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Inglês

There is a glass on the table.

Indonésio

Ada gelas di atas meja.

Última atualização: 2014-02-01
Frequência de uso: 1
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Inglês

There is a glass on the table.

Indonésio

Ada sebuah gelas di atas meja.

Última atualização: 2014-02-01
Frequência de uso: 1
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Inglês

There has been increasing anger and frustration against bribery, but at the same time there is a high level of tolerance too.

Indonésio

Kemarahan dan rasa frustasi terhadap penyuapan semakin meningkat, namun di sisi lain tingkat toleransi terhadap korupsi juga sama tingginya.

Última atualização: 2016-02-24
Frequência de uso: 1
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Inglês

Verily, those who purchase disbelief at the price of Faith, not the least harm will they do to Allah. For them, there is a painful torment.

Indonésio

(Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang menukar keimanan dengan kekafiran) artinya mengambil kekafiran sebagai ganti dari keimanan (tidaklah memberi mudarat kepada Allah) dengan kekafiran mereka itu (sedikit pun dan bagi mereka siksa yang pedih) atau menyakitkan.

Última atualização: 2014-07-03
Frequência de uso: 1
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Inglês

For example, Arongan regency, West Aceh, successfully participated in the National Science Olympic (OSN) at the provincial level. In this regency there are many institutions that are required to be school supervisors, even there is a special school supervisor which initiated by the regency, there is a regular report of the presence of principals and teachers to the Department and UPTD as a condition of getting allowances,

Indonésio

Sebagai contoh, Kabupaten Arongan, Aceh Barat, berhasil ikut Olimpiade Sains Nasional (OSN) tingkat provinsi. Di Kabupaten ini ada banyak lembaga yang diminta menjadi pengawas sekolah, bahkan ada pengawas khusus murid sekolah yang merupakan inisiatif Kabupaten, terdapat laporan rutin kehadiran kepala sekolah dan guru ke Dinas dan UPTD sebagai syarat pengambilan tunjangan,

Última atualização: 2017-09-24
Frequência de uso: 1
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Referência: Anônimo

Inglês

The Realme XT is the first Realme phone to release four rear cameras with a 64 megapixel main camera. Realt xt is equipped with a 64 Megapixel main camera, an 8 megapixel ultrawide camera, a 2 megapixel macro camera and a 2 megapixel sensor camera. At the front, there is a 16 MP resolution selfie camera which is placed in a waterdrop-style bangs (notch). Realme xt has a Snapdragon 712 chipset, 8GB RAM, and 128GB of internal storage. The XT Realme battery has a capacity of 4,000 mAh. For security systems, the Realme XT has a fingerprint scanner sensor that is embedded directly in the screen. This phone runs the Android 9.0 Pie operating system. Real XT is sold at Rp. 4 million. the real color of xt is pearl blue

Indonésio

Realme XT merupakan ponsel pertama Realme yang merilis empat kamera belakang dengan kamera utama beresolusi 64 megapiksel. Realme xt dilengkapi dengan kamera utama 64 Megapixel, kamera ultrawide 8 megapixel, kamera macro 2 megapixel, dan kamera sensor 2 megapixel. Di bagian depan, terdapat kamera selfie beresolusi 16 MP yang ditempatkan di dalam poni (notch) bergaya waterdrop. Realme xt memiliki chipset Snapdragon 712, RAM 8 GB, dan penyimpanan internal 128 GB. Baterai Realme XT memiliki kapasitas 4.000 mAh. Untuk sistem keamanan, Realme XT memiliki sensor pemindai sidik jari yang sudah ditanamkan langsung di dalam layar. Ponsel ini menjalankan sistem operasi Android 9.0 Pie. Realme XT dijual dengan harga Rp 4 juta. warna realme xt ini adalah pearl blue

Última atualização: 2020-04-11
Frequência de uso: 1
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Referência: Anônimo

Inglês

Jars is a hot spring tour. Urn is one of the tourist attractions located in the Urn village, Bijijawa sub-district, Tegal district, Central Java province. The urn has an area of 210 hectares, located at the foot of the northern slamet mountain with an altitude of 1050 meters. Jar has 10 waterfalls. At the top, there is a cold waterfall called Jedor waterfall. Jar has been opened to the public since 1974.

Indonésio

Guci adalah wisata pemandian air panas. Guci meupakan salah satu wisata yang terletak di desa guci kecamatan bumijawa kabupaten Tegal provinsi jawa Tengah. Guci memiliki luas 210 Ha, terletak di kaki gunung Slamet bagian utara dengan ketinggian 1050 meter. Guci memiliki 10 air terjun. Pada bagian atas, terdapat air terjun dingin bernama air terjun jedor. Guci telah dibuka untuk umum sejak tahun 1974.

Última atualização: 2020-03-26
Frequência de uso: 1
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Referência: Anônimo

Inglês

because the microscopic and macroscopic methods aredepend too much on the availability of experts and are timeconsuming and laborious [11]. In the latter method, chemicalprofiles or markers may be affected by physiological andstorage conditions. Authentication at the DNA levelprovides more reliability because, in contrast to RNA, DNAis more stable molecule and is found in all tissues. Thereforethere is a need for development of DNA based method forauthentication of medicinal plants [10].

Indonésio

karena metode mikroskopis dan makroskopik bergantung terlalu banyak pada ketersediaan ahli dan memakan waktu dan melelahkan [11]. Dalam metode kedua, profil kimia atau penanda dapat dipengaruhi oleh fisiologis dan kondisi penyimpanan. Otentikasi di tingkat DNA menyediakan keandalan yang lebih karena, berbeda dengan RNA, DNA adalah molekul yang lebih stabil dan ditemukan dalam jaringan. Oleh karena itu ada kebutuhan untuk pengembangan DNA berbasis metode untuk otentikasi tanaman obat [10].

Última atualização: 2017-05-17
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Referência: Anônimo
Aviso: contém formatação HTML invisível

Inglês

Once upon a time there was an old couple who didn’t have a child. They lived in a small house near the village forest. “Please give us a child,” they asked God everyday. One day, from the household Shinto altar, they heard a cute cry, “Waa! Waa!” They looked and saw a crying baby who looked just like a little finger. “This child must be a gift from God. Thanks to God!” “We will call this child ‘Issumboshi’,” they said. They raised Issumboshi with much care, but Issumboshi never grew bigger. “Hey, Issumboshi, do you want to be eaten by a frog?” Issumboshi was always being bullied by the children of the village and often went home feeling unhappy. Grandmother would make some big rice balls and encourage him. “Eat a lot, and grow up quickly,” Grandmother said. become a respectable person. Then I will come back.” Grandfather and Grandmother were worried about him, but Issumboshi’s mind would not be changed. At once they began to prepare for his trip. Issumboshi sheathed a needle sword in a straw case, put on a cup for a sedge hat, and started out with a chopstick staff, in high spirits. “I’m going now,” Issumboshi said. “Is he safe? With such a small body?” Grandfather and Grandmother asked as they saw him off. Issumboshi went on the trip with a big wish in a small body. … … … At last Issumboshi reached the capital city and anchored under the bridge. Then he climbed up to the railing and viewed the town. “There is a fine palace over there. I shall ask them at once.” At long last Issumboshi arrived at the palace. “Excuse me, but I want to meet the feudal lord.”The lord came to the door, “What? Who’s there?” “Here I am, at your feet.” “Oh. How small! Why do you want to meet me?” “Please let me be your retainer.” “I wonder if your very small body can do anything.” “I’ll stay in your pocket and guard you from all harm.” When Issumboshi said so, a bee came buzzing by. “Yhaa!” Issumboshi yelled, stabbing the bee. “Bravo! I employ you. It would be good if you became the Princess’s man.” “Oh! What a cute fellow he is!” said the Princess, putting Issumboshi on her palm. “I will defend you upon my life,” said Issumboshi.The Princess liked Issumboshi, and she taught him reading, writing, and various studies. Further, Issumboshi practiced fencing very hard in order to be strong. One day the Princess went out to worship at the Kiyomizu Temple. Suddenly there was a strong wind, and some demons appeared. The leader of the demons tried to grab the Princess. “Help me!” she screamed. Issumboshi tried to help her, but the demon caught him and threw him into his mouth. Issumboshi, who was swallowed, jabbed and jabbed the demon’s stomach. The demon rolled over and spat out Issumboshi. Issumboshi jumped at the demon and stabbed his eyes. The remaining demons were frightened. They ran away in great haste, but one demon, who was left behind, trembled while holding the magic hammer. “Do you want me to stab your eyes, too?” Issumboshi asked. “Please, don’t. This is the magic hammer that will grant you a wish. I give it to you, so please spare me.” And saying this, he ran off in a hurry. “Thank you, Issumboshi. You have saved my life,” the Princess said. “Princess, please wave this magic hammer and make a wish that I may become big,” said Issumboshi. The Princess waved it and asked, “May Issumboshi become big!” And then, strangely, before her eyes, Issumboshi began to grow. He grew into a nice young man. They went back to the palace, and the Princess asked the King to let her marry Issumboshi. The Princess and Issumboshi then got married, and they invited Grandfather and Grandmother to live with them in the palace. They lived happily ever after

Indonésio

issumboshi kemudian menjadi sang putri

Última atualização: 2017-05-16
Frequência de uso: 1
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Referência: Anônimo

