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英语

settlement of leaks on the atrium roof by flashing and PU foam for the gap in the wall before the rainy season arrives

印尼语

penanganan kebocoran di atap atrium dengan flashing dan foam PU untuk celah dindingnya sebelum musim hujan tiba

最后更新: 2019-10-25
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英语

Blue Kapas Waterfall is one of the many waterfalls that form in the edge of the steep valley of the Besukbang Glidik River on the border of Malang Regency, Lumajang Regency. The scenery around the Waterfall which is located at an elevation of 500 meters above sea level is very beautiful because it is surrounded by high cliffs of reddish brown with green moss inserts and lush greenery around it. The water discharge is quite heavy especially during the rainy season so it is very dangerous if

印尼语

Air Terjun Kapas biru merupakan salah satu dari banyaknya air terjun yang terbentuk ditepian lembah lembah curam Sungai Besukbang Glidik di perbatasan Kabupaten Malang Kabupaten Lumajang. Pemandangan disekitar Air Terjun yang terletak di elevasi 500 Mdpl ini sangat indah karena dikelilingi tebing tebing tinggi berwarna coklat kemerahan dengan sisipan lumut lumut hijau serta rimbunnya pepohonanan disekitarnya. Debit airnya cukup deras terlebih saat musim penghujan sehingga sangat berbahya jika

