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意大利语

my memory translate

英语

Each of the gestures and signs noted will be discussed in the chapters that follow. Due to the fact that many various gestures are contained in one composition, it is impossible to go into full detail for each sign in every representation. Please make note of each gesture mentioned and the explanations will be discussed throughout the book. 1. The Silencing Hand to the Throat Fig. (01) Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, c.1495-1498 (detail) Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Notice the figure of Peter in Leonardo’s Last Supper with an awkward backward facing hand holding a knife. He leans across Judas to the figure of John whispering in his ear while holding a hand to his throat as if he is warning him to keep silent. The hand at the throat and the backwards hand are important gestures of the secret language. Silence among these men was crucial. They were possibly even threatened to the point of death to divulge the secret language. People were often hung, burned or boiled alive by the Church for heresy. Silence was critical not only for the initiates but also to prevent the art from being destroyed. Fig. (02) Andrea della Robbia, Madonna of the Stonemasons, c.1475 Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence A prime example of the visual language of the secret brotherhood can be seen in Andrea della Robbia’s exquisite terracotta plaque commissioned by the Florentine Stonemasons Guild. The entire plaque is rich in symbolism pertaining to the trade. Jesus is depicted like a young Horus/Hippocrates with his finger over his mouth denoting silence and secrecy. The other hand of the Holy Child is positioned at the throat of the Virgin Mary; likely, as an important reminder to the members of absolute discretion and confidentiality within the Stonemasons Guild. Mary embraces Jesus at the foot and hip. It is important to note the small detail of gathered fabric at the top of the Madonna’s wrist. Even this small detail holds significance. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit represent the trinity, yet it is also a reminder of the idea that all things come through the hands of the Divine Creator. Fig. (03) Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family (Barberini) c.1528 National Gallery of Ancient Art, Rome, Italy Depending on the Greek translation of the Biblical scriptures Joseph and Jesus were considered to be (tektons); meaning a carpenter, stonemason or architect. The building trade was cloaked with mysteries and enigmas. Notice the hand at the throat and the white rolled up sleeve of Joseph in Andrea del Sarto’s Holy Family. Joseph’s white rolled up sleeve was an indication of a stonemason at work. Joseph keeps the secrets of building which united astronomy with architecture silent, while Mary rests her foot on the stone. Fig. (04) Carlo Portelli, Allegory of the Immaculate Conception, (detail) signed and dated 1566, Galleria dell’ Accademia, Florence In Carlo Portelli’s Allegory of the Immaculate Conception make note of Eve’s silencing hand at the throat of Joseph. The sole of Eve’s foot is depicted touching Joseph’s foot meeting toe to toe. The sole of her foot is exposed. These were visual signs and symbols of the brotherhood that was to keep silent and stand toe to toe in unity. Signs and Symbols of the Stonemasons and Woodworkers Guild in Florence Fig. (05) Nanni di Banco, Tabernacle of the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild. c.1416-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence In 1416 the master sculptor Nanni di Banco created the Tabernacle for the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild drawing on a plentiful source of symbolism of the ancient craft. The trade has always had its secrets including marks, handshakes, grips and hidden symbols maintained throughout generations. Nanni di Banco left testimony of this truth on his tabernacle as he, his father, and grandfather all worked on Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence in the fifteenth century. Vasari claimed that Nanni di Banco sculpted for the love of the art. His tabernacle reveals his fondness and respect towards his profession and its secrets, which he left chiseled in stone. At the top of the tabernacle Nanni honors Christ, the Divine Master Architect, with the highest position. Below Christ, he designed the Four Crowned Martyrs depicting them as the greatest builders of the ancient Roman Empire; the Roman Collegium of Builders. These Roman builders were associated with the ancient Greek Dionysian Artificer’s. Fig. (06) Nanni di Banco, Tabernacle of the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild c. 1416-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence On the bottom of the tabernacle Nanni designed a busy Florentine workshop of sculptors practicing the skills of their trade. Note the foot behind the wall of the stonemason at work on the left. The hidden foot and hand behind the wall would have been an immediate sign for the brotherhood. Fig. (07) Nanni di Banco, Tabernacle of the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild, Four Crowned Martyrs, c.1416-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence Nanni di Banco’s original Four Crowned Martyrs statues were removed from the tabernacle and replaced by replicas. The original statues were installed in the Orsanmichele Museum in the positions they were found in the small niche of the tabernacle. Nanni’s statues meet in the middle touching toe to toe. This was an important symbol of the brotherhood that worked closely alongside one another in a an often-dangerous environment building high cathedrals and lifting heavy objects. Trust and mutual respect were essential due to the enormous responsibility required to make certain the structures were safe. Nanni’s intention to have the feet meet toe to toe would be a noticeable secret sign for the guild’s members. Fig. (08) Nanni di Banco, Tabernacle of the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild, c. 1416-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence Nanni di Banco carved two figures out of one piece of marble. It was a feat compared to the sculptors of ancient Greece. These figures reveal significant signs and hand gestures of the age-old craft. Note the hand on the shoulder, the two fingers and the one solitary finger, and the lower right arms meeting together as one; these were important gestures symbolizing brotherhood and unity in the polarity of life. The figure on the right with an open mouth appears to be in discussion with