Inglês

1 00:00:07,280 --> 00:00:12,400 Painting of a Gothic castle, artist unknown, circa 1920s. 2 00:00:12,760 --> 00:00:17,959 Oil on canvas, 20-by-28. Miss Franklin, where did you say you got this? 3 00:00:18,120 --> 00:00:23,638 I inherited it a few months ago. But it's been in my family for generations. 4 00:00:24,120 --> 00:00:27,157 The composition is so unusual. 5 00:00:27,320 --> 00:00:30,073 The artist used pure colour straight from the tube and then varnished 6 00:00:30,240 --> 00:00:33,994 - each layer over and... - I'm sorry for interrupting. 7 00:00:34,200 --> 00:00:35,997 But do I really need to be here? 8 00:00:36,160 --> 00:00:40,517 No, of course not. It's just that most people prefer to be at an appraisal, 9 00:00:40,680 --> 00:00:42,591 especially when they plan on selling the piece. 10 00:00:42,760 --> 00:00:46,036 - It's just that I'm kind of in a hurry. - Say no more. 11 00:00:46,200 --> 00:00:49,272 Just sign at the bottom, and you are free to go. 12 00:00:49,440 --> 00:00:53,353 Thank you. So how long do you think it'll take to sell it? 13 00:00:53,560 --> 00:00:56,632 Well, I'll need to see ownership records before I can do anything. 14 00:00:56,800 --> 00:01:00,076 I'll send you everything I have. So is that all, then? 15 00:01:00,240 --> 00:01:02,071 No, since you definitely wanna sell the piece, 16 00:01:02,240 --> 00:01:05,152 I'll need to confirm its authenticity, its physical condition. 17 00:01:05,320 --> 00:01:07,151 So if you'll just sign at the bottom, 18 00:01:07,360 --> 00:01:09,157 that will let us go ahead and x-ray the piece. 19 00:01:09,760 --> 00:01:11,751 Done. 20 00:01:12,240 --> 00:01:14,754 - Anything else? - Um... 21 00:01:15,320 --> 00:01:18,949 Well, yes, Miss Franklin. I would really like the time to research this. 22 00:01:19,160 --> 00:01:21,037 That way I can get you the best price. 23 00:01:21,200 --> 00:01:26,194 Look, I appreciate your professionalism. I really do. 24 00:01:26,360 --> 00:01:28,920 But I'm not interested in getting the best price. 25 00:01:29,080 --> 00:01:33,835 I just want you to sell that painting as soon as you can, all right? 26 00:01:34,840 --> 00:01:37,149 - Good night, Miss Halliwell. - Good night. 27 00:01:47,920 --> 00:01:50,832 Piper, it was an accident. It's not like I borrowed Prue's car 28 00:01:51,040 --> 00:01:53,679 - so I could drive it into a pole. - How bad's the damage? 29 00:01:53,840 --> 00:01:56,638 Not bad, but maybe expensive, which is why I need a favour. 30 00:01:56,800 --> 00:01:59,439 If you're calling to borrow money, I don't have any. 31 00:02:00,000 --> 00:02:04,152 No, it's not about money. It's just... I don't want you to tell Prue. 32 00:02:04,320 --> 00:02:07,517 She's been so supportive, and I don't wanna lose her trust again. 33 00:02:07,680 --> 00:02:11,116 - You mean you haven't told her? - Well, not yet, but I have a plan. 34 00:02:11,280 --> 00:02:12,508 Phoebe, you have to tell her. 35 00:02:12,680 --> 00:02:14,955 It's her car, and you don't have the money to fix it. 36 00:02:15,120 --> 00:02:17,759 But I will have the money to fix it. I'm at this company called 37 00:02:17,920 --> 00:02:20,912 Web San Francisco. It's an interactive network on the Internet. 38 00:02:21,120 --> 00:02:22,678 And I faxed them my résumé this morning, 39 00:02:22,840 --> 00:02:24,398 and they wanna meet with me tonight. 40 00:02:24,560 --> 00:02:26,869 I've gotta go, but I don't wanna be in the middle of this. 41 00:02:27,040 --> 00:02:30,077 - Just tell her, okay? - If I don't get the job, I will tell her. 42 00:02:34,120 --> 00:02:35,792 [SIGHS] 43 00:02:47,720 --> 00:02:51,998 Hello, I'm Phoebe Halliwell. I have an appointment. 44 00:02:55,120 --> 00:02:56,439 Thanks. 45 00:02:57,080 --> 00:03:00,231 All these people, they're here for the interview too, aren't they? 46 00:03:00,440 --> 00:03:03,034 Well, you won't have any trouble with this if you figured that out. 47 00:03:03,200 --> 00:03:06,158 It's an aptitude test. You can finish it at home. 48 00:03:06,320 --> 00:03:08,072 Great. Great. 49 00:03:12,560 --> 00:03:15,358 APPLICANT 1: You won a fellowship from the National Science Foundation? 50 00:03:15,520 --> 00:03:17,636 When I was at Harvard, yeah. How'd you know? 51 00:03:17,840 --> 00:03:20,912 I saw it on your résumé. I was cum laude also. 52 00:03:21,080 --> 00:03:22,832 APPLICANT 1: Except I was a Ford Foundation scholar. 53 00:03:23,080 --> 00:03:25,389 So then you must have gone to Stanford? 54 00:03:25,640 --> 00:03:27,392 Stanford? I went to Stanford. 55 00:03:29,080 --> 00:03:30,752 APPLICANT 2: Intimidating, isn't it? 56 00:03:31,120 --> 00:03:33,350 The Good Will Huntings or this aptitude test? 57 00:03:33,560 --> 00:03:37,189 Oh, who cares about linear algebra or differential? And that test is a snap. 58 00:03:37,360 --> 00:03:39,191 I mean, in this day and age, who can't write 59 00:03:39,360 --> 00:03:41,555 in HTML and numeric languages, right? 60 00:03:41,720 --> 00:03:42,709 [CHUCKLING] 61 00:03:42,880 --> 00:03:43,869 Right. 62 00:03:45,840 --> 00:03:49,833 Yeah, that's... That's for you. 63 00:04:04,800 --> 00:04:06,631 What? 64 00:04:13,680 --> 00:04:15,352 Oh... 65 00:05:41,720 --> 00:05:45,156 At first I just thought that it was a reflection off of something in the room. 66 00:05:45,400 --> 00:05:48,119 But then when I moved closer, I saw a man 67 00:05:48,280 --> 00:05:50,589 inside the painting, in the castle. 68 00:05:50,760 --> 00:05:54,958 Right, but the moment I saw him, he backed away from the window. 69 00:05:55,160 --> 00:05:58,436 And then there was this strange glow that went past the window again. 70 00:05:58,600 --> 00:06:00,591 It was just so... 71 00:06:02,320 --> 00:06:03,878 - Piper? - What? 72 00:06:04,960 --> 00:06:08,509 - We were talking? - I know, about a man in a painting. 73 00:06:08,720 --> 00:06:12,110 Listen to this one. "Hallway near club entrance too narrow." 74 00:06:12,280 --> 00:06:14,430 I thought that we had discussed your code violations. 75 00:06:14,600 --> 00:06:15,953 Well, I keep finding more. 76 00:06:16,120 --> 00:06:18,509 The plumbing, the electrical, the heating. 77 00:06:18,680 --> 00:06:20,830 - It... None of it is up to code. - Stop. 78 00:06:21,880 --> 00:06:24,440 - You're obsessing. - Well, it runs in the family. 79 00:06:25,040 --> 00:06:26,678 I don't obsess. 80 00:06:27,480 --> 00:06:32,349 I think intensely. Anyway, I can't really help it. 81 00:06:32,560 --> 00:06:35,552 I mean, we've seen so many bizarre things, why not a man in a painting? 82 00:06:35,720 --> 00:06:37,472 At least he's safe from building inspectors. 83 00:06:37,720 --> 00:06:40,109 I can't imagine that castle's up to code. 84 00:06:40,280 --> 00:06:43,556 I'm sorry, but I couldn't find anything in the Book of Shadows about people 85 00:06:43,720 --> 00:06:46,951 who may be trapped inside paintings. I looked everywhere. 86 00:06:47,440 --> 00:06:51,877 Hey, you were asleep by the time I got home. How did your interview go? 87 00:06:54,160 --> 00:06:55,752 It went fine. 88 00:06:56,000 --> 00:07:00,073 Actually, it's still going. I have to finish this take-home aptitude test, 89 00:07:00,240 --> 00:07:02,674 which I actually think I will start right now. 90 00:07:02,840 --> 00:07:05,149 So I will see you guys later. 91 00:07:05,360 --> 00:07:06,713 - Phoebe? PHOEBE: What? 92 00:07:06,880 --> 00:07:09,553 Aren't you forgetting something? My car keys? 93 00:07:13,400 --> 00:07:15,868 They'd be with your car... 94 00:07:16,880 --> 00:07:20,395 ...which is at the body shop, having an estimate. 95 00:07:20,960 --> 00:07:25,909 - An estimate? - Yeah, I bumped... 96 00:07:26,320 --> 00:07:30,598 No, actually I backed your car into a pole last night. 97 00:07:31,440 --> 00:07:33,158 A pole? 98 00:07:34,320 --> 00:07:35,548 You hit a pole? 99 00:07:35,720 --> 00:07:38,314 Yeah, you don't even have to say it. I know what you're thinking. 100 00:07:38,480 --> 00:07:41,836 How could I be so irresponsible? How could I be so stupid? 101 00:07:42,240 --> 00:07:46,518 Okay, irresponsible, yes. Stupid, no way. Where is that coming from? 102 00:07:46,680 --> 00:07:48,830 It's coming from the fact that I'm the youngest sister, 103 00:07:49,000 --> 00:07:51,958 the one who always makes mistakes, the one who always causes problems. 104 00:07:52,120 --> 00:07:54,793 I mean, if anybody were gonna back your car into a pole 105 00:07:54,960 --> 00:07:57,030 and not tell you right away, it'd be me, right? 106 00:07:57,880 --> 00:08:00,758 - I think I'll just be going now. - See? Even the middle sister, 107 00:08:00,920 --> 00:08:03,912 the one that's supposed to stay neutral when it comes to family problems, 108 00:08:04,080 --> 00:08:06,799 - checks out on this one. - Yes, you're right. You're on your own. 109 00:08:06,960 --> 00:08:09,428 Well, leave me out of it too. I don't wanna argue with you. 110 00:08:09,600 --> 00:08:12,956 - I just wanna find a cab. - Well, whatever it costs, 111 00:08:13,120 --> 00:08:15,680 I will pay for the damages. And whatever the cab costs, 112 00:08:15,840 --> 00:08:17,592 I will pay for that too. 113 00:08:20,760 --> 00:08:23,877 - What just happened here? - I don't know anything about anything. 114 00:08:24,080 --> 00:08:26,150 - I'm gonna go see Dan. - Piper! 115 00:08:26,320 --> 00:08:29,835 Just forget about the car. What about the man in the painting? 116 00:08:30,200 --> 00:08:34,352 Well, unless he's real and screaming for help, forget about him. 117 00:08:34,520 --> 00:08:37,353 We shouldn't go looking for trouble. We have enough around here. 118 00:08:37,960 --> 00:08:40,110 I'm going next door. 119 00:08:48,680 --> 00:08:50,671 - Dan. - Good morning. 120 00:08:50,880 --> 00:08:53,792 - I'm sorry to bother you. - No, you're not bothering me, unless 121 00:08:54,080 --> 00:08:57,550 - you refuse to hand over my paper. - Oh, all yours. 