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Вы искали: anger is an emotion (Английский - Телугу)

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Английский

Телугу

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Английский

Anger is only one letter far from danger

Телугу

నా తప్పు నాకు మన్నించు దయచేసి

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Английский

One is an unleashing of aspirations

Телугу

ఒక ఆకాంక్షలు చల్లారు

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Английский

%1 is an invalid %2

Телугу

% 1 చెల్లని% 2

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Английский

Numerology is an ancient science.

Телугу

న్యూమరాలజీ ఒక పురాతన శాస్త్రము.1-10-19-28 తేదీలలో పుట్టిన వారందరినీ రవిగ్రహ జాతకులు అంటారు.

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Английский

%1 is an unknown schema type.

Телугу

% 1 తెలియని స్కీమా రకం.

Последнее обновление: 2011-10-23
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Английский

%1 is an invalid template mode name.

Телугу

% 1 చెల్లని% 2

Последнее обновление: 2011-10-23
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Английский

If this is an override-redirect window

Телугу

ఇదేమైనా ఓవర్రైడ్- రీడైరెక్ట్ విండోనా

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Английский

if there is an issue with this with your manager

Телугу

మీ మేనేజర్తో దీనితో సమస్య ఉంటే

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Английский

ANGER IS AN ACID THAT CAN DO MORE HARM TO THE VESSEL IN WHICH IT IS STORED THAN TO ANYTHING ON WHICH IT IS POURED

Телугу

generations of a computer

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Английский

There is an article in the Vignana yatralu article

Телугу

vignana yatralu essay in telugu

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Английский

%1 is an invalid URL, the output could not be saved.

Телугу

% 1 చెల్లని URL, అవుట్పుట్ భద్రపరచబడలేదు.

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Английский

Love is an act of endless forgiveness, a tender look which becomes a habit.

Телугу

మీ langage పూర్తి వాక్యం టైప్

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Английский

Numerology is an ancient science .1 10 19 28 All who are born on date are called rhythmic species.

Телугу

న్యూమరాలజీ ఒక పురాతన శాస్త్రము.1 10 19 28 తేదీలలో పుట్టిన వారందరినీ రవిగ్రహ జాతకులు అంటారు.

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Английский

Security is an ever changing and expanding tool that will need to be utilized until we have nothing to fear.there are no assurances individual well being in any setting.

Телугу

Security is an ever changing and expanding tool that will need to be utilized until we have nothing to fear.there are no assurances individual well being in any setting.

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Английский

cWhat do Director's Assistants do? The Director's Assistant is an administrator who works closely with the director throughout the production process. They are involved at the pre production stage through to post production marketing and distribution. They must be well organized, flexible, and have a good overview of the production process. The director will determine their responsibilities throughout the production on a day to day basis. Their tasks may include writing coverage on scripts, draf