最后更新: 2020-01-24
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英语

1 00:00:07,280 --> 00:00:12,400 Painting of a Gothic castle, artist unknown, circa 1920s. 2 00:00:12,760 --> 00:00:17,959 Oil on canvas, 20-by-28. Miss Franklin, where did you say you got this? 3 00:00:18,120 --> 00:00:23,638 I inherited it a few months ago. But it's been in my family for generations. 4 00:00:24,120 --> 00:00:27,157 The composition is so unusual. 5 00:00:27,320 --> 00:00:30,073 The artist used pure colour straight from the tube and then varnished 6 00:00:30,240 --> 00:00:33,994 - each layer over and... - I'm sorry for interrupting. 7 00:00:34,200 --> 00:00:35,997 But do I really need to be here? 8 00:00:36,160 --> 00:00:40,517 No, of course not. It's just that most people prefer to be at an appraisal, 9 00:00:40,680 --> 00:00:42,591 especially when they plan on selling the piece. 10 00:00:42,760 --> 00:00:46,036 - It's just that I'm kind of in a hurry. - Say no more. 11 00:00:46,200 --> 00:00:49,272 Just sign at the bottom, and you are free to go. 12 00:00:49,440 --> 00:00:53,353 Thank you. So how long do you think it'll take to sell it? 13 00:00:53,560 --> 00:00:56,632 Well, I'll need to see ownership records before I can do anything. 14 00:00:56,800 --> 00:01:00,076 I'll send you everything I have. So is that all, then? 15 00:01:00,240 --> 00:01:02,071 No, since you definitely wanna sell the piece, 16 00:01:02,240 --> 00:01:05,152 I'll need to confirm its authenticity, its physical condition. 17 00:01:05,320 --> 00:01:07,151 So if you'll just sign at the bottom, 18 00:01:07,360 --> 00:01:09,157 that will let us go ahead and x-ray the piece. 19 00:01:09,760 --> 00:01:11,751 Done. 20 00:01:12,240 --> 00:01:14,754 - Anything else? - Um... 21 00:01:15,320 --> 00:01:18,949 Well, yes, Miss Franklin. I would really like the time to research this. 22 00:01:19,160 --> 00:01:21,037 That way I can get you the best price. 23 00:01:21,200 --> 00:01:26,194 Look, I appreciate your professionalism. I really do. 24 00:01:26,360 --> 00:01:28,920 But I'm not interested in getting the best price. 25 00:01:29,080 --> 00:01:33,835 I just want you to sell that painting as soon as you can, all right? 26 00:01:34,840 --> 00:01:37,149 - Good night, Miss Halliwell. - Good night. 27 00:01:47,920 --> 00:01:50,832 Piper, it was an accident. It's not like I borrowed Prue's car 28 00:01:51,040 --> 00:01:53,679 - so I could drive it into a pole. - How bad's the damage? 29 00:01:53,840 --> 00:01:56,638 Not bad, but maybe expensive, which is why I need a favour. 30 00:01:56,800 --> 00:01:59,439 If you're calling to borrow money, I don't have any. 31 00:02:00,000 --> 00:02:04,152 No, it's not about money. It's just... I don't want you to tell Prue. 32 00:02:04,320 --> 00:02:07,517 She's been so supportive, and I don't wanna lose her trust again. 33 00:02:07,680 --> 00:02:11,116 - You mean you haven't told her? - Well, not yet, but I have a plan. 34 00:02:11,280 --> 00:02:12,508 Phoebe, you have to tell her. 35 00:02:12,680 --> 00:02:14,955 It's her car, and you don't have the money to fix it. 36 00:02:15,120 --> 00:02:17,759 But I will have the money to fix it. I'm at this company called 37 00:02:17,920 --> 00:02:20,912 Web San Francisco. It's an interactive network on the Internet. 38 00:02:21,120 --> 00:02:22,678 And I faxed them my résumé this morning, 39 00:02:22,840 --> 00:02:24,398 and they wanna meet with me tonight. 40 00:02:24,560 --> 00:02:26,869 I've gotta go, but I don't wanna be in the middle of this. 41 00:02:27,040 --> 00:02:30,077 - Just tell her, okay? - If I don't get the job, I will tell her. 42 00:02:34,120 --> 00:02:35,792 [SIGHS] 43 00:02:47,720 --> 00:02:51,998 Hello, I'm Phoebe Halliwell. I have an appointment. 44 00:02:55,120 --> 00:02:56,439 Thanks. 45 00:02:57,080 --> 00:03:00,231 All these people, they're here for the interview too, aren't they? 46 00:03:00,440 --> 00:03:03,034 Well, you won't have any trouble with this if you figured that out. 47 00:03:03,200 --> 00:03:06,158 It's an aptitude test. You can finish it at home. 48 00:03:06,320 --> 00:03:08,072 Great. Great. 49 00:03:12,560 --> 00:03:15,358 APPLICANT 1: You won a fellowship from the National Science Foundation? 50 00:03:15,520 --> 00:03:17,636 When I was at Harvard, yeah. How'd you know? 51 00:03:17,840 --> 00:03:20,912 I saw it on your résumé. I was cum laude also. 52 00:03:21,080 --> 00:03:22,832 APPLICANT 1: Except I was a Ford Foundation scholar. 53 00:03:23,080 --> 00:03:25,389 So then you must have gone to Stanford? 54 00:03:25,640 --> 00:03:27,392 Stanford? I went to Stanford. 55 00:03:29,080 --> 00:03:30,752 APPLICANT 2: Intimidating, isn't it? 56 00:03:31,120 --> 00:03:33,350 The Good Will Huntings or this aptitude test? 57 00:03:33,560 --> 00:03:37,189 Oh, who cares about linear algebra or differential? And that test is a snap. 58 00:03:37,360 --> 00:03:39,191 I mean, in this day and age, who can't write 59 00:03:39,360 --> 00:03:41,555 in HTML and numeric languages, right? 60 00:03:41,720 --> 00:03:42,709 [CHUCKLING] 61 00:03:42,880 --> 00:03:43,869 Right. 62 00:03:45,840 --> 00:03:49,833 Yeah, that's... That's for you. 63 00:04:04,800 --> 00:04:06,631 What? 64 00:04:13,680 --> 00:04:15,352 Oh... 65 00:05:41,720 --> 00:05:45,156 At first I just thought that it was a reflection off of something in the room. 66 00:05:45,400 --> 00:05:48,119 But then when I moved closer, I saw a man 67 00:05:48,280 --> 00:05:50,589 inside the painting, in the castle. 68 00:05:50,760 --> 00:05:54,958 Right, but the moment I saw him, he backed away from the window. 69 00:05:55,160 --> 00:05:58,436 And then there was this strange glow that went past the window again. 70 00:05:58,600 --> 00:06:00,591 It was just so... 71 00:06:02,320 --> 00:06:03,878 - Piper? - What? 72 00:06:04,960 --> 00:06:08,509 - We were talking? - I know, about a man in a painting. 73 00:06:08,720 --> 00:06:12,110 Listen to this one. "Hallway near club entrance too narrow." 74 00:06:12,280 --> 00:06:14,430 I thought that we had discussed your code violations. 75 00:06:14,600 --> 00:06:15,953 Well, I keep finding more. 76 00:06:16,120 --> 00:06:18,509 The plumbing, the electrical, the heating. 77 00:06:18,680 --> 00:06:20,830 - It... None of it is up to code. - Stop. 78 00:06:21,880 --> 00:06:24,440 - You're obsessing. - Well, it runs in the family. 79 00:06:25,040 --> 00:06:26,678 I don't obsess. 80 00:06:27,480 --> 00:06:32,349 I think intensely. Anyway, I can't really help it. 81 00:06:32,560 --> 00:06:35,552 I mean, we've seen so many bizarre things, why not a man in a painting? 82 00:06:35,720 --> 00:06:37,472 At least he's safe from building inspectors. 83 00:06:37,720 --> 00:06:40,109 I can't imagine that castle's up to code. 84 00:06:40,280 --> 00:06:43,556 I'm sorry, but I couldn't find anything in the Book of Shadows about people 85 00:06:43,720 --> 00:06:46,951 who may be trapped inside paintings. I looked everywhere. 86 00:06:47,440 --> 00:06:51,877 Hey, you were asleep by the time I got home. How did your interview go? 87 00:06:54,160 --> 00:06:55,752 It went fine. 88 00:06:56,000 --> 00:07:00,073 Actually, it's still going. I have to finish this take-home aptitude test, 89 00:07:00,240 --> 00:07:02,674 which I actually think I will start right now. 90 00:07:02,840 --> 00:07:05,149 So I will see you guys later. 91 00:07:05,360 --> 00:07:06,713 - Phoebe? PHOEBE: What? 92 00:07:06,880 --> 00:07:09,553 Aren't you forgetting something? My car keys? 93 00:07:13,400 --> 00:07:15,868 They'd be with your car... 94 00:07:16,880 --> 00:07:20,395 ...which is at the body shop, having an estimate. 95 00:07:20,960 --> 00:07:25,909 - An estimate? - Yeah, I bumped... 96 00:07:26,320 --> 00:07:30,598 No, actually I backed your car into a pole last night. 97 00:07:31,440 --> 00:07:33,158 A pole? 98 00:07:34,320 --> 00:07:35,548 You hit a pole? 99 00:07:35,720 --> 00:07:38,314 Yeah, you don't even have to say it. I know what you're thinking. 100 00:07:38,480 --> 00:07:41,836 How could I be so irresponsible? How could I be so stupid? 101 00:07:42,240 --> 00:07:46,518 Okay, irresponsible, yes. Stupid, no way. Where is that coming from? 102 00:07:46,680 --> 00:07:48,830 It's coming from the fact that I'm the youngest sister, 103 00:07:49,000 --> 00:07:51,958 the one who always makes mistakes, the one who always causes problems. 104 00:07:52,120 --> 00:07:54,793 I mean, if anybody were gonna back your car into a pole 105 00:07:54,960 --> 00:07:57,030 and not tell you right away, it'd be me, right? 106 00:07:57,880 --> 00:08:00,758 - I think I'll just be going now. - See? Even the middle sister, 107 00:08:00,920 --> 00:08:03,912 the one that's supposed to stay neutral when it comes to family problems, 108 00:08:04,080 --> 00:08:06,799 - checks out on this one. - Yes, you're right. You're on your own. 109 00:08:06,960 --> 00:08:09,428 Well, leave me out of it too. I don't wanna argue with you. 110 00:08:09,600 --> 00:08:12,956 - I just wanna find a cab. - Well, whatever it costs, 111 00:08:13,120 --> 00:08:15,680 I will pay for the damages. And whatever the cab costs, 112 00:08:15,840 --> 00:08:17,592 I will pay for that too. 113 00:08:20,760 --> 00:08:23,877 - What just happened here? - I don't know anything about anything. 114 00:08:24,080 --> 00:08:26,150 - I'm gonna go see Dan. - Piper! 115 00:08:26,320 --> 00:08:29,835 Just forget about the car. What about the man in the painting? 116 00:08:30,200 --> 00:08:34,352 Well, unless he's real and screaming for help, forget about him. 117 00:08:34,520 --> 00:08:37,353 We shouldn't go looking for trouble. We have enough around here. 118 00:08:37,960 --> 00:08:40,110 I'm going next door. 119 00:08:48,680 --> 00:08:50,671 - Dan. - Good morning. 120 00:08:50,880 --> 00:08:53,792 - I'm sorry to bother you. - No, you're not bothering me, unless 121 00:08:54,080 --> 00:08:57,550 - you refuse to hand over my paper. - Oh, all yours. 