the other Saints oblivious to Christ above them. The man is said to resemble the Stoic Philosopher, Orator, and Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Fig. (09) Stefano Maderno, Saint Cecilia, c.1599-1600, Saint Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome Note the example of the two fingers and one solitary finger on the hands of Saint Cecilia by Stefano Maderno. Supposedly, she was found lying in this exact position in her tomb. Clement VIII asked Maderno to sculpt the figure precisely as he found her. Saint Cecilia’s cryptic finger symbols are similar to Nanni di Banco’s figures. Fig. (10) Nanni di Banco, Tabernacle of the Stone Carvers and Woodworkers Guild c. 1416-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence The other two figures in Nanni di Banco’s foursome have difficult hand signs to interpret. After extensive research, the hand on the right with a separated little finger may represent the sacred feminine and honoring the natural unfoldment of life. On the left, the hand holding the gathered fabric may represent the womb from which all of creation births forth. Roman statuary usually displayed the excess fabric from the tunic draped over the individual’s arm. Instead, Nanni purposely chose to show the gathered fabric in the hand of the martyr, as Andrea della Robbia’s designed by Mary’s hip in the plaque for the Stonemason’s Guild. Fig. (11) Botticelli, Adoration of the Magi, 1475 (detail) Galleria degli Uffizi Botticelli painted a figure holding the gathered fabric with an extended pinkie finger in his Adoration of the Magi. He looks over his shoulder with his arm across his torso; this may have been a secret symbol of the pagan god Mithras. Fig. (11) Justus Suttermans, Portrait of Marie Madeleine of Austria, Cosimo II and Ferdinand II de’Medici, c.1640 Galleria degli Uffizi In Suttermans portrait note Marie Madeleine of Austria’s separated little finger. In her other hand she holds a white gathered cloth. Cosimo II stands in the middle with the backwards hand at the hip and Ferdinand II is depicted with a hidden hand. The Brotherhood of Master’s at Work Fig. (12) Franciabigio, The Triumph of Cicero, c. 1520, (detail) fresco at Villa Medicea di Poggio a Caiano Franciabigio portrays a figure with a hidden backwards hand at the hip and crossed ankles at the Medici Villa in Poggio a Caiano. The artist painted the figure on the far-right edge of the fresco. These masters typically left their mark on the right-side of the artwork by adding a self-portrait or secret signs for other brethren to read. Often times, the artist chose the left-side edge as well, or the entire composition might contain a dual meaning. Fig. (13) Franciabigio, The Blessing of Young St. John the Baptist, (detail) 1518-19, Chiostra dello Scalzo, Florence Franciabigio painted the same design for his figure (painted in grisaille to resemble statuary) at the right-side edge of the fresco for the Chiostra dello Scalzo as he had painted for the Villa Medicea di Poggio a Caiano. They were both painted within a year or so, of each other. This artwork was commissioned by the Confraternity of St. John the Baptist of which the artist was involved. The figure on the right stands with the all-important crossed legs and a hidden backwards hand at the hip. The figure on the left also crosses his legs, puts a hand on the shoulder of his brethren, and points with an extended solitary finger. Fig. (14) Andrea del Sarto, Triumph of Caesar, c.1520 (detail) Medici Villa Poggio a Caiano In the same Medici Villa of Poggio a Caiano, Alessandro Allori enlarged Andrea del Sarto’s Triumph of Caesar on the far-right side of the fresco. For his design he chose Andrea’s figures from the Chiostra Della Scalzo copying the man with his hand over his mouth in silence and a hidden hand. Also, behind the secretive philosopher, above his shoulders, the head of a man is revealed with a hat on. Fig. (15) Andrea del Sarto, Herod’s Feast, (detail) c.1510-1526 Chiostra dello Scalzo Florence Andrea del Sarto painted Herod’s Feast for the same Confraternity of St. John the Baptist in the Chiostra Della Scalzo. The hand covering the mouth in silence, the hidden hand and the head of another looking over the shoulder were curiously repeated by Allori for the Medici Villa of Poggio a Caiano. What is important to note is that the figures head in the Scalzo grisaille on the far right-side resembles Michelangelo with his flattened nose, almond shaped eyes, defined cheeks, the curves of the mustache and beard. Andrea del Sarto may have been honoring Michelangelo the prized position on the right side of Andrea’s final fresco episode of his series of the Life of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of Florence. Andrea respectfully understood the Divine Michelangelo was a master keeper of the ancient secrets of the brotherhood. Andrea depicts the Michelangelo figure with a solitary eye denoting clarity and oneness. Fig. (16) Danielle da Volterra, Portrait of Michelangelo, c. 1550, (detail) Albertina Museum Vienna Austria Danielle da Volterra sketched the head at just about the same angle that Andrea del Sarto painted the great master in the fresco of the figure wearing the hat. Andrea del Sarto covered the defining lines on the artists forehead with a hat in the Scalzo fresco. Fig. (17) Alessandro Allori Christ Among the Doctors in the Temple (detail) ca. 1560-64 Cappella Montauti Basilica della Santissima Annunziata, Florence In Christ Among the Doctors in the Temple, Alessandro Allori followed the concepts of Andrea del Sarto and Franciabigio’s designing a figure with crossed legs and the hand to the shoulder leaning on the brethren. The other figure extends the arm pointing with the solitary finger. This particular scene is located at the far-left side of the fresco. Fig. (18) Bronzino, Martyrdom of St Lawrence (detail) c.1569 San Lorenzo, Florence On the right edge Bronzino frescoed the Martyrdom of St Lawrence with the similar idea of a figure of a man with crossed legs and the hand covering the mouth. The figure seated next to him looks directly at his shoulder while stepping on his own foot. Bronzino takes the concept further by painting his name on the lower right-side of the stone wall next to the figures foot. It is important to note the green drapery the seated man sits upon next to the identification with Bronzino. 