Телугу

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Английский

building contract agreement AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND CONTRACTOR for use when a stipulated price forms the basis of payment and to be used only with the General Conditions of the Contract THIS AGREEMENT made on the day of in the year two thousand and . BY AND BETWEEN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Owner" AND ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ hereinafter called the "Contractor" WITNESSETH: that the Owner and Contractor undertake and agree as follows: ARTICLE A-1 THE WORK The Contractor shall: (a) perform all the Work required by the Contract Documents for _______________________ _____________________________________________. (See Tender Form for Description) which have been signed in triplicate by both the parties, (b) do and fulfil everything indicated by this Agreement, and (c) commence the Work by the day of , 20 and substantially perform the Work of this Contract as certified by the Engineer/Architect by the _______ day of _________ 20 . (d) The "Engineer/Architect" is the person designated as such from time to time by the Owner. ARTICLE A-2 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS The following is an exact list of the Contract Documents referred to in Article A-1: (SEE TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR LIST OF DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS). See Attached ARTICLE A-3 CONTRACT PRICE THE CONTRACT PRICE IS $ _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ (HST INCLUDED) Canadian funds which price shall be subject to adjustments as may be required in accordance with the General Conditions of the Contract. ARTICLE A-4 PAYMENT (a) Subject to applicable legislation and, where such legislation does not exist or apply, in accordance with such prescribed regulations or industry practice respecting holdback percentages and in accordance with the provisions of the General Conditions of the Contract, the Owner shall: (1) make monthly payments to the Contractor on account of the Contract Price. The amounts of such payments shall be as certified by the Engineer/Architect; and (2) upon Substantial Performance of the work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of holdback monies then due; and (3) upon Total Performance of the Work as certified by the Engineer/Architect pay to the contractor any unpaid balance of the Contract Price then due. (b) If the Owner fails to make payments to the Contractor as they become due under the terms of this Contract or in any award by a court, interest at the rate and in the manner specified in GC21-Certificates and Payments, shall become due and payable until payment. Such interest shall be calculated and added to any unpaid amounts monthly. ARTICLE A-5 ADDRESSES FOR NOTICES All communications in writing between the parties or between them and the Engineer/Architect shall be deemed to have been received by the addressee if delivered to the individual or to a member of the firm or to an officer of the Corporation for whom they are intended or if sent by post or by facsimile addressed as follows: The Owner at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Contractor at: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ The Engineer/Architect at: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ARTICLE A-6 SUCCESSION The General Conditions of the Contract hereto annexed, and all other aforesaid Contract Documents, are all to be read into and form part of this Agreement and the whole shall constitute the Contract between the parties and subject to law and the provisions of the Contract Documents shall ensure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, their respective heirs, legal representatives, successors and assigns. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have executed this Agreement under their respective corporate seals and by the hands of their proper officers hereunto duly authorized. SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED in the presence of: OWNER: CONTRACTOR ______________________________ ______________________________ signed signed ______________________________ ______________________________ name and title name and title _____________________________ ______________________________ date signed / witnessed ______________________________ name and title ______________________________ date N.B. Where any legal jurisdiction, local practice or client requirement calls for proof of authority to execute this document, proof of such authority in the form of a certified copy of a resolution naming the person or persons in question as authorized to sign the Agreement for and on behalf of the Corporation or Partnership, should be attached.

Телугу

Последнее обновление: 2021-01-27
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Предупреждение: Содержит скрытое HTML-форматирование

Английский

Christmas (or Feast of the Nativity) is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25[a] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][10][11] A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night;[12] in some traditions, Christmast

Телугу

క్రిస్మస్ (లేదా నేటివిటీ యొక్క విందు) అనేది యేసు క్రీస్తు పుట్టుకను స్మరించే వార్షిక పండుగ, దీనిని ప్రధానంగా డిసెంబర్ 25 న జరుపుకుంటారు [a] ప్రపంచవ్యాప్తంగా బిలియన్ల మంది ప్రజల మధ్య మత మరియు సాంస్కృతిక వేడుక. [2] [10] [11] క్రైస్తవ ప్రార్ధనా సంవత్సరానికి కేంద్రమైన విందు, ఇది అడ్వెంట్ లేదా నేటివిటీ ఫాస్ట్ సీజన్ ముందు మరియు క్రిస్‌మాస్టైడ్ సీజన్‌ను ప్రారంభిస్తుంది, ఇది చారిత్రాత్మకంగా పశ్చిమంలో పన్నెండు రోజులు ఉంటుంది మరియు పన్నెండవ రాత్రి ముగుస్తుంది; [12] కొన్ని సంప్రదాయాలలో, క్రిస్‌మాస్ట్.

Последнее обновление: 2020-10-29
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Английский

