Further, the joint family plays an important role in providing much assistance and help at such time as pregnancy, sickness etc. Life of an individual in the joint family is properly looked after right from the cradle to the grave. (5) Place of recreation: The joint family is an ideal place for recreation. It is instrumental in creating a stimulating atmosphere through the cumulative effect of the lisping talk of the children, the expression of sisterly, brotherly and motherly love, the reproach of the elders and the fun and frolic of the other family members. In this way the joint family naturally acts as a veritable source of recreation with immunity from monotony and boredom. (6) Satisfaction of basic needs: Food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs of man. The joint family system caters to these basic needs of its members. (7) Provides leisure: So far as joint family system is concerned, work is shared by all the members on the basis of age, sex and experience. Hence they avail ample leisure. (8) Social control: The joint family acts as an agency of social control. The social control .exercised by the joint family is informal in nature. Under the constant vigilance of the elders, the undesirable and antisocial propensities of the youngsters are properly checked and thus they are not allowed to go astray. All members scrupulously observe family rules and regulations and respect the elders. (9) Cradle of social virtues: The joint family fosters good qualities among its members. They are taught discipline, patience, co-operation, obedience, generosity, selfless service etc. which are virtues of a social life and a real possession of every individual. Dr. R. K. Mukherjee rightly observes, “The joint family system, based on the virtue of affection, produced that peculiar socio­economic outlook in Indian economic organisation which contrasts so favorably with the aggressive individualism of the west.” (10) Provides psychological security: The joint family provides psychological security to its members. By attaching supreme importance to collective interests it arrests the growth of excessive individualism and promotes social solidarity. (11) Co-operation and economy: The joint family fosters co-operation and economy achieved by few other institutions. Cultural unity and associational feeling are markedly visible among the members. (12) Socialism in wealth: Joint family instills the socialistic spirit among the members. According to Jathar and Berry, everyone in a joint family earns according to his capabilities but obtains according to his need. In this way, in a joint family the socialistic ideal “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs” is realized. (13) Continuity of culture: In a joint family, the younger members are immensely benefitted by the experiences of elders. The elders also guide the young members in developing joint family sentiment and broad social outlook. All these are potent factors in the continuance of cultural traditions. This institution of joint family though of ancient origin has not only survived for its manifold virtues but has stimulated the social life. It has ensured the continuity of rich traditional value and culture. Demerits of the Joint Family: In the present context, the joint family system, for the most part, has lost its effectiveness. Some of its merits have turned out to be dysfunctional in certain respects. The demerits of the joint family system are as follows: 1. Hindrance in the development of personality: One of the ugliest features of the joint family system is that it stands in the way of the development of the personalities of its members. It so happens that the oldest member very often assumes rulership. He, in virtue of his age, tends to look upon all others as mere children. He behaves with them accordingly. As a result, the other members, though they are full-blown individuals, fail to develop their personalities in a natural way. They get dwarfed emotionally and intellectually. Furthermore, the youngsters in the joint family do not get enough scope to develop qualities like adventure, initiative, self- determination, industriousness etc. 2. Strife: One word of opposition or of self-assertion with dignity from the daughters-in-law is enough to set the house on fire literally. They are abused and even beaten by their husbands who are provoked to do so by their mothers. Mutual hatred and jealousy among the daughters-in-law leads to enmity among the brothers themselves. There is round-the clock infighting over the doings of children. Adults are compelled to spend their precious time in the setting of petty quarrels. The house gets divided against itself. 3. Source of litigation: The joint family system encourages litigation. Normally disputes occur at the time of the partition of movable or immovable property. Often they assume serious proportions and ordinarily these are not settled without the intervention of the court of law. Moreover, the disputes involve colossal wastage of time, energy, money and more importantly loss of mental equilibrium. 4. Loss of privacy: Privacy is practically absent in a joint family set-up. The newlywed couple hardly avail an opportunity to develop intimacy between them. This lack of privacy naturally leads to frustration and psychological disturbances. Again over crowdedness also has its baneful effects on the development of children. 5. The deplorable condition of women: This is one of the major causes for the disintegration of joint family system. In the joint family, the daughters-in-law do not get any opportunity whatsoever to unfold their potentialities, talents etc. They are expected to serve the whole family like slaves. More often than not, they cannot afford to look after their own children for fear of censure etc. They can hardly meet their husbands during day time. The position is no better at night. The husbands return home and either fall asleep or merely gratify sexual impulse with them without any emotional overtones to the act. Mothers-in-law do untold injustice to daughters-in-law. The other relatives make things even worse for the poor brides. This often leads to the very tragic phenomenon of commission of suicide. The husband-wife, mother-child relations become purely artificial without a touch of spontaneity about them. 6. Lethargy and Indolence: Due to collective responsibility most members tend to be lethargic. The reason is simple. They get all the facilities, whether or not they work hard. The wives of the hard-working members instigate them not to exert themselves unnecessarily. The net result of all this is that while a few members do honest labour, the majority profit at their expense and do nothing but eat, sleep and bring forth offspring. 7. Uncontrolled procreation: Since the responsibility of bringing up children is purely collective, individual parents do not feel the necessity of limiting the size of their families. Family planning does not confer any additional advantages on the practitioner in a joint set-up. Nor does the member who earns more get any additional benefit there from. This has a highly depressing effect on such members and simultaneously, promotes irresponsibility among others. The upshot of it all is that they procreate children rather irresponsibly adding to the collective burden. 8. Child marriage: Incidence of child marriage is quite high in case of the joint family. Factors like perception of marriage as a burden on the part of ‘Karta’ and the eagerness of the elderly people to see the marriage of their grandsons and granddaughters lead to child marriage. Child marriage not only affects the physical and mental health of the children but also contributes to the rapid growth of population. 9. Limits social mobility: The joint family system hinders the process of social mobility. Factors like intimate familial ties and sentimental attachment of the members to the family limit social mobility. 10. Miserable economic condition: Due to prevalence of many formidable factors such as the daily strife, the deplorable plight of women, absolute rule of elders, lack of responsibility on youngsters and blind procreation, the economic condition of the joint family becomes very dismal and miserable. Everyone in a joint family knows that whatsoever he spends will be managed by the family. He will, therefore, not try to save but will, on the other hand, spend to the maximum. This is certainly an unhealthy practice pursued by some in a joint family set-up. Again, being joint responsibility common property is neglected and particularly nobody pays any care and attention to the landed property. Produce considerably comes down. There is no initiative and this result in lowering of standard. 11. Hinders social change: The joint family system believes in conservative practices, status quo, customs and traditions. As such, the process of social change is arrested to a remarkable extent. To sum up, the defects of the joint family far outweigh the advantages which accrue from it and have negative them. Consequently, the joint family is fast becoming disorganised. It is impossible to save the joint family system from disorganization, though its advantages can, with effort, be reinstituted in novel form in the nuclear families.