122 00:08:57,720 --> 00:09:01,952 - Thanks. You wanna come in? - No, no, really, 123 00:09:02,160 --> 00:09:05,232 I just stopped by to ask a quick favour. My club received a visit 124 00:09:05,400 --> 00:09:07,755 - from the DBI last night... - And you got code violations. 125 00:09:07,960 --> 00:09:10,679 I have the War and Peace of code violations. 126 00:09:10,880 --> 00:09:14,475 And you were thinking what? Neighbour Dan, he's in construction, 127 00:09:14,880 --> 00:09:18,031 - maybe he could help, huh? - Of course I'd pay you something. 128 00:09:18,640 --> 00:09:21,916 JENNY: Uncle Dan, I'm late. Hey, Piper. - Hi, Jenny. 129 00:09:22,080 --> 00:09:26,517 See you later, Uncle Dan. And don't forget your promise. 130 00:09:27,920 --> 00:09:32,198 Okay, then, I'll tell you what I can do. I'll check out the code violations, 131 00:09:32,360 --> 00:09:35,272 see how serious they really are if you will help me with the promise 132 00:09:35,440 --> 00:09:38,159 - I made Jenny. - Deal. Wait, what's the promise? 133 00:09:38,320 --> 00:09:42,199 She needs help with a paper. It's... It's for bio class. You know, something 134 00:09:42,400 --> 00:09:46,473 - with the human reproductive system. - Oh, you mean sex. 135 00:09:47,440 --> 00:09:50,477 It's just way too awkward for me to talk to my niece about. 136 00:09:50,680 --> 00:09:54,309 Yeah. Sure, not to worry, I have plenty of experience. 137 00:09:54,880 --> 00:10:00,398 - Really? With sex? - No, I mean, talking about it. 138 00:10:02,880 --> 00:10:04,279 Yeah. 139 00:10:07,920 --> 00:10:09,876 So was there a problem with any 140 00:10:10,040 --> 00:10:11,792 of the ownership records that I sent over? 141 00:10:11,960 --> 00:10:13,632 No, everything's in order. 142 00:10:13,960 --> 00:10:15,916 Then I'm not sure why you wanted to meet with me. 143 00:10:16,080 --> 00:10:19,550 Look, Miss Franklin, I know that you don't really wanna be here, 144 00:10:19,720 --> 00:10:25,078 so I'll just be perfectly honest. There is something strange about that painting. 145 00:10:26,160 --> 00:10:28,549 - Have you seen him? - Him? 146 00:10:29,200 --> 00:10:32,590 - That's how it all starts, you know. - What do you mean? 147 00:10:32,760 --> 00:10:36,070 At first, you see him... 148 00:10:37,400 --> 00:10:38,799 ...the man inside the painting. 149 00:10:39,760 --> 00:10:45,039 At least you think you see him, but he just... He disappears so fast. 150 00:10:46,720 --> 00:10:49,951 And you start to think about it, but it doesn't make any sense. I mean, 151 00:10:51,200 --> 00:10:56,035 how could a man be inside a painting? And then you see him again. 152 00:10:56,560 --> 00:10:58,596 This time longer. 153 00:11:01,600 --> 00:11:03,352 And now you're sure. 154 00:11:03,520 --> 00:11:06,318 So you think that the painting is haunted by a ghost? 155 00:11:07,000 --> 00:11:11,312 Oh, no, no, I think he's definitely alive. 156 00:11:12,120 --> 00:11:14,588 I think he's trapped inside. 157 00:11:16,120 --> 00:11:19,590 - Do you know who he is? - No, I have no idea. 158 00:11:20,600 --> 00:11:22,272 Nobody does. 159 00:11:23,960 --> 00:11:27,748 Look, all I know is that if I don't get rid of that painting, 160 00:11:28,000 --> 00:11:30,878 I'm gonna end up just like everybody else in my family who ever owned it. 161 00:11:31,080 --> 00:11:33,071 - I'm gonna be completely insane. - Miss Franklin... 162 00:11:33,240 --> 00:11:35,196 No, you've only seen the beginning, Miss Halliwell. 163 00:11:35,400 --> 00:11:39,712 Just trust me when I tell you it's only gonna get worse. 164 00:11:48,880 --> 00:11:54,318 Spirits send the words from all... 165 00:11:54,480 --> 00:11:55,469 [KNOCKING] 166 00:11:55,640 --> 00:11:57,278 PIPER: It's me. Can I come in? 167 00:11:57,440 --> 00:11:59,795 Piper, I really just wanna be alone right now. 168 00:11:59,960 --> 00:12:02,633 I won't stay long, promise. 169 00:12:03,560 --> 00:12:05,630 All right, just give me a sec. 170 00:12:10,120 --> 00:12:11,394 Okay, you can come in now. 171 00:12:15,880 --> 00:12:19,998 I just wanted to tell you the body shop called. 172 00:12:20,440 --> 00:12:22,351 Yeah, I know, I heard the message, 1,200 bucks. 173 00:12:22,520 --> 00:12:25,876 - Did you tell Prue? - I didn't have to. She already knew. 174 00:12:26,040 --> 00:12:27,473 She called the body shop herself. 175 00:12:27,640 --> 00:12:29,551 That's why I have got to get this job, Piper. 176 00:12:29,760 --> 00:12:31,796 It's the only way that I could pay for the damages. 177 00:12:32,000 --> 00:12:33,558 The only way I can make things right. 178 00:12:33,760 --> 00:12:35,637 All the more reason you just should've told her. 179 00:12:35,840 --> 00:12:38,274 Okay, well, maybe a smarter person would've figured that out. 180 00:12:38,600 --> 00:12:42,036 Then again, a smart person wouldn't have backed the car into a pole. 181 00:12:42,280 --> 00:12:45,272 A smart person would've realised that it was a $1,200 pole. 182 00:12:45,480 --> 00:12:49,837 That's because smart people don't do stupid things, only stupid people do. 183 00:12:50,000 --> 00:12:52,719 - Phoebe, I didn't mean to upset you. - I know. 184 00:12:53,080 --> 00:12:56,277 - Maybe we should just talk later. - Okay. 185 00:12:57,560 --> 00:13:00,677 - You sure you're gonna be okay? - Yeah. Why? 186 00:13:00,840 --> 00:13:03,479 Phoebe, I know you think getting this job is the answer, but please, 187 00:13:03,640 --> 00:13:06,438 - just don't do anything... - What, stupid? 188 00:13:06,600 --> 00:13:09,672 No, just don't do anything I wouldn't do. 189 00:13:11,880 --> 00:13:13,677 Don't worry, I won't. 190 00:13:17,360 --> 00:13:19,669 You would never cast a smart spell. 191 00:13:20,920 --> 00:13:21,955 Okay. 192 00:13:24,400 --> 00:13:27,756 For 24 hours, from 7 to 7, I will understand all meaning 193 00:13:28,040 --> 00:13:33,717 of the words from here to heaven. 194 00:13:42,680 --> 00:13:45,831 Spirits, send the words From all across the land 195 00:13:46,000 --> 00:13:49,390 Allow me to absorb them Through the touch of either hand 196 00:13:49,560 --> 00:13:51,630 For 23 hours, from 7 to 7 197 00:13:51,800 --> 00:13:56,351 I will understand all meaning Of the words from here to heaven 198 00:13:57,040 --> 00:13:59,508 Oh, and P.S., there will be no personal gain. 199 00:14:17,120 --> 00:14:20,317 Abaca, strong fibre obtained from a banana leaf. 200 00:14:20,480 --> 00:14:24,473 Zygote, a cell formed by the union of two gametes. 201 00:14:27,080 --> 00:14:28,672 Cool. 202 00:14:33,120 --> 00:14:36,430 - Hey, Joe, that was fast. JOE: No line at the x-ray machine. 203 00:14:36,640 --> 00:14:38,756 So did the x-ray confirm its authenticity? 204 00:14:38,920 --> 00:14:41,354 It did a lot more than that. Check out the x-ray. 205 00:14:41,520 --> 00:14:43,715 It's got definitive underwriting on the canvas. 206 00:14:44,200 --> 00:14:47,033 - It has a pentimento? - Yeah, I couldn't believe it either. 207 00:14:47,280 --> 00:14:50,636 But you can see it on the x-ray. The text is in Latin. 208 00:14:50,840 --> 00:14:53,308 I've never seen anything like it before. 209 00:14:53,640 --> 00:14:57,872 "Absolvo, amitto, amplus, brevis." 210 00:14:58,240 --> 00:15:03,394 - To free what is lost say these words. - Wow, you speak Latin? 211 00:15:04,160 --> 00:15:08,039 - Yes. Good night, Joe. - Okay. 212 00:15:08,240 --> 00:15:10,595 Well, why don't I just return the painting to the vault, 213 00:15:10,760 --> 00:15:12,034 say, tomorrow. 214 00:15:12,240 --> 00:15:14,117 - Good idea. - Okay. 215 00:15:25,600 --> 00:15:27,192 "Help." 216 00:15:31,760 --> 00:15:33,557 Okay. 217 00:15:36,680 --> 00:15:40,958 "Semper mea." Mine forever. 218 00:15:43,400 --> 00:15:48,030 Absolvo amitto amplus brevis. Semper mea. 219 00:15:51,600 --> 00:15:53,033 Oh, no. 220 00:15:54,000 --> 00:15:55,831 Oh! Oh! 221 00:16:12,720 --> 00:16:14,597 [GASPING] 222 00:16:17,040 --> 00:16:18,837 Who's there? 223 00:16:19,880 --> 00:16:20,869 [SCREAMS] 224 00:16:21,040 --> 00:16:22,837 - Quick, follow me! - What? 225 00:16:23,040 --> 00:16:25,076 This way. Ladies first. 226 00:16:27,280 --> 00:16:28,918 I see you read Latin too. 227 00:16:29,200 --> 00:16:30,679 Okay, what has happened? Where am I? 228 00:16:30,840 --> 00:16:32,353 - You're in the castle. - Where is that? 229 00:16:32,520 --> 00:16:35,432 - Inside a painting. - I'm trapped inside a painting? 230 00:16:35,640 --> 00:16:38,108 Yes, and if you don't get to that bookcase, you're dead. 231 00:16:38,920 --> 00:16:40,353 Who are you? 232 00:16:40,600 --> 00:16:43,398 My name's Malcolm, and you were supposed to help me, not join me. 233 00:16:43,600 --> 00:16:44,589 Who are you anyway? 234 00:16:44,760 --> 00:16:46,478 My name is Prue, and I was helping you. 235 00:16:46,640 --> 00:16:49,837 - You were supposed to come out. - Great, now we're both trapped. Hurry! 236 00:16:52,880 --> 00:16:54,950 What the hell? What are you? How'd you do that? 237 00:16:55,160 --> 00:16:57,879 Oh, okay, never mind. We're gonna get killed. Will you hurry up? 238 00:17:04,040 --> 00:17:05,029 [MEOWING] 239 00:17:05,200 --> 00:17:06,952 Hi, Phoebe. You're up early. What's up? 240 00:17:07,120 --> 00:17:10,874 Oh, the Dow Jones, housing prices and the space shuttle Discovery. 241 00:17:11,040 --> 00:17:14,032 - Huh? - Read the paper. 242 00:17:14,280 --> 00:17:16,919 Oh. Um... 243 00:17:17,080 --> 00:17:19,116 - Have you seen Prue this morning? - Not yet. 244 00:17:19,320 --> 00:17:21,959 Oh, Dan just called, said he'd meet you at the club at noon. 245 00:17:22,360 --> 00:17:23,634 Okay. 246 00:17:23,840 --> 00:17:26,354 - Did you hear her come in last night? - Nope. 247 00:17:26,800 --> 00:17:28,711 PIPER: This is really strange. 248 00:17:28,880 --> 00:17:29,915 [CAT MEOWING] 249 00:17:

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Reebok and Adidas The athletic shoe industry in the United States was an $8.25 billion market in 2003. By 2010, industry revenue had hit $21.9 billion with sales of over 362 million shoes a year [Ibis World]. The four largest companies (Nike, New Balance, and AdidasReebok) controlled 70 percent of that market [Cassidy 2004]. The industry grew from almost nothing in the early 1980s to a global powerhouse. Reebok (ticker: RBK) can trace its history back to Joseph William Foster, who made some of the first spiked running shoes by hand in London—in 1895. In 1958, two grandsons started a companion company known as Reebok. But, the modern version was born in 1979 when Paul Fireman saw the shoes at an international trade show and negotiated for North American distribution rights. At $60 a pair, the shoes were the most expensive running shoes in America [www.reebok.com]. In 1982, Reebok helped launch the aerobic dance industry with a shoe specifically targeted to women. With explosive growth, the company went public in 1985. Growth con- tinued, supported by the Step Reebok program in 1989. By 1995, the company had grown from $50 million in sales to over $3 billion in a decade. Reebok’s 1993 sales of $2.9 billion placed it second behind $4.4-billion Nike, Inc. The nearly $1 billion increase in sales from 1989 to 1993 indicates Reebok’s success in gaining market share. Paul Fireman, president and CEO of Reebok Paul Fireman founded Reebok in 1979 and remains the largest shareholder. From 1986 to 1990, Fireman was one of the ten highest paid executives in the United States. Under his control, Reebok sales grew from $1.5 million in 1980 to $1.4 billion in 1987. In 1988, Fire- man relinquished the CEO role to spend time working on other projects, including develop- ing golf courses in Puerto Rico and Cape Cod. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Reebok suffered from two weak marketing campaigns (“Reeboks Let U.B.U.” and “Physics behind the Physique”). More importantly, the aerobics fitness craze began to subside. Women aero- bics shoes were a major component of Reebok sales, so the sales decline hit them especially hard. In 1992, Fireman returned as CEO. Tom Trainer, CIO Tom Trainer joined Reebok in 1991 as the chief information officer (CIO). He noted that his role “is to enable the kid in Reebok to stay fresh and creative while also allowing the grown- up corporation to compete in global markets” [Pulliam and Pereira 1995]. To accomplish these objectives, Trainer implemented videoconferencing, computer-aided design, the In- ternet, and laptops for the sales force. The goal was to improve communications among em- ployees, faster development of products, and more effective sales presentations. Before Trainer joined Reebok in 1991 as vice-president of information systems, the information systems area was less than up-to-date, with no global information system or way to look at data. Communications, primarily by telephone and fax, between the manu- facturing partners and worldwide distribution network were slow. Turnaround on new products was equally slow. This was a critical problem because Reebok is a fashion-oriented business with three product cycles a year in footwear and five in apparel. While sales repre- sentatives from Nike were walking in with laptops to display their lines, reps from Reebok were walking into offices with bags of shoes. Trainer’s early days were spent accomplishing short-term projects that got him points with the board of directors. He fired six of eight senior staff. He kept 85 percent of the old programming staff, retraining many of them. In addition to his IS responsibilities, Trainer drove the re-engineering process in the company. To do so, he spent a great deal of time on the road, building relationships with Reebok executives around the world. He also studied Sony Corporation to learn ways that it meets customer needs. To accomplish his re-engineering, Trainer formed five megaprocesses that streamlined procedures for production, sales and marketing, research and development, adminis- tration, finance, and distribution. In 1992, he presented a four-year, $75- million strategic information systems plan to Reebok’s executive committee. The board approved it on the condition that it give Reebok strategic advantage. To improve its communications, Reebok installed a privately designed architecture for voice, video, and data. Reebok communicates not only with its worldwide distribution base but also with its ad agency and other suppliers. IT currently developed an electronic image library to enable product shots to be distributed to every country where Reebok does business. The system dropped the new product lead time from six months to three, and, in some cases, 30 days. Before the new ordering system was installed, orders were first printed out locally and faxed to the international headquarters in London. London would take all of the faxes and send them to the United States to be entered in the mainframe. Different standards for shoe sizes from different countries added to the delay. Once the information was entered in the mainframe, production and manufacturing would evaluate the orders. To improve this process, Trainer developed a software package called Passport. Passport rationalizes product codes and shoe sizes. It also gives small distributors and sub- sidiaries access to the system through personal computers. It can also function as a module by plugging into larger systems. Laptops were also given to the entire Reebok sales force. When orders were paper based, replacing material in a shoe to change its price from $95 to $65 might take 30 days and mean a lost sale. With the new system, these changes could be made almost automati- cally. Salespeople are able to check inventory and look into special orders. They can also access two years’ catalogs with full motion video and sound clips of Reebok’s advertise- ments. Lotus Notes is used to store the catalogs with mail links through cc:Mail. Another Reebok initiative is to use electronic data interchange with 10-15 percent of its retailers. This commitment enables goods to be tracked through shipping companies, customs, and warehouses. Hoover, a data capture system to “suck in” information from da- tabases around the world, is linked to customer databases that track what customers have ordered and what they want. Reebok experienced some problems implementing the new systems. Particularly difficult was the effort to integrate the Canadian operations into the U.S. business operation. Concentrating development and support in the United States did not take into account the specifics of invoicing under the Canadian law. This mistake added time and resources that had not been budgeted to the project. Reebok early 1990s In the early 1990s, facing continuing declines in the aerobics’ market, Fireman changed the focus and tried to expand into other areas. To a large extent, Nike was killing the competi- tion—largely by focusing on star athletes and spending more than 10 percent of its revenue on marketing. In the early 1990s, Fireman knew that he would have to compete directly in the sporting world [www.reebok.com]. His basketball market strategy copied a page from Nike, and relied on the new “Shaq Attaq” line supported by Shaquille O’Neal from the Or- lando Magic. While sales did increase, they did not reach the 25 percent levels predicted by Mr. Fireman—reaching only 20 percent market share. Additionally, Fireman estimated in 1993 that the outdoor-wear division would sell $350 million worth of shoes in 1995. Outdoor sales fell far short of the goal, reaching about $110 million. More importantly, expenses skyrocketed, increasing from 23.6 percent of sales in 1991 to 32.7 percent in June 1995. Experts say shoe company expenses typically average about 27 percent of sales. Investors blamed most of the increase on the cost of endorse- ments. Nike Late 1990s At the same time that Reebok was suffering, Nike reported a 55 percent jump in firstquarter 1995 earnings, with revenue increasing by 38 percent. Part of the increase was from expanded international sales, with a 34 percent increase in orders from France and Germany. Sales in Japan increased by 65 percent. Nike also expanded sales of tennis shoes, partly through endorsements from tennis stars Andre Agassi and Pete Sampras. In the first quarter of 1995, revenue from tennis shoes increased by 92 percent with a 42 percent in- crease in orders. At the same time sales were increasing, Nike managed to decrease its expense ratio. Selling and administrative costs dropped to 22.3 percent of revenue from 25 percent in the prior year. Much of the improvement came from an improved distribution system, including a new warehouse in Belgium that consolidated operations from 30 different facilities in Eu- rope. Beginning in the late 1990s, the footwear industry lost its luster. However, Nike revenue increased from $3.4 billion in 1998 to $9.0 billion in 2000 to $9.5 billion in 2001, to over $10 billion in 2003 [annual report]. In 2001, Nike installed a customized retail supply chain system from i2 Technologies, Inc. The implementation, including ties to other ERP systems, did not go well, and Nike faced a serious inventory reduction and misplacement. Nike management was disappointed in the problems, and Nike chairman questioned: “This is what we get for $400 million?” Reebok Late 1990s In 1990, Nike surpassed Reebok in footwear sales. In the year ending in August 1995, Nike had $4.7 billion in sales compared to Reebok’s $3.37 billion. One of the largest battle- grounds was the retail Foot Locker stores owned by Woolworth Corp. The 2,800 retail stores sell 23 percent of U.S. sport shoes, representing $1.5 billion of the $6.5 billion U.S. market for athletic shoes. Sales at Foot Locker stores account for almost 60 percent of the 1$ billion U.S. sales gap between Reebok and Nike. Insiders note that the problems between Reebok and Foot Locker go back to the days when Reebok shoes were selling rapidly. Foot Locker wanted concessions on price and wanted Reebok to make some styles exclusively for them. Reebok was busy selling to other outlets and was unwilling or unable to alter its production and distribution systems. Nike was eager to build custom products for Foot Locker and offered a dozen products exclusively at the chain. Ex-employees at Reebok note that the company had additional problems providing samples and design plans to Foot Locker, claiming that “Sometimes the samples would come in late and sometimes not at all—which got Foot Locker mad. . . . Sometimes, fashions last less than six weeks; if you don’t get it in right then, there goes a major sale.” Mr. Fireman responded by trying to improve relations with Foot Locker. He also offered to begin building exclusive styles for Foot Locker, but the introduction of the products was uncertain. He also noted that Reebok was working hard to cut costs and improve its order and information tracking system. One problem that remained was that the clerks at Foot Locker stores tended to push the Nike brands harder. By September of 1995, major shareholders were getting upset with Reebok management. One of the leading outsider shareholders, Glenn Greenberg of Chieftain Capital Management, noted that “The major shareholders have no confidence in the management of this company. If it was up to us, they would have changed horses or sold the company a long time ago.” Reebok and The Internet Like other shoe manufacturers, Reebok relies heavily on celebrity endorsements. Signing Alan Iverson (NBA rookie of the year in 1996) and Venus Williams (tennis sensation) gave Reebok greater visibility in 2000. In 2000, Reebok also increased its visibility by sponsoring the Survivor television show with humorous ads. Their Web site followed these themes. In 1997, Reebok installed Radnet Inc.’s WebShare groupware system to maintain its Web site. The system has tools for e-mail, discussion groups, and bulletin boards. The goal was to add interactivity to the site and build a community of users. Marvin Chow, Reebok’s director of interactive marketing noted that “If you just try and use the Web to sell them products, something is missing” [Cole-Gomolski 1998]. More importantly, the system makes it easy for Reebok’s managers to add content. They can add data and pass it to salespeople and re- tailers automatically using a workflow engine. The company used QuickTime from Apple to create CDs for its salespeople. Using Macromedia on its Internet site, the company was able to update pricing, styles, and even new photos and displays on the fly. The data was downloaded directly to the sales laptops [Dillon 1998]. Interestingly, the Web site is largely independent from the IT department. Roger Wood, vice president of electronic commerce at Reebok reports directly to the CEO and con- trols his own technology budget. He observes that “I am able to take down and build up fea- tures (of the Web site) without some IT overlord telling me what is good or bad” [Cole- Gomolski 1999]. In 2000, Reebok stopped selling shoes direct from its Web site. It was concerned about competing with the traditional retail outlets. So now the site focuses on image, tech- nical information about products, and then directs consumers to the retail partners. Enterprise Systems From SAP Facing weak sales, Reebok began focusing on reducing costs in the late 1990s. Net sales dropped from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $2.9 bil- lion in 1999 to about $2.8 billion in 2000. Worse yet, from 1999 to 2000, gross margin declined from 38.5 percent to 37.9 percent. Income (Million $) Year 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Revenue 3,485 3,128 2,993 2,865 2,900 Net Income 157 126 102 81 11 In 1995, Trainer went to Eli Lilly [Information Week 1995]. The company ultimately replaced him with Peter Burrows as chief technology officer (CTO). Burrows knew that he needed to replace the aging, custom software that was being used to run the company. The problem was that nothing existed. In late 1995, he sent a dozen Reebok workers to an SAP R/3 course—the goal was to show SAP that its system could not handle the complex details of the apparel industry. Most products are created by hundreds of contract suppliers, gen- erally in Southeast Asia. Product designs change constantly, and the company has to coor- dinate shipments to thousands of customers. Ultimately, Burrows convinced SAP to develop a custom add-on system called the Apparel Footware Solution (AFS) module. To convince the company to spend the money, VF Corp., the company that makes Lee and Wrangler jeans, also signed on to the project. The two companies helped design the specifications for the new software. The project was far more complex than SAP anticipated, and the initial version was three months late. Leroy Allen, the CIO at VF commented that “I think SAP underestimated the amount of change that had to be made to standard R/3” [Steadman January 1999]. Burrows was counting on the system to handle the major transactions at Reebok, so he could avoid the necessity of rewriting the old applications to become Y2K compliant. By May, 1999, the system was still not fully operational. Among other problems and bugs, the system was too slow to check product inventories and raw material stocks when retailers and distributors placed orders. Burrows noted that “We’re not out of the woods, but SAP is responding. It’s not something we’re taking lightly, and neither are they” [Steadman May 1999]. In the meantime, another 60 apparel and footwear makers had purchased the sys- tem by early 1999. By 2000, Reebok was running the system in only a couple of divisions, such as golf shoes. The company deferred implementation of the full system until at least mid- 2001. Burrows noted that he was waiting for additional functionality scheduled for Release 2.5 [Steadman 2000]. Despite the problems in getting the software developed, apparel manu- facturers had few other choices. By 2001, Reebok had 115 retail stores running the AFS system. Burrows was pleased with the ability of the system to maintain accurate inventory records for the stores [Mearian and Songini 2001]. In January 2002, SAP shipped Release 3.0 of AFS. With the bug fixes and new features, Reebok continued to rollout the system in its divisions. Burrows planned to gradually implement Release 3.0 over a few years. Burrows continues to push for new features such as a Web-based system to handle business-to-business transactions with suppliers. In 2002, competitor Nike completed rolling out AFS 2.5 to its 5,000 end users [Songini 2002]. Competition and the Future There is no question that the shoe industry is competitive. There is also no question that it is still dominated by Nike. Yet, Reebok has made gains in the mid-2000s. The retro-trend bolstered sales for Reebok when it re-released older models. (It also convinced Nike to buy Converse.) Competition to sign new stars is also intense. Most observers believe Alan Iver- son has significantly boosted Reebok sales. In 2004, Reebok struck a huge note in the inter- national market by signing Yao Ming to market a line of shoes in China. Reebok will also market a line of Yao Ming shoes in the United States [Marcial 2004]. Somewhat surprisingly, Reebok did well in 2003 selling a line of shoes endorsed by Rap stars (Jay-Z and 50 Cent). The shoes were also popular in England [Thomaselli 2004]. On the other hand, Reebok’s 2003 sales gain was also attributed to the feud between Nike and Foot Locker. In 2002, Nike pulled its top products from Foot Locker—trying to negotiate better prices. In November 2003, the companies resolved their problems and Foot Locker again began carrying more Nike shoes. Foot Locker’s clout grew even more in 2004 when it purchased 353 Footaction stores from bankruptcy [Cassidy 2004]. Although Nike is still the strongest seller in the U.S. market, it has struggled to find a management team. In 2006, William D. Perez stepped down after only 13 months as CEO. Reportedly, Perez often clashed with Nike co-founder Philip Knight. Knight promoted Mark G. Parker to the CEO position. The change reminded observers of the situation in 2000 when Mr. Knight returned to the CEO position to replace Tom Clarke as sales fell from 1994 to 2000 [Lublin and Kang 2006]. Adidas In 2005, Adidas-Salomon AG in Germany agreed to purchase Reebok for $3.8 billion. The price represented a 34 percent premium over the existing stock valuation. The sale was closed in 2006. Adidas, a pioneer in the shoe and sporting-goods industries had been strug- gling in the U.S. trying to find a way to compete with Nike. Adidas was largely considered the engineering leader and produced some of the technically best shoes on the market—but it lacked the marketing flash appeal of Nike. For example, the company introduced a $250 running shoe containing a sensor and small motor that enabled it to adjust the tension and support based on the terrain. Shortly after the acquisition was closed in 2006, Paul Fire- man left Reebok [Reebok Web site]. A key element in the decision was Reebok’s appeal in the urban market—due to its embrace of 50 Cent and Jay-Z rappers. Herbert Hainer, CEO of Adidas noted that “we will expand our geographic reach, particularly in North America, and create a footwear, apparel and hardware offering that addresses a broader spectrum of consumers and demographics.” The global market for athletic shoes is about $33 billion and about half of that total comes from America. In 2004 combined, Reebok and Adidas had about 20 percent of the U.S. mar- ket compared to Nike’s 35 percent [Karnitschnig and Kang 2005]. Adidas was formed by Adi Dassler after World War II. It gained attention by creating soccer cleats that helped Germany win the 1954 World Cup