20, AVENUE APPIA – CH-1211 GENEVA 27 – SWITZERLAND – HTTP://WWW.WHO.INT/ETHICS/REVIEW-COMMITTEE l C (For use with Participant Observation, Focus Group Discussions, Interviews, and Surveys) (language used throughout form should be at the level of a local student of class 6th/8th) Notes to Researchers: 1. Please note that this is a template developed by the WHO ERC to assist the Principal Investigator in the design of their informed consent forms (ICF). It is important that Principal Investigators adapt their own ICFs to the outline and requirements of their particular study. The logo of the Institution must be used on the ICF and not the WHO logo. 2. The informed consent form consists of two parts: the information sheet and the consent certificate. 3. Do not be concerned by the length of this template. It is long only because it contains guidance and explanations which are for you and which you will not include in the informed consent forms that you develop and provide to participants in your research. 4. This template includes examples of key questions that may be asked at the end of each section, that could ensure the understanding of the information being provided, especially if the research study is complex. These are just examples, and suggestions, and the investigators will have to modify the questions depending upon their study. 5. In this template: • square brackets indicate where specific information is to be inserted • bold lettering indicates sections or wording which should be included • standard lettering is used for explanations to researchers only and must not be included in your consent forms. The explanation is provided in black, and examples are provided in red in italics. Suggested questions to elucidate understanding are given in black in italics. TEMPLATE ON FOLLOWING PAGE [Informed Consent Form for _____________________] Name the group of individuals for whom this consent is written. Because research for a single project is often carried out with a number of different groups of individuals - for example healthcare workers, patients, and parents of patients - it is important that you identify which group this particular consent is for. (e.g. This informed consent form is for parents of adolescent girls and boys participating in the research titled. "What do we want: Adolescents and health systems ") [Name of Principle Investigator] [Name of Organization] [Name of Sponsor] [Name of Project and Version] This Informed Consent Form has two parts: • Information Sheet (to share information about the study with you) • Certificate of Consent (for signatures if you agree that your child may participate) You will be given a copy of the full Informed Consent Form Part I: Information Sheet Introduction Briefly state who you are and explain that you are inviting them to have their child participate in research which you are doing. Inform them that may talk to anyone they feel comfortable talking with about the research and that they can take time to reflect on whether they want their child to participate or not. Assure the parent that if they do not understand some of the words or concepts, that you will take time to explain them as you go along and that they may ask questions now or later. (Example: I am X, and I work at Y organization in _____. I am doing some research which might help your clinic/hospital do more to help teenagers become and stay healthier. In our research we will talk to many teenagers, both girls and boys, and ask them a number of questions. Whenever researchers study children, we talk to the parents and ask them for their permission. After you have heard more about the study, and if you agree, then the next thing I will do is ask your daughter/son for their agreement as well. Both of you have to agree independently before I can begin. You do not have to decide today whether or not you agree to have your child participate in this research. Before you decide, you can talk to anyone you feel comfortable with. There may be some words that you do not understand. Please ask me to stop as we go through the information and I will take time to explain. If you have questions later, you can ask them of me or of another researcher.) Purpose Explain in lay terms why the research is being done and what is expected from the results. Explain why you need to conduct the research with children. (Example: It is possible that the clinics and the hospital in this region are not providing some of the services that are important for teenagers. In this study we will talk to teenage girls and boys about what they know about caring for their bodies in a healthy way including sexual and reproductive health. We will invite them to share their knowledge and understanding with us so that we can find ways of meeting their needs at the local clinics and hospital.) Type of Research Intervention Briefly state the intervention. This will be expanded upon in the procedures section. (Example: A questionnaire OR a focus group OR an interview) Selection of Participants State clearly why you have chosen their child to participate in this study. Parents may wonder why their children have been chosen for a study and may be fearful, confused or concerned. (Example: We want to talk to many teenagers about their health and what information or services they want for themselves. One part of health that we want to talk to them about is sexuality. We would like to ask your daughter/son to participate because she/he is a teenager and lives in this region.)  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Do you know why we are asking your child to take part in this study? Do you know what the study is about? Voluntary Participation Indicate clearly that they can choose for their child to participate or not and reassure they will still receive all the services they usually do if they choose not to participate. Also inform them that their child will also have input into the decision. This can be repeated and expanded upon later in the form as well. It is important to state clearly at the beginning of the form that participation is voluntary so that the other information can be heard in this context. Participants may also be more alert at the beginning. (Example: You do not have to agree that your daughter/son can talk to us. You can choose to say no and any services that you and your family receive at this centre will not change. We know that the decision can be difficult when it involves your children. And it can be especially hard when the research includes sensitive topics like sexuality. You can ask as many questions as you like and we take the time to answer them. You don't have to decide today. You can think about it and tell me what you decide later.)