122 00:08:57,720 --> 00:09:01,952 - Thanks. You wanna come in? - No, no, really, 123 00:09:02,160 --> 00:09:05,232 I just stopped by to ask a quick favour. My club received a visit 124 00:09:05,400 --> 00:09:07,755 - from the DBI last night... - And you got code violations. 125 00:09:07,960 --> 00:09:10,679 I have the War and Peace of code violations. 126 00:09:10,880 --> 00:09:14,475 And you were thinking what? Neighbour Dan, he's in construction, 127 00:09:14,880 --> 00:09:18,031 - maybe he could help, huh? - Of course I'd pay you something. 128 00:09:18,640 --> 00:09:21,916 JENNY: Uncle Dan, I'm late. Hey, Piper. - Hi, Jenny. 129 00:09:22,080 --> 00:09:26,517 See you later, Uncle Dan. And don't forget your promise. 130 00:09:27,920 --> 00:09:32,198 Okay, then, I'll tell you what I can do. I'll check out the code violations, 131 00:09:32,360 --> 00:09:35,272 see how serious they really are if you will help me with the promise 132 00:09:35,440 --> 00:09:38,159 - I made Jenny. - Deal. Wait, what's the promise? 133 00:09:38,320 --> 00:09:42,199 She needs help with a paper. It's... It's for bio class. You know, something 134 00:09:42,400 --> 00:09:46,473 - with the human reproductive system. - Oh, you mean sex. 135 00:09:47,440 --> 00:09:50,477 It's just way too awkward for me to talk to my niece about. 136 00:09:50,680 --> 00:09:54,309 Yeah. Sure, not to worry, I have plenty of experience. 137 00:09:54,880 --> 00:10:00,398 - Really? With sex? - No, I mean, talking about it. 138 00:10:02,880 --> 00:10:04,279 Yeah. 139 00:10:07,920 --> 00:10:09,876 So was there a problem with any 140 00:10:10,040 --> 00:10:11,792 of the ownership records that I sent over? 141 00:10:11,960 --> 00:10:13,632 No, everything's in order. 142 00:10:13,960 --> 00:10:15,916 Then I'm not sure why you wanted to meet with me. 143 00:10:16,080 --> 00:10:19,550 Look, Miss Franklin, I know that you don't really wanna be here, 144 00:10:19,720 --> 00:10:25,078 so I'll just be perfectly honest. There is something strange about that painting. 145 00:10:26,160 --> 00:10:28,549 - Have you seen him? - Him? 146 00:10:29,200 --> 00:10:32,590 - That's how it all starts, you know. - What do you mean? 147 00:10:32,760 --> 00:10:36,070 At first, you see him... 148 00:10:37,400 --> 00:10:38,799 ...the man inside the painting. 149 00:10:39,760 --> 00:10:45,039 At least you think you see him, but he just... He disappears so fast. 150 00:10:46,720 --> 00:10:49,951 And you start to think about it, but it doesn't make any sense. I mean, 151 00:10:51,200 --> 00:10:56,035 how could a man be inside a painting? And then you see him again. 152 00:10:56,560 --> 00:10:58,596 This time longer. 153 00:11:01,600 --> 00:11:03,352 And now you're sure. 154 00:11:03,520 --> 00:11:06,318 So you think that the painting is haunted by a ghost? 155 00:11:07,000 --> 00:11:11,312 Oh, no, no, I think he's definitely alive. 156 00:11:12,120 --> 00:11:14,588 I think he's trapped inside. 157 00:11:16,120 --> 00:11:19,590 - Do you know who he is? - No, I have no idea. 158 00:11:20,600 --> 00:11:22,272 Nobody does. 159 00:11:23,960 --> 00:11:27,748 Look, all I know is that if I don't get rid of that painting, 160 00:11:28,000 --> 00:11:30,878 I'm gonna end up just like everybody else in my family who ever owned it. 161 00:11:31,080 --> 00:11:33,071 - I'm gonna be completely insane. - Miss Franklin... 162 00:11:33,240 --> 00:11:35,196 No, you've only seen the beginning, Miss Halliwell. 163 00:11:35,400 --> 00:11:39,712 Just trust me when I tell you it's only gonna get worse. 164 00:11:48,880 --> 00:11:54,318 Spirits send the words from all... 165 00:11:54,480 --> 00:11:55,469 [KNOCKING] 166 00:11:55,640 --> 00:11:57,278 PIPER: It's me. Can I come in? 167 00:11:57,440 --> 00:11:59,795 Piper, I really just wanna be alone right now. 168 00:11:59,960 --> 00:12:02,633 I won't stay long, promise. 169 00:12:03,560 --> 00:12:05,630 All right, just give me a sec. 170 00:12:10,120 --> 00:12:11,394 Okay, you can come in now. 171 00:12:15,880 --> 00:12:19,998 I just wanted to tell you the body shop called. 172 00:12:20,440 --> 00:12:22,351 Yeah, I know, I heard the message, 1,200 bucks. 173 00:12:22,520 --> 00:12:25,876 - Did you tell Prue? - I didn't have to. She already knew. 174 00:12:26,040 --> 00:12:27,473 She called the body shop herself. 175 00:12:27,640 --> 00:12:29,551 That's why I have got to get this job, Piper. 176 00:12:29,760 --> 00:12:31,796 It's the only way that I could pay for the damages. 177 00:12:32,000 --> 00:12:33,558 The only way I can make things right. 178 00:12:33,760 --> 00:12:35,637 All the more reason you just should've told her. 179 00:12:35,840 --> 00:12:38,274 Okay, well, maybe a smarter person would've figured that out. 180 00:12:38,600 --> 00:12:42,036 Then again, a smart person wouldn't have backed the car into a pole. 181 00:12:42,280 --> 00:12:45,272 A smart person would've realised that it was a $1,200 pole. 182 00:12:45,480 --> 00:12:49,837 That's because smart people don't do stupid things, only stupid people do. 183 00:12:50,000 --> 00:12:52,719 - Phoebe, I didn't mean to upset you. - I know. 184 00:12:53,080 --> 00:12:56,277 - Maybe we should just talk later. - Okay. 185 00:12:57,560 --> 00:13:00,677 - You sure you're gonna be okay? - Yeah. Why? 186 00:13:00,840 --> 00:13:03,479 Phoebe, I know you think getting this job is the answer, but please, 187 00:13:03,640 --> 00:13:06,438 - just don't do anything... - What, stupid? 188 00:13:06,600 --> 00:13:09,672 No, just don't do anything I wouldn't do. 189 00:13:11,880 --> 00:13:13,677 Don't worry, I won't. 190 00:13:17,360 --> 00:13:19,669 You would never cast a smart spell. 191 00:13:20,920 --> 00:13:21,955 Okay. 192 00:13:24,400 --> 00:13:27,756 For 24 hours, from 7 to 7, I will understand all meaning 193 00:13:28,040 --> 00:13:33,717 of the words from here to heaven. 194 00:13:42,680 --> 00:13:45,831 Spirits, send the words From all across the land 195 00:13:46,000 --> 00:13:49,390 Allow me to absorb them Through the touch of either hand 196 00:13:49,560 --> 00:13:51,630 For 23 hours, from 7 to 7 197 00:13:51,800 --> 00:13:56,351 I will understand all meaning Of the words from here to heaven 198 00:13:57,040 --> 00:13:59,508 Oh, and P.S., there will be no personal gain. 199 00:14:17,120 --> 00:14:20,317 Abaca, strong fibre obtained from a banana leaf. 200 00:14:20,480 --> 00:14:24,473 Zygote, a cell formed by the union of two gametes. 201 00:14:27,080 --> 00:14:28,672 Cool. 202 00:14:33,120 --> 00:14:36,430 - Hey, Joe, that was fast. JOE: No line at the x-ray machine. 203 00:14:36,640 --> 00:14:38,756 So did the x-ray confirm its authenticity? 204 00:14:38,920 --> 00:14:41,354 It did a lot more than that. Check out the x-ray. 205 00:14:41,520 --> 00:14:43,715 It's got definitive underwriting on the canvas. 206 00:14:44,200 --> 00:14:47,033 - It has a pentimento? - Yeah, I couldn't believe it either. 207 00:14:47,280 --> 00:14:50,636 But you can see it on the x-ray. The text is in Latin. 208 00:14:50,840 --> 00:14:53,308 I've never seen anything like it before. 209 00:14:53,640 --> 00:14:57,872 "Absolvo, amitto, amplus, brevis." 210 00:14:58,240 --> 00:15:03,394 - To free what is lost say these words. - Wow, you speak Latin? 211 00:15:04,160 --> 00:15:08,039 - Yes. Good night, Joe. - Okay. 212 00:15:08,240 --> 00:15:10,595 Well, why don't I just return the painting to the vault, 213 00:15:10,760 --> 00:15:12,034 say, tomorrow. 214 00:15:12,240 --> 00:15:14,117 - Good idea. - Okay. 215 00:15:25,600 --> 00:15:27,192 "Help." 216 00:15:31,760 --> 00:15:33,557 Okay. 217 00:15:36,680 --> 00:15:40,958 "Semper mea." Mine forever. 218 00:15:43,400 --> 00:15:48,030 Absolvo amitto amplus brevis. Semper mea. 219 00:15:51,600 --> 00:15:53,033 Oh, no. 220 00:15:54,000 --> 00:15:55,831 Oh! Oh! 221 00:16:12,720 --> 00:16:14,597 [GASPING] 222 00:16:17,040 --> 00:16:18,837 Who's there? 223 00:16:19,880 --> 00:16:20,869 [SCREAMS] 224 00:16:21,040 --> 00:16:22,837 - Quick, follow me! - What? 225 00:16:23,040 --> 00:16:25,076 This way. Ladies first. 226 00:16:27,280 --> 00:16:28,918 I see you read Latin too. 227 00:16:29,200 --> 00:16:30,679 Okay, what has happened? Where am I? 228 00:16:30,840 --> 00:16:32,353 - You're in the castle. - Where is that? 229 00:16:32,520 --> 00:16:35,432 - Inside a painting. - I'm trapped inside a painting? 230 00:16:35,640 --> 00:16:38,108 Yes, and if you don't get to that bookcase, you're dead. 231 00:16:38,920 --> 00:16:40,353 Who are you? 232 00:16:40,600 --> 00:16:43,398 My name's Malcolm, and you were supposed to help me, not join me. 233 00:16:43,600 --> 00:16:44,589 Who are you anyway? 234 00:16:44,760 --> 00:16:46,478 My name is Prue, and I was helping you. 235 00:16:46,640 --> 00:16:49,837 - You were supposed to come out. - Great, now we're both trapped. Hurry! 236 00:16:52,880 --> 00:16:54,950 What the hell? What are you? How'd you do that? 237 00:16:55,160 --> 00:16:57,879 Oh, okay, never mind. We're gonna get killed. Will you hurry up? 238 00:17:04,040 --> 00:17:05,029 [MEOWING] 239 00:17:05,200 --> 00:17:06,952 Hi, Phoebe. You're up early. What's up? 240 00:17:07,120 --> 00:17:10,874 Oh, the Dow Jones, housing prices and the space shuttle Discovery. 241 00:17:11,040 --> 00:17:14,032 - Huh? - Read the paper. 242 00:17:14,280 --> 00:17:16,919 Oh. Um... 243 00:17:17,080 --> 00:17:19,116 - Have you seen Prue this morning? - Not yet. 244 00:17:19,320 --> 00:17:21,959 Oh, Dan just called, said he'd meet you at the club at noon. 245 00:17:22,360 --> 00:17:23,634 Okay. 246 00:17:23,840 --> 00:17:26,354 - Did you hear her come in last night? - Nope. 247 00:17:26,800 --> 00:17:28,711 PIPER: This is really strange. 248 00:17:28,880 --> 00:17:29,915 [CAT MEOWING] 249 00:17:

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THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM / Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas © Naquib al-Attas 1980. All rights reserved. Excerpted with the permission of the author from The Concept of Islamic Education, the keynote address delivered by Professor Naquib al-Attas at the “First World Conference on Muslim Education” held in Makkatul MucaÀÀamah in March 1977. Professor al-Attas is former Director of International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC) and a member of the International Advisory Board of the Muslim Education Foundation (MEF). THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM the meaning of education and of what it involves is of utmost importance in the formulation of a system of education and its implementation. Supposing I am asked: What is education?, and I answer: Education is a process of instilling something into human beings. In this answer ‘a process of instilling’ refers to the method and the system by which what is called ‘education’ is gradually imparted; ‘something’ refers to the content of what is instilled; and ‘human beings’ refers to the recipient of both the process and the content. Now the answer given above already encompasses the three fundamental elements that constitute education: the process, the content, the recipient; but it is not yet a definition because those elements are deliberately left vague. Furthermore, the way of formulating the sentence meant to be developed into a definition as given above gives the impression that what is emphasized is the process. Supposing I reformulate the answer: Education is something progressively instilled into man. Now here we still encompass the three fundamental elements inherent in education, but the order of precedence as to the important clement that constitutes education is now the content and not the process. Let us consider this last formulation and proceed in analyzing the inherent concepts. I shall begin with man, since the definition of man is already generally well known, and that is, that he is a ‘rational animal’. Since rationality defines man, we must at least have some idea as to what ‘rational’ means, and we all agree that it refers to ‘reason’. However, in Western intellectual history, the concept of ratio has undergone much controversy, and has become—at least from the Muslim point of view—problematic, for it has gradually become separated from the ‘intellect’ or intellectus in the process of secularization of ideas that coursed through the history of Western thought since the periods of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Muslim thinkers did not conceive of what is understood as ratio as something separate from what is understood as intellectus; they conceived the aql as an organic unity of both ratio and intellectus. Bearing this in mind, the Muslims defined man as al-ÌaywÂn al-nÂtiq,1 where the term nÂtiq signifies ‘rational’. Man is possessed of an inner faculty that formulates Meaning dhÄ nutq and this formulation of meaning, which involves judgment and discrimination and clarification, is what constitutes his ‘rationality’. The terms nÂtiq and nutq are derived from a root that conveys the basic meaning of ‘speech’, in the sense of human speech, so that they both signify a certain power and capacity in man to articulate words in meaningful pattern. He is, as it were, a ‘language animal’, and the articulation of linguistic symbols into meaningful patterns is no other than the outward, visible and audible expression of the inner, unseen reality which we call caql. The term caql itself basically signifies a kind of ‘binding’ or ‘withholding’, so that in this respect caql signifies an innate property that binds and withholds objects of knowledge by means of words. cAql is synonymous with qalb in the same way as qalb, which is a spiritual organ of cognition called the ‘heart’, is synonymous with caql.3 The real nature of caql is that it is a spiritual substance by which the rational soul (alnafs al-nÂtiqah recognizes and distinguishes truth from falsehood.4 It is clear from this, and many more references which we have not mentioned, that the reality underlying the definition of man is this spiritual substance, which is indicated by everyone when he says “I”. When we speak of education, therefore, it must pertain to this reality of man, and not simply to his body and his animal aspect.5 In defining man as a rational animal, where we mean by ‘rational’ the capacity for understanding speech, and the power responsible for the formulation of meaning—which involves judgment, discrimination, distinction and clarification, and which has to do with the articulation of words or expressions in meaningful pattern—the meaning of ‘meaning’ in our present context, and based on the concept of macnÂ), is the recognition of the place of anything in a system. Such recognition occurs when the relation a thing has with other things in the system becomes clarified and understood. The relation describes a certain order. Meaning, conceived in the way I have formulated above, is a mental image in which a word or expression is applied to denote it. When that word or expression becomes an idea, or a notion, in the mind (caql with reference to nutq) it is called the ‘understood’ (mafhÄm). As an intelligible form that is formed in answer to the question “what is it?”, it is called ‘essence’ (mÂhiyyah). Considered as something that exists outside the mind, that is, objectively, it is called ‘reality’ (ÌaqÆqah: حقيق ة ). Seen as a specific reality distinguished from the others, it is called ‘individuality’ or ‘individual existence’ (huwiyyah: 6.( هويي ه In this way and in the context of the present discussion we say that what constitutes meaning, or the definition of meaning, is recognition of the place of anything in a system which occurs when the relation a thing has with others in the system becomes clarified and understood. We say further that the relation describes a certain order. If every thing in any system were in the same place, then there could be no recognition, there could be no meaning, since there would be no relational criteria to judge, discriminate, distinguish and clarify. Indeed, there would be no ‘system’. For recognition to be possible, there must be specific difference, there must be essential relation and, moreover, these must remain, for if the difference and the relation were not abiding but were in a state of constant change specifically and essentially, then recognition of things would be impossible, and meaning would perish. In this brief outline is already revealed the intrinsic connection between meaning and knowledge. The second important element inherent in education is its content, which is here indicated as ‘something’. This is done deliberately because even though we all know that it must refer to knowledge, we have still to determine what we mean by it. The teaching and learning of skills alone, however scientific, and no matter if what is taught and learned is encompassed in the general concept ‘knowledge’, docs not necessarily constitute education. The teaching and learning of the human, natural and applied sciences alone does not constitute education in the sense we are clarifying. There is a ‘something’ in knowledge which if it is not inculcated will not make its teaching and learning and assimilation an education. In fact the ‘some thing’ that we allude to here is itself knowledge; indeed, it is knowledge of the purpose of seeking it. At this point we are compelled to ask: What, then, is knowledge? or: What does knowledge consist of? In the beginning, I referred to the fact that in accordance with Islamic tradition we understand definition as of two kinds: definition by Ìadd and definition by rasm. By the former is meant a precise or concise specification of the distinctive characteristic of a thing; and by the latter is meant a description of the nature of a thing. This distinction reveals that there are things which we can define specifically to its precise, distinctive characteristic—such as in the case of the definition of man—and there are things which we cannot so define, but can define only by describing its nature. Knowledge comes under this latter category. There are many definitions describing the nature of knowledge, but what is of relevance here is the epistemological definition, since it is important to understand what the Islamic epistemological context involves and implies. Perhaps its greatest implication lies in its effect upon our vision of reality and truth and our methodology of research; our intellectual scope and practical application in planning for what is called ‘development’, which all bear upon our understanding of education. Muslims are in concerted agreement that all knowledge comes from God, and we also know that the manner of its arrival, and the faculties and senses that receive and interpret it are distinctly not the same. Since all knowledge comes from God and is interpreted by the soul through its spiritual and physical faculties, it follows that the most suitable definition would be that knowledge, with reference to God as being its origin, is the arrival (ÌuÈÄl: حصو ل ) in the soul of the meaning of a thing or an object of knowledge; and that with reference to the soul as being its interpreter, knowledge is the arrival (wuÈÄl: وصو ل ) of the soul at the meaning of a thing or an object of knowledge. very selves, is like a word in that Great Book that speaks to man about its Author.8 Now the word as it really is is a sign, a symbol; and to know it as it really is is to know what it stands for, what it symbolizes, what it means. To study the word as word, regarding it as if it had an independent reality of its own, is to miss the real point of studying it; for regarded as such it is no longer a sign or a symbol, as it is being made to point to itself, which is not what it really is. So in like manner is the study of nature, of any thing, any object of knowledge in Creation, pursued in order to attain knowledge of it; if the expression ‘as it really is’ is taken to mean its alleged independent reality, essentially and existentially, as if it were something ultimate and subsistent—then such study is devoid of real purpose, and the pursuit of knowledge becomes a deviation from the truth, which necessarily puts into question the validity of such knowledge. For as it really is, a thing or an object of knowledge is other than what it is, and that ‘other’ is what it means. So just as the study of words as words leads to deviation from the real truth underlying them, in the same way the preoccupation in philosophy with things as things leads to the erroneous, ordinary level of experience belief in the existence of their alleged essences outside the mind, whereas in reality the so called essences are only mentally posited.9 A thing, like a word, is in reality ultimately a sign or a symbol that is apparent and is inseparable from another thing not equally apparent, in such wise that when the former is perceived the other, which cannot 8. For example: 41:53. 9. I refer here the ‘essentialist’ view of reality as opposed to the existentialist view. By ‘existentialist’, however, I do not in our present discussion refer to recent Western philosophical speculation called by that name, but to the Islamic view that existence (wujÄd وج و:د ) constitutes the real essences of things. be perceived and which is of one predicament as the former, is known. What we have outlined is in fact a summary exposition of the Qurbanic concept of Âyah as referring to words and things.10 That is why we have defined knowledge epistemologically as the arrival in the soul of the meaning of a thing, or the arrival of the soul at the meaning of a thing. The ‘meaning of a thing’ means the right meaning of it; and what is considered to be the ‘right’ meaning is in this context determined by the Islamic vision of reality and truth as projected by the Qurbanic conceptual system. We may now recall our earlier reference to the relevance obtained between tafsÆr and tabwÆl as valid methods of approach to knowledge and scientific methodology respecting our study and interpretation of the world of nature, and its significance in our conception of knowledge and education. In the same way that tafsÆr and tabwÆl apply to the Glorious QurbÂn, involving its entire conceptual system, its reflected meanings in the ËadÆth and Sunnah and in the things of the empirical world; so is the Book of the world of nature to be interpreted by scientific methods emulating those of tafsÆr and tabwÆl, treating the things of the empirical world as ‘words’, as signs and symbols operating in a network of conceptual relations that altogether describe an organic unity reflecting the Noble QurbÂn itself. In this way also the Noble QurbÂn is the final authority that confirms the truth in our rational and empirical investigations. What we are saying is that knowledge, as referring to meaning, consists of the recognition of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence. 8 • The Concept of Education in Islam We said that there is a ‘something’ in knowledge which if it is not inculcated will not make its teaching and learning and assimilation an education, We said further that this ‘something’ is knowledge of the purpose of seeking it. Now when knowledge, which is here defined as recognition of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to recognition of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence, is made the content of education, it still would not suffice to render the education an education in the sense we are clarifying— unless that ‘something’ in knowledge is included in the definition of knowledge. For recognition alone of the proper places of things and of God does not necessarily imply concomitant action on the part of man to behave in accordance with the suitable requirements of what is recognized. True recognition must be followed by acknowledgement, otherwise the recognition is in vain. Acknowledgement, like recognition, pertains to man and consists in man making himself suitable to the requirements of the right or proper places of things or affairs. The requirements of the proper places of things and affairs entail action on the part of man, and this action is denoted by the term camal. From this it is now clear that the ‘something’ in knowledge that we must have to realize education is acknowledgement of the proper places of things and of God that is recognized as existing in the order of creation and of being and existence. So now we are in a position to complete our definition of the content of education as: recognition and acknowledgement of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence. In our definition of knowledge, that is, of what knowledge consists and of the content of education, we notice that the concept of ‘proper place’ pertains to two domains of application: on the one hand it refers to the ontological domain which Naquib al-Attas • 9 includes man and the world of empirical things, and on the other to the theological domain which includes the religious and ethical aspects of human existence. ‘Proper’ place means ‘real’ and ‘true’ place as denoted by the term Ìaqq, for Ìaqq signifies both reality and truth pertaining to the two domains. Ëaqq signifies a judgment or Ìukm conforming with reality or the real situation. This judgment involves statements or uttered words or propositions, religious beliefs, religions and schools of thought. The exact opposite of Ìaqq is bÂtil, meaning falsehood, something vain, futile. The term Ìaqq, then, basically signifies a suitableness to the requirements of wisdom and justice.11 We understand by ‘justice’ (cadl) a harmonious condition of things being in their right or proper places. By ‘wisdom’ (Ìikmah) we mean the knowledge given by God, by which the recipient is able to effect correct judgments as to the proper places of things. Thus when we speak of the truth of a matter as the suitableness of a fact or a reality to a judgment, we mean by that judgment that which is derived from wisdom. Truth or Ìaqq is then a suitableness to the requirements of the proper places of things as recognized by true judgment. The notion of right or proper places involves necessity for things to be in that condition, to be deployed in a certain order, arranged according to various ‘levels’ (marÂtib) and ‘degrees’ (darajÂt). Ontologically, things are already so arranged, but man, out of ignorance of the just order pervading all creation, makes alterations and confuses the places of things such that injustice occurs. When the truth of the matter is revealed to man and recognized by him, it then becomes incumbent upon him to guide his conduct so as to conform with 10 • The Concept of Education in Islam that truth. By his conformity with that truth, he is in effect putting himself in his proper place. Recognition of the truth in both domains, the ontological and the theological, necessitates in man a conduct that conforms with that truth. Thus Ìaqq also signifies ‘duty’ or ‘obligation’ that binds in accordance with the requirements of reality and truth.12 When in Islam we speak of man as possessing ‘right(s)’ in the sense of just claim or what he is entitled to, we mean by that his duty or obligation as described above. Thus ‘acknowledgement’ as the fundamental element in true ‘recognition’ in the Islamic concept of education means ‘affirmation and confirmation’ or ‘realization’ and ‘actualization’ in one’s self of what is recognized. This is denoted by the term taÌqÆq ( تحقيق ), which is derived from the same root as Ìaqq. Acknowledgement of what is recognized is what renders education an education; otherwise, recognition alone is but a ‘learning’ (tacallum). At this stage of our exposition of the concept of education in Islam, we have already brought to bear upon it many of the key concepts that form the basic vocabulary of the Islamic con ceptual system. We have briefly explained the concepts of meaning (macnÂ); knowledge (cilm); justice (cadl); wisdom (Ìikmah); action (camal); right or proper in respect of what is true and real (Ìaqq); of reason (nutq); self (nafs); heart (qalb); mind and intellect (caql); hierarchical order in creation (marÂtib and darajÂt); words, signs and symbols (ÂyÂt); interpretation (tafsÆr and tabwÆl). We have woven these concepts together in meaningful Naquib al-Attas • 11 pattern, elucidating the concept of education peculiar to Islam, which we now define as: recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled into man, of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence. There is one other key concept which in reality is central to education and the educational process, because the others we have mentioned all focus their meanings in this context toward it alone, such that by itself it stands sufficient as the precise term to denote education. This is because the key concept alluded to identifies itself as the ‘something’ in knowledge which is knowledge of the purpose of seeking it. This major key concept is couched in the term adab ( .( أدب Adab is the discipline of body, mind and soul; the discipline that assures the recognition and acknowl