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terjemahan kalimat bahasa inggris1 00:00:35,769 --> 00:00:39,000 Come on, Claire. It's me. 2 00:00:41,408 --> 00:00:43,239 Put down the gun. 3 00:00:43,309 --> 00:00:46,278 Can't. It ends here. 4 00:00:46,346 --> 00:00:48,041 No, no, no! Wait, wait! 5 00:00:48,948 --> 00:00:52,213 I'm going back to the day they all found out. 6 00:00:52,285 --> 00:00:54,150 It's too late. It isn't! 7 00:00:54,220 --> 00:00:55,710 Think about it, Claire. 8 00:00:56,489 --> 00:00:59,287 It wouldn't be like this if they'd never known about us. 9 00:01:00,794 --> 00:01:06,596 No camps, no experiments, no hiding underground, hunted like this. 10 00:01:08,201 --> 00:01:12,137 All these powers, it's gonna destroy everything. 11 00:01:12,205 --> 00:01:15,572 I made peace with that a long time ago. You never did. 12 00:01:19,045 --> 00:01:20,808 What happened to you, Claire? 13 00:01:22,449 --> 00:01:24,440 How did you get to this place? 14 00:01:24,517 --> 00:01:28,317 I'm different, remember? Special. 15 00:01:28,388 --> 00:01:31,915 I can fix all of this. Everything. Please. 16 00:01:41,000 --> 00:01:45,460 I'm sorry, Peter. I always loved you. 17 00:02:13,933 --> 00:02:17,300 Welcome. Good afternoon, thank you for coming. 18 00:02:17,370 --> 00:02:19,998 Most of you probably have no idea who I am. 19 00:02:21,374 --> 00:02:22,841 My name is Nathan Petrelli, 20 00:02:22,909 --> 00:02:28,677 and I was elected to Congress from the state of New York, seems like a long time ago. 21 00:02:31,251 --> 00:02:36,348 Last year, something incredible happened to me, and it changed my life. 22 00:02:36,422 --> 00:02:38,413 First, I was afraid. 23 00:02:40,126 --> 00:02:41,821 But I'm not afraid anymore. 24 00:02:41,895 --> 00:02:44,227 I'm here to tell you the truth. I have the ability... 25 00:02:52,605 --> 00:02:54,766 Get an ambulance in here! Now! 26 00:02:54,841 --> 00:02:56,832 Get back! I said back! 27 00:02:56,910 --> 00:02:58,775 You stay with... Stay with him. 28 00:03:02,482 --> 00:03:03,972 Don't leave him. 29 00:03:24,737 --> 00:03:26,705 Where is he? 30 00:03:26,773 --> 00:03:28,172 I lost him. 31 00:03:29,008 --> 00:03:30,908 Did you get a good look at him? No. 32 00:03:33,179 --> 00:03:34,203 No. 33 00:03:51,197 --> 00:03:53,859 Police currently have no leads as to the cause of the shooting, 34 00:03:53,933 --> 00:03:56,834 and an investigation is underway to locate the gunman. 35 00:03:57,303 --> 00:03:58,793 The building has been sealed off, 36 00:03:58,871 --> 00:04:01,567 and authorities are interviewing everyone present. 37 00:04:01,641 --> 00:04:04,610 The status of his condition at this time is unknown. 38 00:04:04,677 --> 00:04:07,043 Mr. Petrelli was in the middle of a public statement 39 00:04:07,113 --> 00:04:09,775 when he was hit with two bullets to the chest. 40 00:04:09,849 --> 00:04:12,079 Nathan Petrelli graduated from Annapolis... 41 00:04:12,986 --> 00:04:14,851 Hello? - Peter? It's me. 42 00:04:14,921 --> 00:04:15,979 Claire? 43 00:04:16,055 --> 00:04:17,682 Is he... Oh, it's bad. 44 00:04:17,757 --> 00:04:19,384 We're gonna get him to the hospital. 45 00:04:19,459 --> 00:04:21,393 I should be there. I can help. 46 00:04:21,461 --> 00:04:22,485 No, he needs to get into surgery. 47 00:04:22,562 --> 00:04:24,553 But my blood... Claire, you're in California. 48 00:04:25,031 --> 00:04:27,261 What he needs is to be in a hospital right now. 49 00:04:27,333 --> 00:04:30,894 Just... I'll call you as soon as I know anything. 50 00:04:32,438 --> 00:04:35,874 Police currently have no leads as to the cause of the shooting... 51 00:04:36,109 --> 00:04:39,078 Dr. Langdon, report to Emergency. 52 00:04:39,145 --> 00:04:41,511 Dr. Cattrell, Dr. Daniel Cattrell... 53 00:04:41,848 --> 00:04:46,547 Dr. Hartman, Dr. Phil Hartman, Emergency admitting. 54 00:04:47,053 --> 00:04:48,213 He was down for four minutes. 55 00:04:48,288 --> 00:04:50,279 Hang two units of blood and charge the paddles! 56 00:04:50,356 --> 00:04:52,551 This is a restricted area. I'm his brother. 57 00:04:52,625 --> 00:04:53,990 I'm sorry. 58 00:04:56,529 --> 00:04:57,962 Is he gonna make it? 59 00:04:59,766 --> 00:05:01,028 Let's go! 60 00:05:01,100 --> 00:05:02,590 Paddles ready. Here you go. 61 00:05:04,037 --> 00:05:05,197 Clear! 62 00:05:12,478 --> 00:05:14,241 Three-sixty! Clear! 63 00:05:37,437 --> 00:05:38,529 I'm sorry. 64 00:05:59,959 --> 00:06:01,551 Shouldn't have ended this way. 65 00:07:14,133 --> 00:07:15,157 Ando. 66 00:08:11,123 --> 00:08:13,819 Police currently have no leads as to the cause of the shooting, 67 00:08:13,893 --> 00:08:17,021 and an investigation is underway to locate the gunman. 68 00:08:17,096 --> 00:08:18,688 The building has been sealed off, 69 00:08:18,764 --> 00:08:20,129 and authorities are interviewing everyone present. 70 00:08:20,233 --> 00:08:21,860 Mr. Petrelli was in the middle of a... 71 00:08:34,313 --> 00:08:35,780 Hello, Claire. 72 00:08:39,986 --> 00:08:43,387 I bet you've been wondering where I've been since you saw me last, huh? 73 00:08:44,156 --> 00:08:47,683 Let's just say I took a little detour from my career path. 74 00:08:47,760 --> 00:08:49,955 Spent a little time south of the border, 75 00:08:50,596 --> 00:08:54,088 but that's all behind me now, like a long night after a bad taco. 76 00:08:54,166 --> 00:08:58,569 No. I saw Hiro Nakamura kill you. I was there. 77 00:08:58,638 --> 00:09:03,098 And yet here I am, fully recovered. Well, not fully. 78 00:09:04,176 --> 00:09:05,837 That's actually why I've come. 79 00:09:08,014 --> 00:09:09,572 What do you want from me? 80 00:09:09,649 --> 00:09:13,107 Same thing I did last time I came for you. I want what you have, Claire. 81 00:09:15,388 --> 00:09:16,821 I want your power. 82 00:11:36,395 --> 00:11:37,953 Oh, my God! God's sake, Maya! 83 00:11:38,030 --> 00:11:42,160 Oh, my God, I'm so sorry. I thought it was Sylar coming back. 84 00:11:42,234 --> 00:11:43,599 I saw the doorknob moving... 85 00:11:43,669 --> 00:11:45,466 It's this damn key. It's bent. 86 00:11:47,139 --> 00:11:49,198 How did it go with Molly? 87 00:11:49,275 --> 00:11:50,833 Harder than I had wished for. 88 00:11:51,410 --> 00:11:55,039 The flight attendants said they'd look after her until she landed, but... 89 00:11:55,114 --> 00:11:57,105 I just hope I did the right thing. 90 00:11:57,183 --> 00:12:00,311 She'll be safe now. No one's going to find her there. 91 00:12:01,353 --> 00:12:03,981 And now we can finally start on my examination. 92 00:12:04,090 --> 00:12:05,682 Yeah, about that. 93 00:12:05,791 --> 00:12:09,158 I know I promised you, Maya, but I really am in no position to help you. 94 00:12:09,261 --> 00:12:10,421 What do you mean? 95 00:12:10,496 --> 00:12:12,396 I mean I've hit a dead end with my research. 96 00:12:12,465 --> 00:12:14,330 There's nothing left for me to do here. 97 00:12:14,400 --> 00:12:16,960 I'm packing up my things, I'm going home to India. 98 00:12:17,036 --> 00:12:18,401 I don't understand. 99 00:12:19,205 --> 00:12:21,332 After all this time, I've found nothing 100 00:12:21,407 --> 00:12:23,466 that leads me to believe I can take these powers away. 101 00:12:23,542 --> 00:12:26,534 But I came all the way from South America to find you. 102 00:12:26,612 --> 00:12:28,136 For a cure. 103 00:12:28,214 --> 00:12:30,808 And I'm sorry, but I can't help you. 104 00:12:30,883 --> 00:12:32,441 But you haven't even tried! 105 00:12:33,819 --> 00:12:35,309 It's not fair. 106 00:12:38,190 --> 00:12:41,284 You can't do this to me. You have to try. 107 00:12:41,360 --> 00:12:42,657 Maya. 108 00:12:48,901 --> 00:12:52,200 I'm sorry. I should go now. 109 00:12:52,271 --> 00:12:53,863 No. Wait. 110 00:12:53,939 --> 00:12:55,338 Tell me what just happened. 111 00:12:55,407 --> 00:12:58,604 When you got upset, angry, your ability manifested. 112 00:12:58,677 --> 00:12:59,735 Is it always that way? 113 00:12:59,812 --> 00:13:04,511 Yes. When I'm scared or mad, it just happens. 114 00:13:04,583 --> 00:13:06,016 And to make it stop? 115 00:13:07,686 --> 00:13:10,587 I just calm down somehow. 116 00:13:10,656 --> 00:13:13,648 Like some kind of sympathetic nervous system response. 117 00:13:14,994 --> 00:13:16,621 There's a mind-body connection. 118 00:13:16,695 --> 00:13:18,788 The neuropathways that control... 119 00:13:19,665 --> 00:13:21,189 What are you talking about? 120 00:13:23,936 --> 00:13:28,202 Fight or flight. The adrenal glands. They control our stress levels. 121 00:13:28,274 --> 00:13:29,764 My father had it all wrong! 122 00:13:29,842 --> 00:13:31,434 For years, he'd been working on a formula, 123 00:13:31,510 --> 00:13:33,978 trying to isolate the gene for these abilities. 124 00:13:34,046 --> 00:13:35,377 It's all here. 125 00:13:35,447 --> 00:13:37,176 All this time, I've been trying to make sense of it, 126 00:13:37,249 --> 00:13:39,308 but he was looking in the wrong place. 127 00:13:39,385 --> 00:13:41,353 These abilities don't originate in the blood. 128 00:13:41,420 --> 00:13:43,445 They're produced from adrenaline. 129 00:13:46,625 --> 00:13:49,719 Now, all I have to do is make you mad again. 130 00:15:08,774 --> 00:15:09,763 Hiro! 131 00:18:04,116 --> 00:18:07,051 How are you doing this? Are you a speedster, too? 132 00:18:07,119 --> 00:18:11,453 Speedster? No. I am Hiro Nakamura. I stop time. 133 00:18:12,758 --> 00:18:15,420 I got news. You don't stop it completely, 134 00:18:15,494 --> 00:18:17,758 or we're not having this conversation. 135 00:18:17,830 --> 00:18:20,264 So you move fast? 136 00:18:21,500 --> 00:18:25,459 Not "fast." I move "really fast." 137 00:18:27,005 --> 00:18:29,439 Well, you stole something from me. 138 00:18:30,075 --> 00:18:31,099 You mean this? 139 00:18:31,176 --> 00:18:33,542 This whole time-stopping thing, how does it work, exactly? 140 00:18:33,612 --> 00:18:37,446 I mean, if you chase me to Bangkok, will time stay frozen here in Tokyo? 141 00:18:37,516 --> 00:18:38,778 I don't know. 142 00:18:39,751 --> 00:18:44,347 Well, something to think about when you get back on your feet. 143 00:18:44,456 --> 00:18:45,855 But I am on my feet. 144 00:18:49,862 --> 00:18:50,920 Gotta go! 145 00:18:59,605 --> 00:19:01,129 Peter. 146 00:19:01,607 --> 00:19:03,074 You looking for this? 147 00:19:03,142 --> 00:19:05,975 Hey, yeah... I was just... 148 00:19:06,044 --> 00:19:07,375 Just 149 00:19:09,181 --> 00:19:10,443 what? 150 00:19:12,518 --> 00:19:15,316 It's pretty incredible, huh? Nathan's recovery? 151 00:19:16,455 --> 00:19:20,084 They said the bullets went straight through him. 152 00:19:20,159 --> 00:19:22,923 Barely any damage, like his body had already healed inside. 153 00:19:22,995 --> 00:19:24,895 How'd you know where to find the gun, Peter? 154 00:19:25,898 --> 00:19:30,733 I just figured there weren't many places for him to stash it. 155 00:19:31,136 --> 00:19:33,229 And what makes you think he stashed it? 156 00:19:46,151 --> 00:19:48,813 You had to go and be the detective, didn't you, Matt? 157 00:19:54,126 --> 00:19:56,617 How did you... I came from the future. 158 00:19:56,695 --> 00:19:58,526 To stop Nathan from telling the world about us. 159 00:19:58,597 --> 00:20:00,997 I had to. It's where it all begins. 160 00:20:01,867 --> 00:20:04,995 The future? And now that you know, you can't be here. 161 00:21:07,099 --> 00:21:11,536 Petrelli's miraculous recovery has this hospital staff completely baffled. 162 00:21:11,603 --> 00:21:15,437 His condition has been upgraded to stable, and he is resting comfortably. 163 00:21:15,507 --> 00:21:17,771 The shocking footage that has been played over and over 164 00:21:17,843 --> 00:21:20,710 on news outlets and YouTube has created a... 165 00:21:22,014 --> 00:21:24,380 That's him. That's him. 166 00:21:56,415 --> 00:21:59,009 I was dead and He gave me another chance. 167 00:22:00,852 --> 00:22:05,016 But now I know the reason I'm here. 168 00:22:08,060 --> 00:22:09,687 To do great things. 169 00:22:11,330 --> 00:22:13,389 To do his bidding. 170 00:22:14,066 --> 00:22:17,627 Mr. Petrelli, earlier today, you were about to make a statement. 171 00:22:17,703 --> 00:22:21,571 You had a message to deliver. Are you ready to do that now? 172 00:22:29,548 --> 00:22:31,778 God is the only one with a message. 173 00:22:33,385 --> 00:22:38,254 It's a message of hope and urgency, because he's not gonna wait much longer. 174 00:22:38,590 --> 00:22:40,353 His message is a simple one: 175 00:22:43,161 --> 00:22:44,890 We're all connected. 176 00:22:44,963 --> 00:22:49,423 Our hopes, our dreams, our children's future, 177 00:22:49,534 --> 00:22:53,026 reflecting back in each other's eyes. 178 00:22:53,105 --> 00:22:58,566 We fight our own personal battles, but we know we're not alone. 179 00:23:00,545 --> 00:23:05,573 Because only together can we make our short time on this planet mean something. 180 00:23:07,119 --> 00:23:10,680 Only together can we be the stewards of our own destiny, 181 00:23:13,091 --> 00:23:18,290 and we hold in our collective hearts one noble goal: 182 00:23:21,400 --> 00:23:22,958 To save ourselves, 183 00:23:27,072 --> 00:23:28,539 save the world. 184 00:23:51,997 --> 00:23:54,192 I've separated the tyrosine and combined that 185 00:23:54,266 --> 00:23:56,700 with the dopamines produced by your adrenals. 186 00:23:56,768 --> 00:23:58,030 And what now? 187 00:23:58,637 --> 00:24:02,300 We wait a few seconds to see if the enzymes attach to the cortisol. 188 00:24:05,377 --> 00:24:08,676 You're very brave to have found me the way you did. 189 00:24:09,881 --> 00:24:11,439 There was no other choice. 190 00:24:12,350 --> 00:24:16,582 I imagine that it must be very unsettling to have these abilities. 191 00:24:16,655 --> 00:24:18,714 But I have also imagined, many times, 192 00:24:18,790 --> 00:24:22,021 the exhilaration one must feel to know such power, 193 00:24:22,127 --> 00:24:23,822 to feel so special. 194 00:24:33,839 --> 00:24:35,067 It worked. 195 00:24:35,807 --> 00:24:38,469 What have you done? What my father never could. 196 00:24:38,543 --> 00:24:40,943 I've isolated the genetic building block of these abilities. 197 00:24:41,012 --> 00:24:42,445 I've found its source. 198 00:24:42,514 --> 00:24:44,448 I have to get to the loft, to my lab. 199 00:24:44,516 --> 00:24:47,485 There's a centrifuge there. I have to verify and duplicate these results. 200 00:24:47,552 --> 00:24:49,019 This is incredible. 201 00:24:49,087 --> 00:24:50,987 I don't understand. What have you found? 202 00:24:51,056 --> 00:24:55,083 The contents of this single syringe could give powers to anyone. 203 00:24:55,160 --> 00:24:56,923 Give powers? 204 00:24:57,729 --> 00:24:59,697 And with the added component of adrenaline, 205 00:24:59,764 --> 00:25:01,823 the effects would be instantaneous. 206 00:25:24,623 --> 00:25:26,454 I know you're scared. 207 00:25:27,092 --> 00:25:30,186 I would be, too, all alone in this house with someone like me, 208 00:25:31,029 --> 00:25:32,860 a man you barely know. 209 00:25:37,469 --> 00:25:42,168 It isn't exactly a fair fight, I admit. But I don't want to fight you, Claire. 210 00:25:42,774 --> 00:25:44,537 I just want what you have. 211 00:25:46,811 --> 00:25:50,303 You see, I lost everything that made me special. 212 00:25:54,119 --> 00:25:58,112 Lost, but now found. 213 00:26:01,493 --> 00:26:04,257 There's a whole shopping list of abilities right here. 214 00:26:05,297 --> 00:26:07,128 But I'm gonna start with the best. 215 00:26:08,833 --> 00:26:10,994 And once I have yours... 216 00:26:28,453 --> 00:26:32,287 No! 217 00:26:45,370 --> 00:26:47,338 What are you doing to me? 218 00:26:48,506 --> 00:26:51,703 Looking for answers before I bleed to death. 219 00:26:54,713 --> 00:26:55,873 Funny, 220 00:26:57,449 --> 00:26:59,644 I'm looking for answers, too. 221 00:27:01,953 --> 00:27:05,252 Why don't I feel anything? No nerve endings. 222 00:27:06,291 --> 00:27:08,486 An amazing bit of machinery, this. 223 00:27:10,295 --> 00:27:13,696 And how much of it do we actually use? 10%? Maybe 20? 224 00:27:15,467 --> 00:27:18,402 Imagine the answers we'd have with 100%. 225 00:27:20,705 --> 00:27:22,400 Why is there evil? 226 00:27:25,510 --> 00:27:28,843 How many angels can dance on the head of a pin? 227 00:27:31,349 --> 00:27:33,613 How do we make love stay? 228 00:27:36,388 --> 00:27:40,825 All these answers, they're all right here. 229 00:27:44,162 --> 00:27:46,130 Are you going to eat it? 230 00:27:47,432 --> 00:27:49,093 Eat your brain? 231 00:27:52,103 --> 00:27:53,900 Claire, that's disgusting. 232 00:28:05,717 --> 00:28:07,150 There it is. 233 00:29:24,496 --> 00:29:25,622 Wait. 234 00:29:28,099 --> 00:29:30,533 What about me? Aren't you going to kill me? 235 00:29:31,302 --> 00:29:32,633 Poor girl. 236 00:29:33,938 --> 00:29:36,702 There's so much about yourself you don't even understand. 237 00:29:36,775 --> 00:29:40,643 Your brain is not like the others, Claire. You are not like the others. 238 00:29:41,513 --> 00:29:42,946 You're different. 239 00:29:43,815 --> 00:29:47,649 You're special. And I couldn't kill you even if I wanted to. 240 00:29:50,188 --> 00:29:51,951 You can never die. 241 00:29:54,559 --> 00:29:56,618 And now I guess neither can I. 242 00:30:15,046 --> 00:30:18,846 I ran two samples in the centrifuge. The enzymes held both times. 243 00:30:18,917 --> 00:30:21,147 You need to destroy that, Dr. Suresh. 244 00:30:21,219 --> 00:30:23,312 What? What are you talking about? 245 00:30:24,856 --> 00:30:28,417 It's like you said. It's against the laws of nature. 246 00:30:28,493 --> 00:30:32,361 No. Maya, this is a discovery of world-changing proportions. 247 00:30:32,430 --> 00:30:36,457 The possibilities for the advancement of science, for our entire species... 248 00:30:36,534 --> 00:30:39,094 Ordinary people... Would have my ability. 249 00:30:39,170 --> 00:30:43,266 No, no. Each individual's blood chemistry is unique, like fingerprints. 250 00:30:43,341 --> 00:30:46,310 These abilities could manifest in an infinite number of ways. 251 00:30:46,377 --> 00:30:49,904 But they can still end up terrible, like mine. 252 00:30:50,014 --> 00:30:53,711 Or they could be wonderful. Flight, telepathy, super strength. 253 00:30:53,785 --> 00:30:54,809 Of course, it would have to be perfected. 254 00:30:54,886 --> 00:30:57,184 There'll be research and development, clinical trials. 255 00:30:57,255 --> 00:31:00,850 But in the wrong hands... It's in the wrong hands now, Maya. 256 00:31:00,925 --> 00:31:04,986 An entire clandestine company dedicated to hiding it from the rest of the world. 257 00:31:05,063 --> 00:31:07,759 Yes, because of people like me! 258 00:31:08,399 --> 00:31:09,388 People like Sylar! 259 00:31:09,467 --> 00:31:12,368 Exactly. Sylar killed my father. 260 00:31:12,437 --> 00:31:15,133 If I had had a legitimate chance to inject myself with this, 261 00:31:15,206 --> 00:31:16,901 to give myself a power, 262 00:31:17,408 --> 00:31:19,308 then perhaps I could've stopped that. 263 00:31:19,377 --> 00:31:20,742 That's my point. 264 00:31:20,812 --> 00:31:23,406 You would actually inject yourself with that? 265 00:31:27,285 --> 00:31:31,051 There are quantum leaps in science that one dreams of being a part of. 266 00:31:31,823 --> 00:31:35,657 This is one of them. I don't see why you don't understand that. 267 00:31:36,427 --> 00:31:39,794 And I don't see why anyone would want these abilities. It's a curse! 268 00:31:45,436 --> 00:31:

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The Legend of Lake Toba A Folklore from Medan North Sumatra, Indonesia Once upon a time, there was a young man named Toba. He lived alone and had no wife. He decided being single and didn’t get married, although his age was mature enough to a family. He had a narrow farm and a small hut not far from a lake. If the day was getting dark, he would go to the lake for fishing. He liked fishing and he could do this activity until night has come. One day, after worked on his small farm, he decided to go fishing. He wanted to look for some fish for his dinner. He waited for a long time, but his hook didn’t catch any fish. He waited and waited patiently. Suddenly, his fish bait made some movement. He was sure he would get a fish for his dinner. And that was true, a pretty big fish stuck on his bait. He took the fish and then put it on a fish basket. Then, he went home. He was so happy to get a fish for his dinner. He imagined that his dinner tonight would be nice because the fish was pretty big and fresh. Arriving at home, he put his fish basket beside the fire place. And then, he set fire of the fire place. But, he realized that he forgot to look for some woods for his fire place. Without the woods, of course he couldn’t cook the fish for his dinner. He went out to look for some woods. He left the fish in the kitchen. He didn’t worry about the fish because he was sure that the fish was safe in the place. After getting some woods, he went back home, but, he was to surprised as the fish basket was empty. The fish was gone, he just found some scales which in the form of gold pieces. Toba was confused. He convinced himself that the gold pieces he hold was the scales of the fish he caught this afternoon. He stepped to his room. But, again he was shocked as he saw a beautiful girl with long hair in his room. The girl sat in toba’s bed. Toba didn’t make any movement. He was so shock and wondered who the girl was. Suddenly the girl turn her head and looked at toba. Toba was so amazed with the girl’s beauty. He looked at the girl and admired her beauty. For some moments, they looked each other. Was that a possibility that this beautiful girl is an angel? toba thought. Toba was so speechless and couldn’t say anything. For breaking the ice, the girl said something. She approached toba and said. “Hi, toba. It was getting dark, could you turn on the lamp” the girl asked. “Ooo… hhhiii… Alright, I will turn the lamp on,” Toba said, his body was trmebled because of fear. “Don’t be afraid, Toba. I will not hurt you,” said the girl. “But, who are you ? are you kind of genie or something ?” The girl smiled and said. “I am the incarnation of the fish you caught this afternoon,” the girl answered. “Really, Oh.. God. Is that true?” toba was so surprised. “Yes, but you don’t have to be afraid. I will help you to do some house hold activity. I will cook for you and prepare your daily meal, ” the girl offered. Toba was so happy to hear that. “By the way, the gold pieces is my scales,” the girl said. “Ooo.. well.. that’s why I didn’t found my fish in the basket,” toba said. And then the girl went to the kitchen and cooked dinner for toba. Everyday toba was accompanied by the girl. Toba was happy for that. Until one day, he asked the girl to get married. But, the girl gave a requiretmen. “I am agree to be your wife, but don’t ever tell my secret, my condition that I was a fish,” said the girl. Toba agreed the girl’s requiretmen. And then they got married. Toba was happy to have such a beautiful wife. They lived happily because they loved each other. Years gone by. Toba’s wife was pregnant and then not so long after that she gave birth. Toba was so happy. The baby was a boy. Named Samosir. They took care their only child. They showered the boy with love. It seemed that they were happy family. 7 years later The mother spoiled the boy too much. No wonder, samosir became spoiled child. He didn’t want to help his father to work on farm. He only stayed at home doing nothing. He was a very lazy boy. One day the mother asked samosir to bring lunch for his father who worked in a farm. Usually the mother did his job. But, because she was very busy, she didn’t have time to bring the lunch for his husband. “Samosir my dear, please take this lunch for your father in the farm. He must be very hungry now. I can’t bring it for him, there is something else I want to do!” asked the mother. “No, I can’t!” samosir refused. “Why, don’t you want ho help me?” asked the mother. “I want to play with my frieds, mother!” said samosir. Mother was angry to hear this. She was so upset and threatened samosir if he didn’t do what she’s asked. She wouldn’t give samosir lunch. Because of his mother’s anger, he felt forced to do what his mother’s request. “All right, mom. I will bring it to my father,” samosir said. Samosir went to his father’s farm. But he grumbled continuosly as she wanted to play with his friends. On the way to his father’s farm, he ate the lunch little by little. He felt hungry, too. Because of this, there’s just a little lunch left. Meanwhile, the day was getting hot. Toba decided to rest under the tree. He felt thirsty and hungry. He asked himself why his wife didn’t bring lunch for him. Waiting in a hungry was such a terrible thing for Toba. He got angry that time. Finally he saw somebody in a distance. He hoped the somebody was his wife who brought lunch for him. But, he was surprised to see samosir, his son, who came to the farm. “What do you do here, my son. Where is your mother? Why she didn’t bring my lunch?” Toba said angrily. “Mother is busy to do other things. So, she asked me to bring this lunch for you” said Samosir while gave the lunch to his father. Toba took the lunch quickly as he couldn’t bear his hunger anymore. But, when he saw the lunch box, he was surprised. The lunch was no more left. “What? Where is the lunch ? Why this box is empty ?” Toba said angrily. “I am sorry, father. On the way here, I ate your lunch little by little. I am so hungry.” Samosir answered with anxiety. “You’re really a bad boy. Why are you doing this ? I am really hungry, you know ? ” Toba snapped at Samosir. “I am sorry, dad. I am really sorry for that!” Samosir said apologize. “You are rebellious child. You are lazy, useless!!!” Toba got angry. He felt really upset whit his son. And, suddenly he said something rude that actually was forbidden. “Your manner is like a little animal. It is because your mother spoiled you. You are so naughty. Well, it is because your mother is a fish. So you are like her. Go away from here” Toba didn’t realize that what he said was so rude. He was forbidden to tell about Samosir’s mother’s origin. Samosir was so sad to hear what his father’s said. He was badly hurt. He cried continuosly. His mother asked why Samosir cried. Samosir said that his father was angry to him. It’s because he ate his father’s lunch. Samosir also told what his father had said to him. “Father said that I was a little animal because I didn’t obey his advice and he also said that mother is a fish.” Samosir said this to his mother. “What ??? How excessive he is! He was not supposed to tell that to you. You are his son. I will tell him.” The beautiful girl was so angry. “Why he’s so rude to his own child. He promised that he wouldn’t tell my origin. Why he did this to me.” The beautiful girl said sadly. “Calm down, Samosir. Don’t cry anymore. Now, all you have to do is climb the highest tree and stay there. There will be a huge flood and this velley will be sink and disappear. There will be great disaster here,” the beautiful girl said. “Really, mother ! How do you know ?” Samosir asked. “Well, you must obey my advice without complaining ” the beautiful girl told his son. After that, Samosir went away and climbed the highest tree in the village. He stayed there, obeyed his mother’s instruction. He still didn’t know why his mother told him to do this. He just waited what happened next. The beautiful girl was really sad. He thought that Toba didn’t love her anymore. Toba was changed. He broke his promise to her. So, the girl thought there was no use she lived. She decided to do suicide by jumping to a lake. Suddenly, the sky was getting dark upon the valley. Not so long after that, the rain poured the earth. It was a huge rain. The thunder and the lightning were so scary. The rain was so heavy and make a huge flood. The valley was like a sea. Just as the girl said, there was a great disaster in that village. Meanwhile, Toba, who was still in his farm shocked with this disaster. He couldn’t save himself. He was drown by the flood and finally died. And, the spoiled child, Samosir, although he climbed the highest tree, he still couldn’t save himself from this great disaster. He died as his parents. His body was floating. And then baceme small island which now was called Samosir Island. And, the village was sink and became a huge lake. This lake was named as Toba’s name, that is Lake Toba.