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: If you decide not to allow your child to take part in this research study, do you know what the optionsfor him are? Do you know that your child does not have to take part in this research study, if you do not wish so? Do you have any questions? Procedure Explain what each of the steps or procedures involve. Indicate when the research will take place and where. If there are surveys, indicate where and how the surveys will be collected and distributed. (Examples: 1) the following applies only to focus group discussions: Your daughter/son will take part in a discussion with 7-8 other teenagers , or a mix of teenagers and social service workers from the community. The girls and boys will be in separate groups. This discussion will be guided by[ give name of moderator] or me. 2) the following applies only to interviews: Your daughter/son will participate in an interview with [name of interviewer] or myself. 3) the following applies only to questionnaire surveys: Your daughter/son will fill out a questionnaire which will be provided by [name of distributor of blank questionnaires] and collected by [name of collector of completed questionnaires].OR The questionnaire can be read aloud and she/he can give me the answer which she/he wants me to write.) Explain the type of questions that the participants are likely to be asked in the focus group discussion, interview or in the questionnaire. If the questions are sensitive, acknowledge this, try to anticipate parents' concerns and protective responses, and address these. Parents may be concerned that if researchers talk to their children about sexuality it may encourage them to explore sexual activities with their peers. Other concerns may include disbelief that their child is ready to talk about sexuality, or parents may be personally embarrassed. (Examples: 1) The following applies only to focus group discussions: The group discussion will start with me, or the focus group guide (use the local word for group discussion leader), making sure that the participants are comfortable. We will also answer questions about the research that they might have. Then we will ask questions about the health system in this community. We will talk about where they go for information about health, and whether they get the information and services they need and want. We will encourage them to talk about sexual and reproductive health as well as other important health topics such as food and nutrition. These are the types of questions we will ask. We will not ask them to share personal stories or anything that they are not comfortable sharing. The discussion will take place in [location of the FGD], and no one else but the people who take part in the discussion and the guide or I will be present during this discussion. The entire discussion will be tape-recorded, but no-one will be identified by name on the tape. The tape will be kept [explain how the tape will be stored]. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the tapes] will be allowed to listen to the tapes. [The tapes will be destroyed after ____period of time.] 2) The following applies only to interviews: If your daughter does not wish to answer any of the questions during the interview, she may say so and the interviewer will move on to the next question. The interview will take place in [location of the interview], and no one else but the interviewer will be present unless your child asks for someone else to be there. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to the information documented during your interview.) [The tapes will be destroyed after ________period of time.] 3) The following applies only to questionnaires and surveys: If your daughter/son does not wish to answer some of the questions included in the questionnaire, she/he may skip them and move on to the next question. The information recorded is confidential, and no one else except [name of person(s) with access to the information] will have access to her questionnaire. [The questionnaires will be destroyed after _____period of time.]) Duration Include a statement about the time commitments of the study for the child and any time commitments on the part of the parent(s). Include both the duration of the study and follow-up, if relevant. (Example: We are asking your child to participate in an interview which will take about 1 hour of her/his time. We can do this outside of school/work hours. There is also a questionnaire that we will either provide to your child or which we will do together with her/him. This also takes about an hour. Altogether, we are asking for about 2 hours of your child's time.)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: If you decide that your child can take part in the study, do you know how much time will the interview take? Where will it take place? Do you know that we will be sending a transport to pick up your child from your home? Do you know how much time will the discussion with other people take? If you agree that your child can take part, do you know if he/she can stop participating? Do you know that your child may not respond to the questions that he/she deso not wish to respond to? Etc. Do you have any more questions? Risks and Discomforts Explain any risks or discomforts including any limits to confidentiality. (If the discussion is on sensitive and personal issues e.g. reproductive and sexual health, personal habits etc. then an example of text could be something like "We are asking your son/daughter to share with us some very personal and confidential information, and he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. You must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she doesn't wish to do so, and that is also fine. He/she does not have to give us any reason for not responding to any question, or for refusing to take part in the interview" OR If for example, the discussion is on opinions on government policies and community beliefs, and in general no personal information is sought, then the text under risks could read something like "There is a risk that your son/daughter may share some personal or confidential information by chance, or that he/she may feel uncomfortable talking about some of the