2. The Hidden Stream of Wisdom Fig. (19) Filippo Lippi, Adoration of the Christ Child with Young St. John the Baptist, St. Romuald, Angels, the Hands of God the Father, and the Holy Ghost as a Dove, c.1463, (detail) Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence This secret visual language was known as the hidden stream of wisdom. Note the small underground spring of water trickling down in Lippi’s Adoration. These symbols recall a pagan past encompassing sacred knowledge of the mystery school teachings, and the wisdom of the Magi. For example, in the all-male ancient Roman cult of the Mysteries of Mithras, the Mithraeums were often located next to a small stream so they could purify themselves before an initiation. These pagan mystery teachings became known as the hidden stream of wisdom. The language envelopes a wide array of esoteric beliefs connected with a flowing stream of water including the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan River by St. John. Fig. (20) Filippo Lippi, Adoration of the Christ Child with Young St. John the Baptist, St. Romuald, Angels, the Hands of God the Father, and the Holy Ghost as a Dove, c.1463 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Three years earlier Filippo Lippi painted a similar version of this composition for the altar wall of the Medici’s private chapel (now the Medici- Riccardi Chapel). This sublime painting was a gift by Lucrezia Tornabuoni Medici for her husband Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici. It was commissioned for the family’s room at the Camaldoli monastery. Piero financed an extensive restoration to the monastery and had a room reserved for his family’s private use. Woodcutting was part of the daily lives of the community; timber provided a good source of income from Florentine builders. Scholars agree that Lippi’s setting is that of the pine forest and steep slopes around the Camaldoli monastery. St. Romuald was the founder of the order and was depicted in Lippi’s painting along with St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of Florence and of the Camaldoli monastery. In Lippi’s depiction the Hands of God, the angelic realm, and the dove shower rays of light down from the heavens over the infant Christ; again, similar to Andrea della Robbia’s plaque for the Stonemasons Guild. The dove recalls the baptism of Jesus by St. John. In the King James Version of the Bible. Mathew 3:16 states – “And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him”. Although Lippi painted the holy trinity of the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirt (represented by the dove), there is more to this mystical painting with a dual meaning. Lippi portrayed Jesus simply lying in a “green” wooded forest with hewn logs and broken tree stumps in the background, not with a typical manger scene. Lippi chose to paint the young St. John looking away from the Christ child and pointing to the hidden stream. Hebrews 1:8-11 states- “You, Lord [Jesus], in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the works of Your hands". This scripture describes what Lippi was painting with the hands of God coming down from the heavens and the Christ Child lying on the earth. When referring to Jesus in Mathew 13:55 it states, “is not this the carpenter’s son?” So, Jesus was a carpenter/mason/architect and his earthly father Joseph was considered a carpenter/mason/ architect and His heavenly Father was the Great Architect of the Universe. This made an ideal analogy for stonemasons, woodworkers, architects and initiated Masters. Matthew 13:54-55, says- "Coming to his hometown [Jesus] taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, 'Where did this man get this wisdom and these mighty works? Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas?'" Jesus the carpenter’s son was revealing his great wisdom and spiritual mastery to the astonished people of the synagogue. As a master carpenter/mason/architect, Jesus would have been a keeper of the secrets of building temples and bestowed with the sacred knowledge of the magi astronomer priests. From Jesus’ birth he was linked with Magi that faithfully followed a bright star above, to find the Holy Child below. The Hermetic axiom as above, so below, as one thing was part of the knowledge surrounding the hidden stream of wisdom. The studies of Hermes Trismegistus were in the forefront during the Renaissance. The Florentine astrologer, Catholic priest, doctor, Italian scholar, author and philosopher Marsilio Ficino, was one of the most influential humanists of the Florentine Renaissance. He translated some of the ancient wisdom teachings of the Corpus Hermetica from Greek for Cosimo de’ Medici in 1463. Hermes Trismegistus was thought to be a contemporary of Moses and was held in high esteem. Hermes teachings involved magic, alchemy, astrology, interpretive communication and other esoteric beliefs. A floor mosaic of Hermes Trismegistus can still be seen in the Sienna Cathedral confirming his popularity during the Renaissance. Due to Hermes Trismegistus most secret cryptic text the Emerald Tablet, the secret visual language was also called the green language, the langue verte, or the Green Language of the Birds. Hermes green Emerald Tablet was considered by alchemists to contain the mysteries surrounding the philosopher’s stone. The green was also a secret reminder to “take from life”. The artist’s use of green colored fabrics in the paintings will often denote Hermetic thought. Fig. (21) Filippino Lippi, Self-portrait. Detail from The Dispute with Simon Magus (1481–1482). Fresco. Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, For example, Lippi painted his self-portrait on the right side of the fresco looking directly at the viewer with hidden hands next to a man in a “green” mantle also depicted with hidden hands. Filippino Lippi was a pupil of Botticelli and fulfilled his apprenticeship in his workshop. Filippino was the illegitimate son of Fra. Filippo Lippi. Botticelli had been apprenticed to his father. Through this example we can see how the secrets of the “green” language of the brotherhood evolved from master to apprentice through the ages. As one of the top painters of the day, and patronized by the Medici, Fra Filippo Lippi understood the green language and the hidden stream of wisdom and secretly incorporated it in some of his most famous artwork. Fig. (22) Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna in the Forest c. 1460 Staatliche Museen, Berlin Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici and his wife commissioned the Madonna in the Forest from Fra Filippo Lippi for the altarpiece of their private chapel in his Medici Palazzo (now the Medici Riccardi Chapel). It is interesting that Piero chose the same green forestry scene for his private chapel and his room at the monastery. He must have been particularly fond of the scene to buy a similar painting from Lippi. Jos