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最后更新: 2015-02-04
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英语

Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Abstract This article examines the different circumstances under which infant and adult learners develop speaking skills. We will see the facilities or difficulties in both cases in order to focus on the real possibilities of adults to develop a high level of speaking proficiency. We will see what the role of the teacher is in order to improve the learners’ skills, the features of oral communication that need to be improved and which strategies can be used to overcome the difficulties. Key words : speaking skills, adult learning, oral communication, teaching strategies. Resumen Este artículo analiza las diferentes circunstancias en las que niños y adultos desarrollan las destrezas orales. Veremos las facilidades y dificultades en ambos casos para así centrarnos en las posibilidades reales que tienen los adultos de alcanzar un alto nivel de competencia oral. Veremos también cual es el papel del profesor en este contexto, para mejorar las capacidades de los alumnos, y ver cuáles son los elementos de la comunicación oral que hay que mejorar y qué estrategias se pueden aplicar para superar las dificultades. Palabras clave : destrezas orales, aprendizaje de adultos, comunicación verbal, estrategias de enseñanza. If we think of the period in our lives when we learned to speak our first language, and the moment in which we started to make huge efforts to speak our second/foreign language we find significant differences. In the former case, we may have fond memories of what our parents told us; and in the latter, it suddenly becomes a frustrating experience that seems to bring imperfect results. For adults, learning to speak a new language is in many cases far from satisfactory simply because they feel they need to cope with many different aspects at one time, and that seems to be impossible in real conversations. I wonder if it is possible to acquire a high level of speaking proficiency in adults; I wonder if it is possible to make adult learners improve their speaking skills, and the most important thing for teachers: how? The first question we have to consider in order to reach a conclusion is whether learning at infancy is different from learning at adulthood; which are the circumstances that differentiate them and if those conditions inevitably lead to obvious and hopeless results. Only bearing in mind what we can expect of a particular type of learner, we can focus on how to improve their speaking skills. It is obvious that there are marked differences between children learners and adult learners and that they cannot acquire the second language under the same circumstances. Consequently, the results will be also different. Concerning children and the early age at which they learn to speak, we can say that they enjoy certain advantages that make them outstanding learners. They have surprising linguistic abilities due to optimal moment in which they find themselves for language learning, this is to say, at this moment their brain is characterized by a certain plasticity that allows some abilities to develop with ease during a period of time, after which it becomes really difficult for these abilities to be developed (Fleta, 2006: 53), or using Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 87 Klein’s words ‘between the age of two and puberty the human brain shows the plasticity which allows a child to acquire his first language’ (Klein, 1986: 9). Therefore, children are special learners for their natural and innate abilities to acquire a language. According to Fleta, one of these special abilities is ‘filtering sophisticated information about language properties from birth’ (Fleta, 2006: 49), in other words, children have an enormous ability to integrate difficult information in an easy and unconscious way from the beginning of their development. They are able to acquire and integrate complex data without being aware of it, whereas other learners, at other ages, would find it arduous to achieve. Moreover, apart from this special gift children have for assimilating difficult information, we can mention some of their other qualities, such as their capacity for perceiving and imitating sounds. Some studies have showed that ‘young infants are especially sensitive to acoustic changes at the phonetic boundaries between categories’ (Kuhl, 2004: 832). Also, children are especially good at predicting syllable chunks: ‘infants are sensitive to the sequential probabilities between adjacent syllables’ (Kuhl, 2004: 834) which makes children with a surprising instinct as far as language knowledge is concerned . Finally, students also acquire the ability of ordering words within a sentence (grammar rules) unconsciously: ‘there is some evidence that young children can detect non-adjacencies such as those required to learn grammar’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836). All in all, we can say that children learn the language without being aware of it when they ‘are exposed to the right kind of auditory information’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836), this is, children learn the language through communication and interaction and thanks to that they acquire all the abilities they can potentially develop. On the other hand, concerning adults we observe how difficult is that they can acquire certain native sounds; their pronunciation will be, on many occasions, foreign-like which is due to their difficulty in distinguishing and producing some sounds after the so called ‘critical period’. In that respect, some authors claim that adult learners cannot acquire a phonological development (Lightbown and Spada, 2006: 69). However, other researchers defend the opposite. Wolfgang Klein, in his book Second Language Acquisition (1986) stated that ‘the apparent facility with which children learn a second language is often attributed to biological factors, but an alternative explanation might be that, unlike adults, children have no need to fear the loss of their social identity’ (Klein, 1986: 6). Authors such as Klein argue that phonological facilities of children are not bound to biological reasons, but to psychological ones. In that respect, adults feel attached to their native identities, to their original social identities, which is what prevent them from achieving perfection in L2 pronunciation. Klein confirmed that ‘suitably motivated adults are capable of mastering to perfection the pronunciation of the most exotic languages’ (Klein, 1986: 10). Therefore, we conclude that although the cases of adults speaking a second language without any accent are not very common, this does not mean that it is impossible to acquire a native-like pronunciation. Also, besides phonological issues, we can talk about the capacity of adults to acquire any other kind of linguistic faculties, more related to structural relations (UG). In that sense, there are authors that doubt the validity of Lenneberg’s Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) by assuring that even adults have access to the well known Universal Grammar. While Lenneberg claimed that only before puberty learners had UG available, authors such as S. W. Felix defended by evidence that adult L2 learners also benefit from the UG principles: ‘If child and adult learners use different modules for the purpose of language acquisition, then we would expect adult learners to be unable to attain grammatical knowledge that arises only through the mediation of UG. If, in contrast, adults do attain this type of knowledge, then, we have reason to believe that UG continues to be active even after puberty’ (Felix, 1988: 279). Therefore, we can conclude that adults are also able to master a proficient use of the second/foreign language, not only in grammatical issues but also in phonological ones, which makes us believe that we can improve adult learners’ speaking skills. Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 88 Once we know that adults can be biologically and psychologically prepared to have a native-like proficiency in the second language, we should move on to the second language teaching context in order to achieve our aim of improving adult learners’ skills. In that respect, we should reflect on the teachers’ role in this situation and what they can do to be successful with their learners. Teachers therefore need to analyse the students’ needs, face their problems and find fruitful solutions that help them develop their speaking abilities. S. Pit Corder, in his chapter called ‘Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching’, in Introducing Applied Linguistics (1973) defended the important role of linguists who identify the problems of the learners and find solutions for them. Corder added that specialists’ role is to formulate the appropriate questions in order to define problems that need to be faced. Using his words, ‘the formulation of the questions, the identification of the problems and the specification of their nature presupposes linguistic theory. The nature of the problem is defined by the theory which is applied to it. The solution to a problem is only as good as the theory which has been used to solve it’ (Corder, 1973: 138). In this direction he said that in language teaching there are two appropriate questions teachers should make: what to teach and how to teach, ‘these are the problems of content and method, or, using an industrial analogy, the problem of product and process design respectively’ (Corder, 1973: 139). Therefore, if teachers wish to know how to improve speaking skills, what they need to ask themselves first is what they are going to teach, and how. On the one hand, let us consider the first question: what . If we need to improve speaking skills we need to know which skills or which features learners need to develop. In that respect, there are several authors that stated different goals or different dimensions that speakers needed to achieve. Goodwin, for instance, established several goals for a proper pronunciation. She called them ‘functional intelligibility, functional communicability, increased self-confidence, and speech-monitoring abilities’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118). She argued that learners should be able to speak an intelligible foreign language, that is to say, listeners need to understand the learner’s message without huge efforts; learners also need to be successful in a ‘specific communicative situation’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); they need to ‘gain confidence in their ability to speak and be understood’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); and finally, they need to monitor and control their own production by paying attention to their own speech. Goodwin specified those abilities that learners need to acquire through certain linguistic features that can be practiced: Intonation, rhythm, reduced speech, linking words, consonants and vowel sounds, word stress, etc. These are concrete speaking aspects in which learners should be trained in order to improve their speaking skills. Similarly, other authors such as Anne Lazaraton suggest that oral communication is based on four dimensions or competences: grammatical competence (phonology, vocabulary, word and sentence formation…); sociolinguistic competence (rules for interaction, social meanings); discourse competence (cohesion and how sentences are liked together); and finally, strategic competence (compensatory strategies to use in difficult situations), (Lazaraton, 2001: 104). According to Lazaraton learners should develop all these abilities to acquire a high oral level of the foreign language, but she adds that in recent years, with the influence of the communicative approach, more importance is given to fluency, trying to achieve a balance with the traditional accuracy. Moreover, apart from what pedagogically and theoretically should be taught, many researchers are presently analysing real problems that learners face: ‘fluent speech contains reduced forms, such as contractions, vowel reduction, and elision, where learners do not get sufficient practice’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103); use of slang and idioms in speech since students tend to sound ‘bookish’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103), stress, rhythm, intonation, lack of active vocabulary, lack of interaction pattern rules… Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 89 Once speaking goals have been determined, next step consists of questioning how they are going to be achieved. For designing a concrete methodology teachers need to adopt a theoretical perspective, they need to reflect on the linguistic approach that will be used in their teaching. Many authors, following the up-to- date trend of the Communicative approach, defend the interactive role of speaking and promote its teaching from a communicative perspective stressing meaning and context. In Goodwin’s words: ‘In “Teaching Pronunciation” the goal of instruction is threefold: to enable our learners to understand and be understood, to build their confidence in entering communicative situations, and to enable them to monitor their speech’ (Goodwin, 2001: 131), also ‘pronunciation is never an end in itself but a means of negotiating meaning in discourse, embedded in specific sociocultural and interpersonal contexts’ (Goodwin,2001: 117). If we think of how this theoretical background will be applied in real teaching, we find that in traditional classes they focused speaking practice on the production of single and isolated sounds, whereas within the communicative approach, ‘the focus shifted to fluency rather than accuracy, encouraging an almost exclusive emphasis on suprasegmentals’ (Goodwin, 2001: 117). There is the key word, when communication is the main goal linguistic practice turns into longer structures, at the suprasegmental level; therefore, the training on individual sounds makes way for macro structures that affect interaction directly. The second part of how to teach, moves away from theory to approach real problems and their solutions. Several authors have stated that when learners face problems in speaking they need practical and concrete solutions to know how to behave and respond in order to overcome those difficulties. Mariani, in his article ‘Developing Strategic Competence: Towards Autonomy in Oral Interaction’ , recalls L1 strategies that native speakers use when they encounter communication problems, and suggests teaching those strategies to L2 learners: ‘just think of how often, in L1 communication, we cannot find the words to say something and have to adjust our message, or to ask our interlocutor to help us, or to use synonyms or general words to make ourselves understood’ (Mariani, 1994: 1). Mariani classifies those strategies according to the speakers’ behaviour: learners can either avoid certain messages because they don’t feel confident with their speaking skills (‘reduction strategies’), or make the most out of their knowledge and modify their message bearing in mind their weaknesses and strengths (‘achievement strategies’: borrowing, foreignizing, translating…(Mariani, 1994: 3). The author praises the latter by saying that achievement strategies are a very interesting way of developing learners’ language domain. Speakers who opt for this option make huge efforts to transmit a message by playing with the language to the extreme, which only brings beneficial consequences. In the second or foreign language classroom context, teachers should train learners to use and practice the different strategies that can help them face difficult situations. The only way of training students in this direction is by means of a bank of activities in which they become aware of the different possibilities that they can put into practice. Authors such as Goodwin or Lazaraton offer a varied list of exercises to be used in class: poems, rhymes, dialogues, monologues, role plays, debates, interviews, simulations, drama scenes, discussions, conversations… Therefore, coming back to the initial question proposed above, I think it is absolutely feasible to teach adults strategies to improve their speaking skills. Of course, that objective depends on many different factors that will affect the degree of acquisition, let us think of age, motivation, or even the context in which the language is learned: ESL versus EFL. In that respect, learners in a second language context will have numberless occasions to practice the language and that will undoubtedly influence their skills development. With reference to the foreign language context, authors such as Lazaraton admitted the difficulties learners Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 90 normally face: ‘homogeneous EFL classes, where all students speak the same first language and English is not used outside the classroom, present certain additional challenges for the teacher’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 110). As she said, teachers have considerable limitations in EFL classes such as lack of opportunities to use the language, lack of motivation in the learners, the number of students in the class, curriculum restrictions…(Lazaraton, 2001: 110), but there are solutions and strategies, as the ones previously mentioned, that should be put into practice. Mariani, in his article mentioned above , also makes a reflection on whether communication strategies should be teachable or not. He states the pros and cons by saying that training students on specific strategies can provide them with certain limitations and consequently hamper fluent communication: ‘we can hardly force them into a straightjacket of pre-selected strategies […] Most of us would agree that we should encourage spontaneity, creativity and originality in language use’ (Mariani, 1994: 7). However, on the other hand, he argues that if learners become aware of the different strategies they can flexibly use, they will finally integrate them either consciously or unconsciously, which will stretch their possibilities for communication. To sum up, as teachers can, and should, improve learners’ speaking skills and communication strategies, the only thing they need to do is to plan their teaching around two main questions: what they want to teach, which specific speaking features they want to develop in their learners; and how they want to do it.