topics. However, we do not wish for this to happen. You must know that he/she does not have to answer any question or take part in the discussion/interview/survey if he/she feels the question(s) are too personal or if talking about them makes him/her uncomfortable.) Your daughter/son may choose to tell you about the interview and the questionnaire but she/he does not have to do this. We will not be sharing with you either the questions we ask nor the responses given to us by your child.) Benefits Describe any benefits to their child, to the community, or any benefits which are expected in the future as a result of the research. (Example: There will be no immediate and direct benefit to your child or to you, but your child's participation is likely to help us find out more about the health needs of teenage girls and boys and we hope that these will help the local clinics and hospitals to meet those needs better in the future.) Reimbursements State clearly what you will provide the participants with as a result of their participation. WHO does not encourage incentives beyond reimbursements for expenses incurred as a result of participation in research. The expenses may include, for example, travel expenses and reimbursement for time lost. The amount should be determined within the host country context. (Example: Your daughter/son will not be provided with any payment to take part in the research. However, she/he will be given with [provide a figure, if money is involved] for her/his time, and travel expense (if applicable).)  Examples of question to elucidate understanding: Can you tell me if you have understood correctly the benefits that your child will have if you allow him/her to take part in the study? Do you know if the study will pay for your travel costs and time lost, and do you know how much you will be re-imbursed? Do you have any other questions? Confidentiality: Explain how the research team will maintain the confidentiality of data, especially with respect to the information about the participant. Outline any limits there are to confidentiality. Note that with focus groups confidentiality cannot be guaranteed because what is said within the group becomes common knowledge. Participants can be asked not to share outside of the group but this does not guarantee confidentiality. (Examples: Because something out of the ordinary is being done through research in your community, it will draw attention. If your daughter/son participates, she and you may be asked questions by other people in the community. We will not be sharing information about your son or daughter outside of the research team. The information that we collect from this research project will be kept confidential. Information about your child that will be collected from the research will be put away and no-one but the researchers will be able to see it. Any information about your child will have a number on it instead of his/her name. Only the researchers will know what his/her number is and we will lock that information up with a lock and key. It will not be shared with or given to anyone except [name who will have access to the information, such as research sponsors, DSMB board, your clinician, etc]. The following applies to focus groups: We will ask your child and others in the group not to talk to people outside the group about what was said in the group. We will, in other words, ask each participant to keep what was said in the group confidential. You should know, however, that we cannot stop or prevent participants who were in the group from sharing things that should be confidential.)  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Did you understand the procedures that we will be using to make sure that any information that we as researchers collect about your child will remain confidential? Do you understand that the we cannot guarantee complete confidentiality of information that your child shares with us in a group discussion Do you have any more questions? Sharing of Research Findings Include a statement indicating that the research findings will be shared in a timely fashion but that confidential information will remain confidential. If you have a plan and timeline for the sharing of information, include the details. Also inform the parent that the research findings will be shared more broadly, for examples, through publications and conferences. (Example: At the end of the study, we will be sharing what we have learnt with the participants and with the community. We will do this by meeting first with the participants and then with the larger community. Nothing that your child will tell us today will be shared with anybody outside the research team, and nothing will be attributed to him/her by name. A written report will also be given to the participants which they can share with their families. We will also publish the results in order that other interested people may learn from our research.) Right to refuse or withdraw Explain again the voluntary nature of consent. Also explain that their child will be asked to agree - or assent - and that the child's concerns and wishes will be taken very seriously. (Example: You may choose not to have your child participate in this study and your child does not have to take part in this research if she/he does not wish to do so. Choosing to participate or not will not affect either your own or your child's future treatment at the Centre here in any way. You and your child will still have all the benefits that would otherwise be available at this Centre. Your child may stop participating in the discussion/interview at any time that you or she/he wish without either of you losing any of your rights here.) Who to Contact Provide the name and contact information of someone who is involved, informed and accessible (a local person who can actually be contacted. State also that the proposal has been approved and how. (Example: If you have any questions you may ask them now or later, even after the study has started. If you wish to ask questions later, you may contact any of the following: [name, address/telephone number/e-mail] This proposal has been reviewed and approved by [name of the IRB], which is a committee whose task it is to make sure that research participants are protected from harm. If you wish to find about more about the IRB, contact [name, address, telephone number.])  Example of question to elucidate understanding: Do you know that you do not have to allow your child tak