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Reebok and Adidas The athletic shoe industry in the United States was an $8.25 billion market in 2003. By 2010, industry revenue had hit $21.9 billion with sales of over 362 million shoes a year [Ibis World]. The four largest companies (Nike, New Balance, and AdidasReebok) controlled 70 percent of that market [Cassidy 2004]. The industry grew from almost nothing in the early 1980s to a global powerhouse. Reebok (ticker: RBK) can trace its history back to Joseph William Foster, who made some of the first spiked running shoes by hand in London—in 1895. In 1958, two grandsons started a companion company known as Reebok. But, the modern version was born in 1979 when Paul Fireman saw the shoes at an international trade show and negotiated for North American distribution rights. At $60 a pair, the shoes were the most expensive running shoes in America [www.reebok.com]. In 1982, Reebok helped launch the aerobic dance industry with a shoe specifically targeted to women. With explosive growth, the company went public in 1985. Growth con- tinued, supported by the Step Reebok program in 1989. By 1995, the company had grown from $50 million in sales to over $3 billion in a decade. Reebok’s 1993 sales of $2.9 billion placed it second behind $4.4-billion Nike, Inc. The nearly $1 billion increase in sales from 1989 to 1993 indicates Reebok’s success in gaining market share. Paul Fireman, president and CEO of Reebok Paul Fireman founded Reebok in 1979 and remains the largest shareholder. From 1986 to 1990, Fireman was one of the ten highest paid executives in the United States. Under his control, Reebok sales grew from $1.5 million in 1980 to $1.4 billion in 1987. In 1988, Fire- man relinquished the CEO role to spend time working on other projects, including develop- ing golf courses in Puerto Rico and Cape Cod. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Reebok suffered from two weak marketing campaigns (“Reeboks Let U.B.U.” and “Physics behind the Physique”). More importantly, the aerobics fitness craze began to subside. Women aero- bics shoes were a major component of Reebok sales, so the sales decline hit them especially hard. In 1992, Fireman returned as CEO. Tom Trainer, CIO Tom Trainer joined Reebok in 1991 as the chief information officer (CIO). He noted that his role “is to enable the kid in Reebok to stay fresh and creative while also allowing the grown- up corporation to compete in global markets” [Pulliam and Pereira 1995]. To accomplish these objectives, Trainer implemented videoconferencing, computer-aided design, the In- ternet, and laptops for the sales force. The goal was to improve communications among em- ployees, faster development of products, and more effective sales presentations. Before Trainer joined Reebok in 1991 as vice-president of information systems, the information systems area was less than up-to-date, with no global information system or way to look at data. Communications, primarily by telephone and fax, between the manu- facturing partners and worldwide distribution network were slow. Turnaround on new products was equally slow. This was a critical problem because Reebok is a fashion-oriented business with three product cycles a year in footwear and five in apparel. While sales repre- sentatives from Nike were walking in with laptops to display their lines, reps from Reebok were walking into offices with bags of shoes. Trainer’s early days were spent accomplishing short-term projects that got him points with the board of directors. He fired six of eight senior staff. He kept 85 percent of the old programming staff, retraining many of them. In addition to his IS responsibilities, Trainer drove the re-engineering process in the company. To do so, he spent a great deal of time on the road, building relationships with Reebok executives around the world. He also studied Sony Corporation to learn ways that it meets customer needs. To accomplish his re-engineering, Trainer formed five megaprocesses that streamlined procedures for production, sales and marketing, research and development, adminis- tration, finance, and distribution. In 1992, he presented a four-year, $75- million strategic information systems plan to Reebok’s executive committee. The board approved it on the condition that it give Reebok strategic advantage. To improve its communications, Reebok installed a privately designed architecture for voice, video, and data. Reebok communicates not only with its worldwide distribution base but also with its ad agency and other suppliers. IT currently developed an electronic image library to enable product shots to be distributed to every country where Reebok does business. The system dropped the new product lead time from six months to three, and, in some cases, 30 days. Before the new ordering system was installed, orders were first printed out locally and faxed to the international headquarters in London. London would take all of the faxes and send them to the United States to be entered in the mainframe. Different standards for shoe sizes from different countries added to the delay. Once the information was entered in the mainframe, production and manufacturing would evaluate the orders. To improve this process, Trainer developed a software package called Passport. Passport rationalizes product codes and shoe sizes. It also gives small distributors and sub- sidiaries access to the system through personal computers. It can also function as a module by plugging into larger systems. Laptops were also given to the entire Reebok sales force. When orders were paper based, replacing material in a shoe to change its price from $95 to $65 might take 30 days and mean a lost sale. With the new system, these changes could be made almost automati- cally. Salespeople are able to check inventory and look into special orders. They can also access two years’ catalogs with full motion video and sound clips of Reebok’s advertise- ments. Lotus Notes is used to store the catalogs with mail links through cc:Mail. Another Reebok initiative is to use electronic data interchange with 10-15 percent of its retailers. This commitment enables goods to be tracked through shipping companies, customs, and warehouses. Hoover, a data capture system to “suck in” information from da- tabases around the world, is linked to customer databases that track what customers have ordered and what they want. Reebok experienced some problems implementing the new systems. Particularly difficult was the effort to integrate the Canadian operations into the U.S. business operation. Concentrating development and support in the United States did not take into account the specifics of invoicing under the Canadian law. This mistake added time and resources that had not been budgeted to the project. Reebok early 1990s In the early 1990s, facing continuing declines in the aerobics’ market, Fireman changed the focus and tried to expand into other areas. To a large extent, Nike was killing the competi- tion—largely by focusing on star athletes and spending more than 10 percent of its revenue on marketing. In the early 1990s, Fireman knew that he would have to compete directly in the sporting world [www.reebok.com]. His basketball market strategy copied a page from Nike, and relied on the new “Shaq Attaq” line supported by Shaquille O’Neal from the Or- lando Magic. While sales did increase, they did not reach the 25 percent levels predicted by Mr. Fireman—reaching only 20 percent market share. Additionally, Fireman estimated in 1993 that the outdoor-wear division would sell $350 million worth of shoes in 1995. Outdoor sales fell far short of the goal, reaching about $110 million. More importantly, expenses skyrocketed, increasing from 23.6 percent of sales in 1991 to 32.7 percent in June 1995. Experts say shoe company expenses typically average about 27 percent of sales. Investors blamed most of the increase on the cost of endorse- ments. Nike Late 1990s At the same time that Reebok was suffering, Nike reported a 55 percent jump in firstquarter 1995 earnings, with revenue increasing by 38 percent. Part of the increase was from expanded international sales, with a 34 percent increase in orders from France and Germany. Sales in Japan increased by 65 percent. Nike also expanded sales of tennis shoes, partly through endorsements from tennis stars Andre Agassi and Pete Sampras. In the first quarter of 1995, revenue from tennis shoes increased by 92 percent with a 42 percent in- crease in orders. At the same time sales were increasing, Nike managed to decrease its expense ratio. Selling and administrative costs dropped to 22.3 percent of revenue from 25 percent in the prior year. Much of the improvement came from an improved distribution system, including a new warehouse in Belgium that consolidated operations from 30 different facilities in Eu- rope. Beginning in the late 1990s, the footwear industry lost its luster. However, Nike revenue increased from $3.4 billion in 1998 to $9.0 billion in 2000 to $9.5 billion in 2001, to over $10 billion in 2003 [annual report]. In 2001, Nike installed a customized retail supply chain system from i2 Technologies, Inc. The implementation, including ties to other ERP systems, did not go well, and Nike faced a serious inventory reduction and misplacement. Nike management was disappointed in the problems, and Nike chairman questioned: “This is what we get for $400 million?” Reebok Late 1990s In 1990, Nike surpassed Reebok in footwear sales. In the year ending in August 1995, Nike had $4.7 billion in sales compared to Reebok’s $3.37 billion. One of the largest battle- grounds was the retail Foot Locker stores owned by Woolworth Corp. The 2,800 retail stores sell 23 percent of U.S. sport shoes, representing $1.5 billion of the $6.5 billion U.S. market for athletic shoes. Sales at Foot Locker stores account for almost 60 percent of the 1$ billion U.S. sales gap between