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“Paradigm of Humanistic, Behavior, and Transpersonal Psychotherapy” Abstract The paradigm shift in psychological studies from the Humanistic, Freudain and Behaviouristic psychotherapies has brought us to yet another psychological paradigm (transpersonal) that is based on spirituality as a process of human guidance and counselling. This paradigm is aimed at handling the psychological problems beyond the physical entities, but going down to the spiritual nature of man. The spiritual nature of man from the Islamic perspective is the consciousness of Allah's will and power in therapy which is lacking in the contemporary transpersonal approach. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss the denotational implications, the scope and the shortfalls of the contemporary transpersonal psychotherapy. This is with the view to offering the Islamic process of psychotherapy based on the concept of Tauheed. By way of development, the relic of historical facts would be used to show the effectiveness of Islamic paradigm of psychotherapy so as to guide the Muslims from the aqidah contamination entails by the transpersonal approach. In summation, the paper would provide an Islamic model of transpersonal psychotherapy for the use of Muslims in their psychological practices. Introduction The concern of psychology is the manipulation of the variables and processes involved in motivation, development and modification of human behaviour. In pursuance of this need modern psychological theories are founded to serve as guide for human psychoses. The formulations of these theories according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) are based on cultural and geographical limitations as they emerged over time to address the needs of the people of different social contexts1. With the variations in perception, environment, and the passage of time the discipline of psychology undergoes different transformations based on three well-known paradigmatic forces of Behaviouristic, Freudian and Humanistic psychology. These transformations reveal the psychological concern for soul, psyche (conscious and unconscious state of man), mental processes, feelings and sensations underlying human behaviour2. Maslow (1968) considered the humanistic third force psychology to be a transitional preparation for a still 'higher' fourth paradigmatic force of psychology, ie. transpersonal psychology. This is based on the observation of Maslow (1970) that human beings who are wonderful out of their own human and biological nature necessitate the need for another paradigm for a more complete understanding of psychoses and the effective treatment. As a result of the variation in human social groups, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) emphasize the need for a psychological approach that will serve the spiritual needs of man (spiritual). Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) see the proposed spiritual dimension as a universal aspect of human nature. As such, its need cannot be under-emphasized. According to them, to remain relevant in a postmodern world, psychologists must incorporate the comprehensive perspective of transpersonal theory into education and practice. From the views of Cowley and Derezotes (1994), Maslow (1968) and (1970) and Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) the development of the contemporary psychological theories until the introduction of transpersonal psychology has been centred on either the overt, external and material variables or the internal, covert and hidden variables in man. Although the present efforts being made by transpersonal psychologists have made a small shift, but the shift is only geared towards spirituality that is devoid of religion (Islam) which is unsatisfactory from the Islamic point of view. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss and introduce the Islamic framework of psychotherapy which satisfies the Islamic expectations that is based on aqidah. Transpersonal Psychotherapy Literally the word transpersonal according to Wittine (1987) denotes beyond or through the "mask". While technically Cowley and Derezotes (1994) defined the term as going beyond the personal level. The implication of the their definitions entails the application of the concept as a process of treating human behaviour outside the context of physical entities. To them psychotherapy should be based on the natural energy3 that drives the entire human endeavours (spiritual). This is a psychological treatment that addresses the spiritual dimension of human existence to the psychological process. The paradigm which according to Valle (1989) calls us through and beyond our more familiar level of ego awareness to a critical examination of the very ground from which our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions emerge as forms or manifestations. Cowley and Derezotes (1994) perceive it as an essential aspect of being that is existentially subjective, transrational, non-local and non- temporal. Transpersonal psychotherapy according to Maslow (1971) evolves in response to the need of broader context for understanding what it means to be fully human and to assess the farther reaches of human nature. This is a spiritual therapy that is an integral part or an essential universal need of human nature (Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990). Transpersonal psychotherapeutic tradition is perceived by Nasr (1975) as a tradition of treatment which comes from the spirit (confidence in Allah) and not the psyche that can be the source of ethics of aesthetics. It is an approach that believes in the need for meaning for higher values and for spiritual life which are as real as biological or social needs (Keen, 1974). This task according to Huxley (1968) involved a start from new premises, such as the premise that the most ultimate satisfaction comes from a depth and wholeness of the inner life, and therefore that we must explore and make fully available the techniques of spiritual development. Furthermore, the need for the fourth force according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) is the desire to remain relevant in the highly sophisticated postmodern world to cater for educational and psychotherapeutic practices. The realization of the need for more comprehensive system that could cover the general need of man in the greatest depth of awareness has led to the development of transpersonal psychology as the fourth force of the psychological paradigm. Based on the above needs, the transpersonal psychologists have tried to evolve techniques that are quite relevant to the present "illness" in man. This "illness" in man of our time is linked to a deficit of values and these values are spiritual in nature (concern for Allah as the source of cure). Although, Toynbee (1995) sees this approach as human degradation and the sickness of modern society who sought solutions through programmes based on religious practices (faith in Allah). But the essence of spirituality is to guide and influence the behaviour of man so as to establish a spiritually guided community which believes in Allah for cure. Grof (1988) and Hartman (1990) believe that much of the transpersonal ideas focus on the need for a reconnection of the human families to establish a global community or communion. Concurrently, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) observe that, the overall goal for transpersonal ideas is to facilitate the development of the spiritual dimension of higher states of "consciousness" within individuals, organizations, communities and cultures. As such the aim of transpersonal psychology is to shift from the traditional secular western position of self-actualization to the spiritually-based process. Spiritual Limitation of the Transpersonal Psychotherapy Although transpersonal approach has been able to create a space for spirituality in psychology, it is still questionable on how relevant and how applicable is it to human societies? Have the propounded ideas within the transpersonal approach covers all aspects of spirituality? To answer these questions, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) note that in aspiring to work with the transpersonal or spiritual dimension, it is crucial that the client system and social worker come to a common understanding or shared meaning about the term spiritual as used in transpersonal theory. Not as contained by the theological walls of any specific ideology system, spirituality in transpersonal theory is not considered as equivalent to religion. In support of this Bloomfield (1980) states that the use of the word "spiritual" is neither a statement nor a belief per se. It is therefore an energy and life force that is innate in all living matter driving to perfect itself. Houston (1988) uses the term entelechy to describe this essential urge of human nature to realize its inner potential. Thus, according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) the development of the spiritual and morapol;l dimensions forms the basis for spiritual maturity or higher states of consciousness. The individual manifests this maturity through increased social and self-responsibilities, which will benefit all in a given psychosocial environment. The scope emphasizes by transpersonal psychology has put the Muslims out of the maximum utilization of transpersonal paradigm because to the Muslims human existence must revolve around religion which is divine by origin. The divine nature entails the faith (Iman) as the epitome of psychotherapeutic treatment as implicated by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun (sickness of the mind). In this sense transpersonal psychotherapy from the Muslims, point of view could hardly be separated from religion. This is in line with the assertion of Nasr (1975) that God has placed religion in the world to enable man to overcome his complexes. The human therapeutic complexes could be of any kind ranging from psychological, social and biological to spiritual. For a successful therapy, divine spirituality that is based on the revealed guidance is the answer. Thus, the absence of religion in transpersonal approach seems to only summarize the ideas and practices entail by the earlier paradigms or they are going toward witch-crafting which is totally at variance with aqidah. In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively could only be realized by resorting to divine knowledge and ethical values. The Expected Spiritual Scope of Transpersonal Psychotherapy There is no doubt that transpersonal approach has created a space for spirituality in the formal conventional psychological theories. Yet the inclusion of the spiritual aspect to the psychological theories as contained in the transpersonal psychology is not enough for the general reference to the Muslims. This is because to them (Muslims) spirituality is an element of religion (Islam) that is directed by the knowledge contained in the Quran which are general guide for human existence. As such it is only the spiritual that is based on divine guidance that is paramount and total, and which precisely because of its totality embraces the psychic and even the corporeal aspects of man. (Nasr, 1975). In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively are realized by means of divine knowledge and ethical values. Hence, knowledge and ethics are linked (Hanafi, 1996). On the contrary the transpersonal psychologists see spirituality as an entity devoid of religion (divine guidance). Even to some non-Muslim psychologists this position is baseless as Koltko and Mark (1998) observe that it is a contradiction to think one can develop a psychology by leaping across the person from a point of view which goes beyond religion. In his quest for religious consideration in the transpersonal paradigm, Denton (1990) asserts that, to make it (transpersonal psychology) a complete spiritual approach, religious approach is inevitable because the religious and spiritual concerns provide the prime motive for all social works4. Based on this the development of religious spirituality should be an extension of the present form of transpersonal process of psychotherapy. Koltko and Mark (1998) note that transpersonal psychology represents an extension of psychology (spiritual) that leads to what it really means to be a human being and marks the beginning of a psychological analysis that recognizes the natural status of man. As such some transpersonal psychologists have surfaced in the direction different from the earlier transpersonal paradigm as observed by Sollod (1992) that, a social work curriculum that deletes or omits the content related to the spiritual dimension may be called "Hollow". For the success of psychotherapeutic practices Weick (1992) so aptly observed that, when artistic practice joins with value commitment (religion), social work can indeed be a force in the society. The idea here is the connection between the psychotherapeutic process and the religiously inclined spiritual value of human nature that makes the therapeutic endeavours more effective. The confirmation of this could be perceived from the work of Anthony et. al, (1987) that, for the individual with a genuine hunger for truth, reality, spirit, soul, self, God Oneness, freedom, being and meaning, the task of choosing among these offerings is intricate and subtle and not without the element of peril discriminations. Contrary to the concept of "neutral spirituality" maintained by transpersonal perspective, religious spirituality is therefore of paramount importance. Although, it is inevitable to acknowledge the efforts of transpersonal psychologists in evolving theories based on spiritual values, yet these efforts are unsatisfactory to the Muslims because they do not include divine faith in their theories. As such an attempt is made in this paper to provide another transpersonal framework that would be useful to the Muslims. Islamic Approach to Transpersonal Psychotherapy From the Islamic point of view spiritual approach to psychotherapy is an aspect of behaviour modification that is based on the relationship between man and his Creator (Allah) which entails an operational paradigm in which faith (Iman) in Allah is the focal point. Iman is both a cognitive and ethical constructs that gather all data and facts in the perspective which is proper to and requisite for a true understanding of the therapeutic processes. It is the consciousness of Allah's existence and the conviction in service (Iman) that serve as the beginning of therapy to remove mental sickness (maradhun) in man. This is rightly pointed out by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun as implicated by the verse below. "Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek" (Quran, 1:5) The implication of the above verse is the recognition of Allah as the Creator. Having faith in Him is a matter of conviction which by extension leads a man to realistic services as a created organism in need of His help and bounties. In support of this point, a Professor of Botany5 in his alternative cure for cancer emphasizes ones commitments to his religion and faith in his God as the foundation of treatment. The divine knowledge in man leads him to realization which is faith. From this conviction then comes the consciousness leading to purification of the body and soul. This is channelled through devotion. The attainment of this level is the therapy in man. For the success of Islamic psychotherapy, the internal and external components of man must be purified. When this is accomplished the Ruh, the Qalb and Nafs as the fountainhead of vitality could be transformed into sources of psychodynamics explaining the human behaviour (Daud, 1996). The internal purification referred to above entails one's realization of the power of Allah and confidence in Him, while the external purification on the other hand is the appreciation of Allah's Law of observing the Halal (lawful) and Haram (unlawful) conducts. The essence of purification of the Ruh, the Qalb and the Nafs according to Sabeena (1996) is to bring one's Nafs under control and channelling it to the right direction because; "Successful is the one who keeps it pure, and ruined is the one who corrupts it" (Quran, 91:9-10) When the Nafs is purified one would be in observance of the recommended (halal) acts which is the foundation of spiritual therapy and morality in Islam. The premise of faith is that servanthood and the fulfilment of its obligation is a prerequisite for the well-being of man in his individual and societal lives. One's successful engagement in the worship of Allah paves the way for His assistance (therapy) as contained in the verse quoted earlier from Suratul Fatiha. For the treatment of psychoses the spiritual issues of Allah's power, will and ability, the consequences of the day of judgement, the agony of the hellfire and the joys of paradise are some of the Islamic variables of transpersonal psychotherapy. The Effectiveness of Islamic Psychotherapy As earlier on discussed, psychotherapy in Islam is the conviction and servitude to Allah the creator that paves the way for His assistance (therapy). Good mental and spiritual health of the individual is a by product of a natural balance within the individual and the practice of social and religious obligations that are based on the three aspects of psychotherapy as noted by Shah (1996) that, (a) Analysis of the Nafs (b) Reformative process, and (c) Socio-religious reintegration of the individual. According to him psychotherapy from the Islamic point of view revolves around these three aspects. The revelation, application and implication of the chapters of An-Nas (Mankind) and Al-Falaq (Daybreak) in the Quran are some of the clear examples of psychotherapy in Islam that is purely a psycho-spiritual treatment for human psychoses. For the purpose of spiritual guidance and solution to therapeutic problems, Islam prescribes some transpersonal modalities in the conduct of all affairs. For example to prevent the problems arising from the Jinns Muslims are required to recite psychotic antidotes before going into the toilet. Apart from the anti psychotic prescriptions there are many historical episodes in which the Islamic modes of conduct serve to be psychotherapeutic. A clear example could be seen from the following narration found in the address delivered to the King of Abyssinia by Jafar, as narrated by Sheikhulhadith (1978), p.19, that: "O King! We were ignorant people. We worshipped stones. We used to eat carrion and commit all sort of undesirable and disgraceful acts. We did not make good our obligations to our relatives. The strong among us thrived at the expense of the weak....... (But when faith that is Allah's consciousness was inserted into their hearts) . . . . . We, were exhorted to give up idolatry and stone worship. We were enjoined right conduct and forbidden any act of indecency. We were taught to tell the truth, to make good our trust, to have regard for our Kith and Kin, and to be good to our neighbours.... and to shun everything foul and to avoid bloodshed, adultery, lewdness, telling of lies, misappropriating the orphan's heritage, bringing false accusations against others and all other indecent things of that sort....". The above statements made by Jafar revealed the psychotic mind and behaviours of the 'Jahiliyyah' period which was the era of the 3W (Wine, Women and War). The time when the consumption of wine was part of the human survival. The era when a woman can have as many husbands as she desires. Likewise a man can have as many wives as he desires. It was also the attitude of the Jahiliyya people that war between tribes and towns was a matter of pride. These undesired behaviours have been changed to noble behaviours through faith which shows that fear of Allah is the foundation of good human behaviour and the most effective therapy. The historical narration below

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aku hanya lelaki bodoh yang sedang jatuh cinta kepada.. wanita secantik kamu.... jauh dari harapan di cintai atau mencintai itu sama aja

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Well I wonder, Could it be? When I was dreaming 'bout you baby You were dreaming of me Call me crazy, Call me blind, To still be suffering is stupid after all of this time Did I lose my love to someone better And does she love you like I do, I do You know I really really do Well hey... so much I need to say Been lonely since the day The day you went away So sad but true For lonely since the day The day you went away. Go On, Yay... Oh... I remember - date and time September 22nd Sunday twenty-five after nine In the doorway With your case No longer shouting at each other There were tears on our faces And we were letting go of something special Something we'll never have again, I know I guess I really really know Well hey, so much i need to say Been lonely since the day The day you went away So sad but true, for me there's only you Been crying since the day The day you went away (The Day you went away) The Day you went away Go on, Yay... Oh oh oh Did I lose my love to someone better And does she love you like I do, I do You know i really really do Well hey, so much I need to say Been lonely since the day The day you went away So sad but true, for me there's only you Been crying since the day The day you went away Why do we never know what we've got till it's gone How could I carry on The day you went away Cause I've been missing you so much I have to say Been crying since the day The day you went away The day you went away The Day you went away... Go on, Yay... Oh...

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minite

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