Телугу

ఉమ్మడి కుటుంబం వ్యాసం

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Источник: Анонимно

Английский

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth".[1] Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord.[2][3] The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.[4][5] Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. Contents 1 Earth 1.1 Geology 1.1.1 Geological evolution 1.2 Historical perspective 2 Atmosphere, climate, and weather 3 Water on Earth 3.1 Oceans 3.2 Lakes 3.2.1 Ponds 3.3 Rivers 3.4 Streams 4 Ecosystems 4.1 Wilderness 5 Life 5.1 Evolution 5.2 Microbes 5.3 Plants and Animals 6 Human interrelationship 6.1 Aesthetics and beauty 6.2 Value of Nature 7 Matter and energy 8 Beyond Earth 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Earth Main articles: Earth and Earth science View of the Earth, taken in 1972 by the Apollo 17 astronaut crew. This image is the only photograph of its kind to date, showing a fully sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.[6] Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. It is the rotation of the outer, fluid iron core that generates an electrical current through dynamo action, which in turn generates a strong magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms,[7] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods,[8] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.[9][10] Geology Main article: Geology Three types of geological plate tectonic boundaries. Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments. Geological evolution The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations. Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude. After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side (strike-slip) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates. Historical perspective Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution Plankton inhabit oceans, seas and lakes, and have existed in various forms for at least 2 billion years.[11] An animation showing the movement of the continents from the separation of Pangaea until the present day. Earth is estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets.[12] The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources.[13] The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago.[14] Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago.[15] During the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530–540 million years ago.[16] Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.[17] The last mass extinction occurred some 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the past 66 million years, mammalian life diversified.[18] Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.[11] The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the Great Oxygenation Event, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.[19][20] Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.[21] The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists.[22] Atmosphere, climate, and weather Lightning Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space A tornado in central Oklahoma Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth, Climate and Weather The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity. Air is mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder. Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food. Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit. Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.[citation needed] Overall, two things are happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes.[23] Water on Earth The Iguazu Falls on the border between Brazil and Argentina Main article: Water Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life.[24] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[25] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.[26][27] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Oceans A view of the Atlantic Ocean from Leblon, Rio de Janeiro. View of the Earth where all five oceans visible Earth's oceans Arctic Pacific Atlantic Indian Southern World Ocean v t e Main article: Ocean An ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[28][29] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[30] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake. Lakes Lake Mapourika, New Zealand Main article: Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global) and moves slowly if it moves at all. On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.[31][32] The only world other than Earth known to harbor lakes is Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Ponds The Westborough Reservoir (Mill Pond) in Westborough, Massachusetts. Main article: Pond A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven microcurrents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools. Rivers The Nile river in Cairo, Egypt's capital city Main article: River A river is a natural watercourse,[33] usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[34] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[35] A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (i.e., from glaciers). Streams A rocky stream in Hawaii Main article: Stream A stream is a flowing body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet (18 metres) wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, riparian ecology and others. Ecosystems Loch Lomond in Scotland forms a relatively isolated ecosystem. The fish community of this lake has remained unchanged over a very long period of time.[36] Lush green Aravalli Mountain Range in the Desert country-Rajasthan, India. A wonder how such greenery can exist in hot Rajasthan, a place well known for its Thar Desert An aerial view of a human ecosystem. Pictured is the city of Chicago Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way.[37] The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environme