Reebok and Nike. Insiders note that the problems between Reebok and Foot Locker go back to the days when Reebok shoes were selling rapidly. Foot Locker wanted concessions on price and wanted Reebok to make some styles exclusively for them. Reebok was busy selling to other outlets and was unwilling or unable to alter its production and distribution systems. Nike was eager to build custom products for Foot Locker and offered a dozen products exclusively at the chain. Ex-employees at Reebok note that the company had additional problems providing samples and design plans to Foot Locker, claiming that “Sometimes the samples would come in late and sometimes not at all—which got Foot Locker mad. . . . Sometimes, fashions last less than six weeks; if you don’t get it in right then, there goes a major sale.” Mr. Fireman responded by trying to improve relations with Foot Locker. He also offered to begin building exclusive styles for Foot Locker, but the introduction of the products was uncertain. He also noted that Reebok was working hard to cut costs and improve its order and information tracking system. One problem that remained was that the clerks at Foot Locker stores tended to push the Nike brands harder. By September of 1995, major shareholders were getting upset with Reebok management. One of the leading outsider shareholders, Glenn Greenberg of Chieftain Capital Management, noted that “The major shareholders have no confidence in the management of this company. If it was up to us, they would have changed horses or sold the company a long time ago.” Reebok and The Internet Like other shoe manufacturers, Reebok relies heavily on celebrity endorsements. Signing Alan Iverson (NBA rookie of the year in 1996) and Venus Williams (tennis sensation) gave Reebok greater visibility in 2000. In 2000, Reebok also increased its visibility by sponsoring the Survivor television show with humorous ads. Their Web site followed these themes. In 1997, Reebok installed Radnet Inc.’s WebShare groupware system to maintain its Web site. The system has tools for e-mail, discussion groups, and bulletin boards. The goal was to add interactivity to the site and build a community of users. Marvin Chow, Reebok’s director of interactive marketing noted that “If you just try and use the Web to sell them products, something is missing” [Cole-Gomolski 1998]. More importantly, the system makes it easy for Reebok’s managers to add content. They can add data and pass it to salespeople and re- tailers automatically using a workflow engine. The company used QuickTime from Apple to create CDs for its salespeople. Using Macromedia on its Internet site, the company was able to update pricing, styles, and even new photos and displays on the fly. The data was downloaded directly to the sales laptops [Dillon 1998]. Interestingly, the Web site is largely independent from the IT department. Roger Wood, vice president of electronic commerce at Reebok reports directly to the CEO and con- trols his own technology budget. He observes that “I am able to take down and build up fea- tures (of the Web site) without some IT overlord telling me what is good or bad” [Cole- Gomolski 1999]. In 2000, Reebok stopped selling shoes direct from its Web site. It was concerned about competing with the traditional retail outlets. So now the site focuses on image, tech- nical information about products, and then directs consumers to the retail partners. Enterprise Systems From SAP Facing weak sales, Reebok began focusing on reducing costs in the late 1990s. Net sales dropped from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $2.9 bil- lion in 1999 to about $2.8 billion in 2000. Worse yet, from 1999 to 2000, gross margin declined from 38.5 percent to 37.9 percent. Income (Million $) Year 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Revenue 3,485 3,128 2,993 2,865 2,900 Net Income 157 126 102 81 11 In 1995, Trainer went to Eli Lilly [Information Week 1995]. The company ultimately replaced him with Peter Burrows as chief technology officer (CTO). Burrows knew that he needed to replace the aging, custom software that was being used to run the company. The problem was that nothing existed. In late 1995, he sent a dozen Reebok workers to an SAP R/3 course—the goal was to show SAP that its system could not handle the complex details of the apparel industry. Most products are created by hundreds of contract suppliers, gen- erally in Southeast Asia. Product designs change constantly, and the company has to coor- dinate shipments to thousands of customers. Ultimately, Burrows convinced SAP to develop a custom add-on system called the Apparel Footware Solution (AFS) module. To convince the company to spend the money, VF Corp., the company that makes Lee and Wrangler jeans, also signed on to the project. The two companies helped design the specifications for the new software. The project was far more complex than SAP anticipated, and the initial version was three months late. Leroy Allen, the CIO at VF commented that “I think SAP underestimated the amount of change that had to be made to standard R/3” [Steadman January 1999]. Burrows was counting on the system to handle the major transactions at Reebok, so he could avoid the necessity of rewriting the old applications to become Y2K compliant. By May, 1999, the system was still not fully operational. Among other problems and bugs, the system was too slow to check product inventories and raw material stocks when retailers and distributors placed orders. Burrows noted that “We’re not out of the woods, but SAP is responding. It’s not something we’re taking lightly, and neither are they” [Steadman May 1999]. In the meantime, another 60 apparel and footwear makers had purchased the sys- tem by early 1999. By 2000, Reebok was running the system in only a couple of divisions, such as golf shoes. The company deferred implementation of the full system until at least mid- 2001. Burrows noted that he was waiting for additional functionality scheduled for Release 2.5 [Steadman 2000]. Despite the problems in getting the software developed, apparel manu- facturers had few other choices. By 2001, Reebok had 115 retail stores running the AFS system. Burrows was pleased with the ability of the system to maintain accurate inventory records for the stores [Mearian and Songini 2001]. In January 2002, SAP shipped Release 3.0 of AFS. With the bug fixes and new features, Reebok continued to rollout the system in its divisions. Burrows planned to gradually implement Release 3.0 over a few years. Burrows continues to push for new features such as a Web-based system to handle business-to-business transactions with suppliers. In 2002, competitor Nike completed rolling out AFS 2.5 to its 5,000 end users [Songini 2002]. Competition and the Future There is no question that the shoe industry is competitive. There is also no question that it is still dominated by Nike. Yet, Reebok has made gains in the mid-2000s. The retro-trend bolstered sales for Reebok when it re-released older models. (It also convinced Nike to buy Converse.) Competition to sign new stars is also intense. Most observers believe Alan Iver- son has significantly boosted Reebok sales. In 2004, Reebok struck a huge note in the inter- national market by signing Yao Ming to market a line of shoes in China. Reebok will also market a line of Yao Ming shoes in the United States [Marcial 2004]. Somewhat surprisingly, Reebok did well in 2003 selling a line of shoes endorsed by Rap stars (Jay-Z and 50 Cent). The shoes were also popular in England [Thomaselli 2004]. On the other hand, Reebok’s 2003 sales gain was also attributed to the feud between Nike and Foot Locker. In 2002, Nike pulled its top products from Foot Locker—trying to negotiate better prices. In November 2003, the companies resolved their problems and Foot Locker again began carrying more Nike shoes. Foot Locker’s clout grew even more in 2004 when it purchased 353 Footaction stores from bankruptcy [Cassidy 2004]. Although Nike is still the strongest seller in the U.S. market, it has struggled to find a management team. In 2006, William D. Perez stepped down after only 13 months as CEO. Reportedly, Perez often clashed with Nike co-founder Philip Knight. Knight promoted Mark G. Parker to the CEO position. The change reminded observers of the situation in 2000 when Mr. Knight returned to the CEO position to replace Tom Clarke as sales fell from 1994 to 2000 [Lublin and Kang 2006]. Adidas In 2005, Adidas-Salomon AG in Germany agreed to purchase Reebok for $3.8 billion. The price represented a 34 percent premium over the existing stock valuation. The sale was closed in 2006. Adidas, a pioneer in the shoe and sporting-goods industries had been strug- gling in the U.S. trying to find a way to compete with Nike. Adidas was largely considered the engineering leader and produced some of the technically best shoes on the market—but it lacked the marketing flash appeal of Nike. For example, the company introduced a $250 running shoe containing a sensor and small motor that enabled it to adjust the tension and support based on the terrain. Shortly after the acquisition was closed in 2006, Paul Fire- man left Reebok [Reebok Web site]. A key element in the decision was Reebok’s appeal in the urban market—due to its embrace of 50 Cent and Jay-Z rappers. Herbert Hainer, CEO of Adidas noted that “we will expand our geographic reach, particularly in North America, and create a footwear, apparel and hardware offering that addresses a broader spectrum of consumers and demographics.” The global market for athletic shoes is about $33 billion and about half of that total comes from America. In 2004 combined, Reebok and Adidas had about 20 percent of the U.S. mar- ket compared to Nike’s 35 percent [Karnitschnig and Kang 2005]. Adidas was formed by Adi Dassler after World War II. It gained attention by creating soccer cleats that helped Germany win the 1954 World Cup