Телугу

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INTRODUCTION As a student of Master of Business Administration (MBA) you are required to undertake a major individual piece of research work the Project or Dissertation. In contrast to the other elements of your programme, where you are guided fairly closely, the aim of the Project is to give you the opportunity to learn independently and show that you can identify, define and analyse problems and issues and integrate knowledge in a business context. It is an important part of the programme t

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పరిచయము మాస్టర్ ఆఫ్ బిజినెస్ అడ్మినిస్ట్రేషన్ (MBA) యొక్క విద్యార్థిగా మీరు ప్రాజెక్ట్ లేదా డిసర్టేషన్ యొక్క ఒక ప్రధాన వ్యక్తిగత పరిశోధన పనిని చేపట్టాలి. మీ ప్రోగ్రామ్ యొక్క ఇతర అంశాలకు భిన్నంగా, మీరు చాలా దగ్గరగా మార్గనిర్దేశం చేస్తారు, ప్రాజెక్ట్ యొక్క లక్ష్యం మీకు స్వతంత్రంగా నేర్చుకునే అవకాశాన్ని ఇవ్వడం మరియు మీరు సమస్యలను మరియు సమస్యలను గుర్తించడం, నిర్వచించడం మరియు విశ్లేషించడం మరియు వ్యాపారంలో జ్ఞానాన్ని ఏకీకృతం చేయగలదని చూపించడం. సందర్భం. ఇది ప్రోగ్రామ్ యొక్క ముఖ్యమైన భాగం