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Английский

carrom board game Carrom (also known as Karrom) is a "strike and pocket" table game of Eastern origin similar to billiards and table shuffleboard. It is found throughout the East under different names though most non-eastern people know it by the East Asian name of Carroms (or Karrom). It is very popular in Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and surrounding areas and in the Middle East as well. In South Asia, many clubs and cafés hold regular tournaments. Carrom is very commonly played by families, including the children, and at social functions. Different standards and rules exist in different areas. Contents [show] Origins[edit] The International Carrom Federation[1][2] (ICF) was formed in the year 1988 in the city of Chennai, India. The formal rules for the Indian version of the game were published in 1988. In the same year the ICF officially codified the rules. The game is very popular throughout South Asia, mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. It has gained some popularity in Europe and the United States where it has been introduced by the Indian diaspora. The United States Carrom Association reports on competitions in the U.S. and Canada and has a player ranking list as of the last tournament.[3] The board and pieces can be bought in Europe or the U.S. and are usually imported from India. The most expensive boards are made to a high standard with high quality wood and decorations though cheaper boards are available. Some of the largest exporters of carrom boards are in India, e.g. Precise, Surco, Syndicate Sports and Paul Traders.[4][5][6][7][8] Objective of play[edit] The objective of play is to use a striker disk with a flick of the finger to make contact with and move lighter object disks called carrom men, which are thus propelled into one of four corner pockets. The aim of the game is to pot (or pocket) one's nine carrom men and the Queen before your opponent. Equipment[edit] The game is usually played on a board made of plywood. The dimensions of the standardised game is a 29 inches (74 cm) square playing surface on a board of lacquered plywood. The edges of the playing surface are bounded by bumpers of wood, and the underside of each pocket is covered by a net which is 10 cm2 or larger.[9] Carrom men[edit] Carrom men and two strikers, arranged at the start of a game Carrom is played using small disks of Wood or Plastic known as carrom men, sometimes abbreviated c/m. The pieces are also known as seed, coin or Pawnpuck. Carrom men are designed to slide when struck and are made with a smooth surface that allows contact with the board when the pieces are laid flat. They are struck by a Striker of standard specification which is larger and heavier. Carrom follows similar "strike and pocket" games, like pool, with its use of rebounds, angles and obstruction of opponent's pieces. A carrom set contains 19 pieces (striker not included) in three distinct colours. Two colours to represent the player's pieces and one colour for the Queen. The usual colours are white (or unstained) and black for the player's and red for the queen. ICF approved pieces must have a diameter of no more than 3.18 cm and no less than 3.02 cm. The pieces must be at least 7 mm and at most 9 mm thick. The pieces have a plain, rounded edge. The mass of the pieces is within 5 g and 5.5 g. Strikers[edit] Striker pieces are used to push the carrom men and the queen across the board to the pockets. The Queen[edit] The queen The red disk is called the queen. The queen is the most powerful carrom piece. During board setup, it is placed at the centre of the circle. In accordance with the ICF rules, pocketing the queen adds 3 points to the player's total score. The dimensions of the queen must be the same as those of other carrom men.[10] The player must pocket the queen and subsequently pocket a carrom man of the player's own colour. This is termed covering the queen. If, by mistake, a player puts the carrom man of the opposite team in the pocket after "pocketing" the queen, then the player owes the queen to defending player, or a due is fined. [clarification needed] If the player fails to pocket a subsequent carrom man, the queen is replaced at the centre of the circle. If the player pockets his or her opponent's last carrom man before pocketing the queen, the carrom man is placed back on the board If a player puts the queen and a carrom man of the player's own color in the pocket with one use of the striker, the queen is automatically covered, no matter which went first.

Телугу

క్యారమ్ బోర్డు ఆట నియమాలు

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Английский

Trimbakeshwar (Marathi: त्र्यंबकेश्वर) or Trambakeshwar is an ancient Hindu temple in the town of Trimbak, in the Trimbakeshwar tehsil in the Nashik District of Maharashtra, India, 28 km from the city of Nashik. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas. It is located at the source of the Godavari River, the longest river in peninsular India. The Godavari River, which is considered sacred within Hinduism, originates from Bramhagiri mountains and meets the sea near Rajahmudry. Kusavarta, a kund is considered the symbolic origin of the river Godavari, and revered by Hindus as a sacred bathing place. The current temple was built by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (a.k.a Nanasaheb).

Телугу

telugu ఆవు వ్యాసం

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Английский

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Телугу

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