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The Legend of Lake Toba A Folklore from Medan North Sumatra, Indonesia Once upon a time, there was a young man named Toba. He lived alone and had no wife. He decided being single and didn’t get married, although his age was mature enough to a family. He had a narrow farm and a small hut not far from a lake. If the day was getting dark, he would go to the lake for fishing. He liked fishing and he could do this activity until night has come. One day, after worked on his small farm, he decided to go fishing. He wanted to look for some fish for his dinner. He waited for a long time, but his hook didn’t catch any fish. He waited and waited patiently. Suddenly, his fish bait made some movement. He was sure he would get a fish for his dinner. And that was true, a pretty big fish stuck on his bait. He took the fish and then put it on a fish basket. Then, he went home. He was so happy to get a fish for his dinner. He imagined that his dinner tonight would be nice because the fish was pretty big and fresh. Arriving at home, he put his fish basket beside the fire place. And then, he set fire of the fire place. But, he realized that he forgot to look for some woods for his fire place. Without the woods, of course he couldn’t cook the fish for his dinner. He went out to look for some woods. He left the fish in the kitchen. He didn’t worry about the fish because he was sure that the fish was safe in the place. After getting some woods, he went back home, but, he was to surprised as the fish basket was empty. The fish was gone, he just found some scales which in the form of gold pieces. Toba was confused. He convinced himself that the gold pieces he hold was the scales of the fish he caught this afternoon. He stepped to his room. But, again he was shocked as he saw a beautiful girl with long hair in his room. The girl sat in toba’s bed. Toba didn’t make any movement. He was so shock and wondered who the girl was. Suddenly the girl turn her head and looked at toba. Toba was so amazed with the girl’s beauty. He looked at the girl and admired her beauty. For some moments, they looked each other. Was that a possibility that this beautiful girl is an angel? toba thought. Toba was so speechless and couldn’t say anything. For breaking the ice, the girl said something. She approached toba and said. “Hi, toba. It was getting dark, could you turn on the lamp” the girl asked. “Ooo… hhhiii… Alright, I will turn the lamp on,” Toba said, his body was trmebled because of fear. “Don’t be afraid, Toba. I will not hurt you,” said the girl. “But, who are you ? are you kind of genie or something ?” The girl smiled and said. “I am the incarnation of the fish you caught this afternoon,” the girl answered. “Really, Oh.. God. Is that true?” toba was so surprised. “Yes, but you don’t have to be afraid. I will help you to do some house hold activity. I will cook for you and prepare your daily meal, ” the girl offered. Toba was so happy to hear that. “By the way, the gold pieces is my scales,” the girl said. “Ooo.. well.. that’s why I didn’t found my fish in the basket,” toba said. And then the girl went to the kitchen and cooked dinner for toba. Everyday toba was accompanied by the girl. Toba was happy for that. Until one day, he asked the girl to get married. But, the girl gave a requiretmen. “I am agree to be your wife, but don’t ever tell my secret, my condition that I was a fish,” said the girl. Toba agreed the girl’s requiretmen. And then they got married. Toba was happy to have such a beautiful wife. They lived happily because they loved each other. Years gone by. Toba’s wife was pregnant and then not so long after that she gave birth. Toba was so happy. The baby was a boy. Named Samosir. They took care their only child. They showered the boy with love. It seemed that they were happy family. 7 years later The mother spoiled the boy too much. No wonder, samosir became spoiled child. He didn’t want to help his father to work on farm. He only stayed at home doing nothing. He was a very lazy boy. One day the mother asked samosir to bring lunch for his father who worked in a farm. Usually the mother did his job. But, because she was very busy, she didn’t have time to bring the lunch for his husband. “Samosir my dear, please take this lunch for your father in the farm. He must be very hungry now. I can’t bring it for him, there is something else I want to do!” asked the mother. “No, I can’t!” samosir refused. “Why, don’t you want ho help me?” asked the mother. “I want to play with my frieds, mother!” said samosir. Mother was angry to hear this. She was so upset and threatened samosir if he didn’t do what she’s asked. She wouldn’t give samosir lunch. Because of his mother’s anger, he felt forced to do what his mother’s request. “All right, mom. I will bring it to my father,” samosir said. Samosir went to his father’s farm. But he grumbled continuosly as she wanted to play with his friends. On the way to his father’s farm, he ate the lunch little by little. He felt hungry, too. Because of this, there’s just a little lunch left. Meanwhile, the day was getting hot. Toba decided to rest under the tree. He felt thirsty and hungry. He asked himself why his wife didn’t bring lunch for him. Waiting in a hungry was such a terrible thing for Toba. He got angry that time. Finally he saw somebody in a distance. He hoped the somebody was his wife who brought lunch for him. But, he was surprised to see samosir, his son, who came to the farm. “What do you do here, my son. Where is your mother? Why she didn’t bring my lunch?” Toba said angrily. “Mother is busy to do other things. So, she asked me to bring this lunch for you” said Samosir while gave the lunch to his father. Toba took the lunch quickly as he couldn’t bear his hunger anymore. But, when he saw the lunch box, he was surprised. The lunch was no more left. “What? Where is the lunch ? Why this box is empty ?” Toba said angrily. “I am sorry, father. On the way here, I ate your lunch little by little. I am so hungry.” Samosir answered with anxiety. “You’re really a bad boy. Why are you doing this ? I am really hungry, you know ? ” Toba snapped at Samosir. “I am sorry, dad. I am really sorry for that!” Samosir said apologize. “You are rebellious child. You are lazy, useless!!!” Toba got angry. He felt really upset whit his son. And, suddenly he said something rude that actually was forbidden. “Your manner is like a little animal. It is because your mother spoiled you. You are so naughty. Well, it is because your mother is a fish. So you are like her. Go away from here” Toba didn’t realize that what he said was so rude. He was forbidden to tell about Samosir’s mother’s origin. Samosir was so sad to hear what his father’s said. He was badly hurt. He cried continuosly. His mother asked why Samosir cried. Samosir said that his father was angry to him. It’s because he ate his father’s lunch. Samosir also told what his father had said to him. “Father said that I was a little animal because I didn’t obey his advice and he also said that mother is a fish.” Samosir said this to his mother. “What ??? How excessive he is! He was not supposed to tell that to you. You are his son. I will tell him.” The beautiful girl was so angry. “Why he’s so rude to his own child. He promised that he wouldn’t tell my origin. Why he did this to me.” The beautiful girl said sadly. “Calm down, Samosir. Don’t cry anymore. Now, all you have to do is climb the highest tree and stay there. There will be a huge flood and this velley will be sink and disappear. There will be great disaster here,” the beautiful girl said. “Really, mother ! How do you know ?” Samosir asked. “Well, you must obey my advice without complaining ” the beautiful girl told his son. After that, Samosir went away and climbed the highest tree in the village. He stayed there, obeyed his mother’s instruction. He still didn’t know why his mother told him to do this. He just waited what happened next. The beautiful girl was really sad. He thought that Toba didn’t love her anymore. Toba was changed. He broke his promise to her. So, the girl thought there was no use she lived. She decided to do suicide by jumping to a lake. Suddenly, the sky was getting dark upon the valley. Not so long after that, the rain poured the earth. It was a huge rain. The thunder and the lightning were so scary. The rain was so heavy and make a huge flood. The valley was like a sea. Just as the girl said, there was a great disaster in that village. Meanwhile, Toba, who was still in his farm shocked with this disaster. He couldn’t save himself. He was drown by the flood and finally died. And, the spoiled child, Samosir, although he climbed the highest tree, he still couldn’t save himself from this great disaster. He died as his parents. His body was floating. And then baceme small island which now was called Samosir Island. And, the village was sink and became a huge lake. This lake was named as Toba’s name, that is Lake Toba.