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Английский

Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity. It involves a juggling act of various demands upon a person relating to work, social life, family, hobbies, personal interests and commitments with the finiteness of time. Using time effectively gives the person "choice" on spending/managing activities at their own time and expediency.[1] Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Time management is usually a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. It is also important to understand that both technical and structural differences in time management exist due to variations in cultural concepts of time. The major themes arising from the literature on time management include the following: Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness Setting of priorities The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities Implementation of goals Contents Related concepts Time management is related to different concepts such as: Project management: Time management can be considered to be a project management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project scheduling. Time management has also been identified as one of the core functions identified in project management.[2] Attention management relates to the management of cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind (and organize the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities. Organizational time management is the science of identifying, valuing and reducing time cost wastage within organizations. It identifies, reports and financially values sustainable time, wasted time and effective time within an organization and develops the business case to convert wasted time into productive time through the funding of products, services, projects or initiatives at a positive return on investment. Cultural views of time management Differences in the way a culture views time can affect the way their time is managed. For example, a linear time view is a way of conceiving time as flowing from one moment to the next in a linear fashion. This linear perception of time is predominant in America along with most Northern European countries such as, Germany, Switzerland, and England.[3] People in these cultures tend to place a large value on productive time management, and tend to avoid decisions or actions that would result in wasted time.[3] This linear view of time correlates to these cultures being more “monochronic”, or preferring to do only one thing at a time. Generally speaking, this cultural view leads to a better focus on accomplishing a singular task and hence, more productive time management. Another cultural time view is multi-active time view. In multi-active cultures, most people feel that the more activities or tasks being done at once the better. This creates a sense of happiness.[3] Multi-active cultures are “polychronic” or prefer to do multiple tasks at once. This multi-active time view is prominent in most Southern European countries such as Spain, Portugal, and Italy.[3] In these cultures, the people often tend to spend time on things they deem to be more important such as placing a high importance on finishing social conversations.[3] In business environments, they often pay little attention to how long meetings last, rather the focus is on having high quality meetings. In general, the cultural focus tends to be on synergy and creativity over efficiency.[4] A final cultural time view is a cyclical time view. In cyclical cultures, time is considered neither linear nor event related. Because days, months, years, seasons, and events happen in regular repetitive occurrences, time is viewed as cyclical. In this view, time is not seen as wasted because it will always come back later, hence, there is an unlimited amount of it.[3] This cyclical time view is prevalent throughout most countries in Asia including Japan, China, and Tibet. It is more important in cultures with cyclical concepts of time to complete tasks correctly, therefore, most people will spend more time thinking about decisions and the impact they will have before acting on their plans.[4] Most people in cyclical cultures tend to understand that other cultures have different perspectives of time and are cognizant of this when acting on a global stage.[citation needed] Creating an effective environment Some[which?] time-management literature stresses tasks related to the creation of an environment conducive to "real" effectiveness. These strategies include principles such as: "get organized" - the triage of paperwork and of tasks "protecting one's time" by insulation, isolation and delegation "achievement through goal-management and through goal-focus" - motivational emphasis "recovering from bad time-habits" - recovery from underlying psychological problems, e.g. procrastination Also, the timing of tackling tasks is important as tasks requiring high levels of concentration and mental energy are often done at the beginning of the day when a person is more refreshed. Literature[which?] also focuses on overcoming chronic psychological issues such as procrastination. Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may result from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or attention deficit disorder (ADD).[5] Diagnostic criteria include a sense of underachievement, difficulty getting organized, trouble getting started, trouble managing many simultaneous projects, and trouble with follow-through.[6][page needed] Some authors[which?] focus on the prefrontal cortex which is the most recently evolved part of the brain. It manages the functions of attention span, impulse managegment, organization, learning from experience and self-monitoring, among others. Some authors[quantify] argue that changing the way the prefrontal cortex works is possible and offer a solution.[7] Setting priorities and goals Time management strategies are often associated with the recommendation to set personal goals. The literature stresses themes such as: "Work in Priority Order" – set goals and prioritize "Set gravitational goals" – that attract actions automatically[citation needed] These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project, an action plan, or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list, schedule, or calendar of activities. Authors may recommend a daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods associated with different scope of planning or review. This is done in various ways, as follows. ABCD analysis A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked by these general criteria: A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important, B – Tasks that are important but not urgent, C – Tasks that are unimportant but urgent, D – Tasks that are unimportant and not urgent. Each group is then rank-ordered by priority. To further refine the prioritization, some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups.[8] ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis.[citation needed] Pareto analysis See also: Pareto analysis The Pareto Principle is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the given time, and the remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority.[clarification needed] The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity.[9] If productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.[10] The Eisenhower Method A basic "Eisenhower box" to help evaluate urgency and importance. Items may be placed at more precise points within each quadrant. The "Eisenhower Method" stems from a quote attributed to Dwight D. Eisenhower: "I have two kinds of problems, the urgent and the important. The urgent are not important, and the important are never urgent."[11] Note that Eisenhower does not claim this insight for his own, but attributes it to an (unnamed) "former college president."[12] Using the Eisenhower Decision Principle, tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent,[13][14] and then placed in according quadrants in an Eisenhower Matrix (also known as an "Eisenhower Box" or "Eisenhower Decision Matrix"[15]). Tasks are then handled as follows: Tasks in Important/Urgent quadrant are done immediately and personally[16] e.g. crises, deadlines, problems.[15] Important/Not Urgent quadrant get an end date and are done personally[16] e.g. relationships, planning, recreation.[15] Unimportant/Urgent quadrant are delegated[16] e.g. interruptions, meetings, activities.[15] Unimportant/Not Urgent quadrant are dropped[16] e.g. time wasters, pleasant activities, trivia.[15] This method is inspired by the above quote from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Note, however, that Eisenhower seems to say that things are never both important and urgent, or neither: So he has two kinds of problems, the urgent and the important. POSEC method POSEC is an acronym for "Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing and Contributing". The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.