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意大利语

my memory translate

英语

Nagarjuna is surely one of the most difficult philosophers to interpret in any tradition. His texts are terse and cryptic. He does not shy away from paradox or apparent contradiction. He is coy about identifying his opponents. The commentarial traditions grounded in his texts present a plethora of interpretations of his view. Nonetheless, his influence in the Mahayana Buddhist world is not only unparalleled in that tradition, but exceeds in that tradition the influence of any single Western philosopher in the West. The degree to which he is taken seriously by so many eminent Indian, Chinese, Tibetan, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese philosophers, and lately by so many Western philosophers, alone justifies attention to his corpus. Even were he not such a titanic figure historically, the depth and beauty of his thought and the austere beauty of his philosophical poetry would justify that attention. While Nagarjuna may perplex and often infuriate, and while his texts may initially defy exegesis, anyone who spends any time with Nagarjuna's thought inevitably develops a deep respect for this master philosopher. One of the reasons Nagarjuna so perplexes many

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意大利语

my memory

英语

There is crowd every night, in the cinemas of Bagnoli,

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意大利语

my memory translated

英语

Ciao sono marika,la cognata di simona ,la prioritaria.

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意大利语

traduttore my memory

英语

Buongiorno

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意大利语

traduttore my memory

英语

my memory translator

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意大利语

translator my memory

英语

both

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意大利语

Ella non gestisce molto bene il suo tempo! Nessuno dei due di loro mi avevano avvertito che l’incontro di oggi era stato cancellato. Mi sono annoiato quando loro iniziarono a parlare della politica. Non mi aspettavo una tale reazione dalla parte sua!my memory translated

英语

Neither of them had warned me that today's meeting had been canceled. I got bored when they started talking about politics. I did not expect such a reaction on his part! My memory translated

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