[17] Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization, which mirrors Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Prioritize – Your time and define your life by goals. Organize – Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful (family and finances). Streamline – Things you may not like to do, but must do (work and chores). Economize – Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent (pastimes and socializing). Contribute – By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a difference (social obligations). Elimination of non-priorities Time management also covers how to eliminate tasks that do not provide value to the individual or organization. According to Sandberg,[18] task lists "aren't the key to productivity [that] they're cracked up to be". He reports an estimated "30% of listers spend more time managing their lists than [they do] completing what's on them". Hendrickson asserts[19] that rigid adherence to task lists can create a "tyranny of the to-do list" that forces one to "waste time on unimportant activities". Any form of stress is considered to be debilitative for learning and life, even if adaptability could be acquired its effects are damaging.[20] But stress is an unavoidable part of daily life and Reinhold Niebuhr suggests to face it, as if having "the serenity to accept the things one cannot change and having the courage to change the things one can." Part of setting priorities and goals is the emotion "worry," and its function is to ignore the present to fixate on a future that never arrives, which leads to the fruitless expense of one's time and energy. It is an unnecessary cost or a false aspect that can interfere with plans due to human factors. The Eisenhower Method is a strategy used to compete worry and dull-imperative tasks.[21] Worry as stress, is a reaction to a set of environmental factors; understanding this is not a part of the person gives the person possibilities to manage them. Athletes under a coach call this management as "putting the game face."[22] Change is hard and daily life patterns are the most deeply ingrained habits of all. To eliminate non-priorities in study time it is suggested to divide the tasks, capture the moments, review task handling method, postpone unimportant tasks (understood by its current relevancy and sense of urgency reflects wants of the person rather than importance), manage life balance (rest, sleep, leisure), and cheat leisure and nonproductive time (hearing audio taping of lectures, going through presentations of lectures when in a queue, etc.).[23] Certain unnecessary factors that affect time management are habits, lack of task definition (lack of clarity), over-protectiveness of the work, the guilt of not meeting objectives and subsequent avoidance of present tasks, defining tasks with higher expectations than their worth (over-qualifying), focusing on matters that have an apparent positive outlook without assessing their importance to personal needs, tasks that require support and time, sectional interests and conflicts, etc.[24] A habituated systematic process becomes a device that the person can use with ownership for effective time management. Implementation of goals "To do" redirects here. For the auxiliary use of the verb "to do" in the English language, see Do-support. See also: shopping list A to-do form with checkboxes tattooed into a person's arm. Some items have been written out with a black pen. A task list (also called a to-do list or "things-to-do") is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory. Task lists are used in self-management, business management, project management, and software development. It may involve more than one list. When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists. Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts" of time management that include: Map out everything that is important, by making a task list. Create "an oasis of time" for one to manage. Say "No". Set priorities. Don't drop everything. Don't think a critical task will get done in one's spare time.[25] Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including personal information management (PIM) applications and most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of which are free. Task list organization Task lists are often diarized and tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list (or task-holding file) to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish and a daily to-do list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list. An alternative is to create a "not-to-do list", to avoid unnecessary tasks.[25] Task lists are often prioritized: A daily list of things to do, numbered in the order of their importance, and done in that order one at a time until daily time allows, is attributed to consultant Ivy Lee (1877–1934) as the most profitable advice received by Charles M. Schwab (1862–1939), president of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation.[26][27][28] An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was Alan Lakein, in 1973. In his system "A" items were the most important ("A-1" the most important within that group), "B" next most important, "C" least important.[8] A particular method of applying the ABC method[29] assigns "A" to tasks to be done within a day, "B" a week, and "C" a month. To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the tasks in the order of highest priority, or assigns them a number after they are listed ("1" for highest priority, "2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates in which order to execute the tasks. The latter method is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded more quickly.[25] Another way of prioritizing compulsory tasks (group A) is to put the most unpleasant one first. When it's done, the rest of the list feels easier. Groups B and C can benefit from the same idea, but instead of doing the first task (which is the most unpleasant) right away, it gives motivation to do other tasks from the list to avoid the first one. A completely different approach which argues against prioritizing altogether was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating "closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs to change.[30] Various writers have stressed potential difficulties with to-do lists such as the following: Management of the list can take over from implementing it. This could be caused by procrastination by prolonging the planning activity. This is akin to analysis paralysis. As with any activity, there's a point of diminishing returns. To remain flexible, a task system must allow for disaster. A company must be ready for a disaster. Even if it is a small disaster, if no one made time for this situation, it can metastasize, potentially causing damage to the company.[31] To avoid getting stuck in a wasteful pattern, the task system should also include regular (monthly, semi-annual, and annual) planning and system-evaluation sessions, to weed out inefficiencies and ensure the user is headed in the direction he or she truly desires.[32] If some time is not regularly spent on achieving long-range goals, the individual may get stuck in a perpetual holding pattern on short-term plans, like staying at a particular job much longer than originally planned.[33] Software applications Many companies use time tracking software to track an employee's working time, billable hours, etc., e.g. law practice management software. Many software products for time management support multiple users. They allow the person to give tasks to other users and use the software for communication. Tasklist applications may be thought of as lightweight personal information manager or project management software. Modern task list applications may have built-in task hierarchy (tasks are composed of subtasks which again may contain subtasks),[34] may support multiple methods of filtering and ordering the list of tasks, and may allow one to associate arbitrarily long notes for each task. In contrast to the concept of allowing the person to use multiple filtering methods, at least one software product additionally contains a mode where the software will attempt to dynamically determine the best tasks for any given moment.[35] Time management systems Time management systems often include a time clock or web-based application used to track an employee's work hours. Time management systems give employers insights into their workforce, allowing them to see, plan and manage employees' time. Doing so allows employers to manage labor costs and increase productivity. A time management system automates processes, which eliminates

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