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A Priority Rating System for Public Health Programs DOUGLAS VILNIUS, MS, MPA SUZANNE DANDOY, MD, MPH The authors are with the Utah Department of Health. Mr. Vilnius is Director, Division of Community Health Services, and Dr. Dandoy is Executive Director of the Department. She is also Adjunct Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah. The authors are indebted to George E. Pickett, MD, MPH, Univer-sity of Michigan, who initially developed the Basic Priority Rating (BPR), and Denise Basse, Utah Department of Health, who suggested the application and adaptation of the model. Tearsheet requests to Douglas Vilnius, Division of Community Health Services, Utah Department of Health, P.O. 16660, Salt Lake City, Utah 84116-0660. Synopsis ..................................... When resources are limited, decisions must be made regarding which public health activities to undertake. A priority rating system, which incorporates various data sources, can be used to quantify disease problems or risk factors, or both. The model described in this paper ranks public health issues according to size, urgency, severity of the problem, economic loss, impact on others, effective-ness, propriety, economics, acceptability, legality of solutions, and availability of resources. As examples of how one State can use the model, rankings have been applied to the following health issues: acquired immu-nodeficiency syndrome, coronary heart disease, injuries from motor vehicle accidents, and cigarette smoking as a risk factor. In this exercise, smoking is the issue with the highest overall priority rating. The model is sensitive to the precision of the data used to develop the rankings and works best for health issues that are not undergoing rapid change. Cost-ben-efit and cost-effectiveness analyses can be incorporated into the model or used independently in the priority-set-ting process. Ideally, the model is used in a group set-ting with six to eight decision makers who represent the primary agency as well as external organizations. Using this method, health agencies, program directors, or community groups can identify the most critical issues or problems requiring intervention programs. PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCIES, like all governmental services, never have adequate resources to address the needs of all constituents. Over time, the resource pen-dulum may swing, but most who pursue public health funding through the political process would agree that major distinctions between the good and bad times are based on relative degrees of "lean," "leaner," or "devastating.'" Such is the environment in which scarce public resources must be competed for among vast and growing social needs. The competition for resources mandates that public health decision makers seek methods and apply skills that produce efficient and effective outcomes. State leg-islators, local boards of health, city and county com-missioners, and taxpayers occasionally demand and certainly deserve public health programs and services which maximize cost-effective and cost-beneficial pub-lic health outcomes. What methods and tools are avail-able to public health administrators and managers that enable them not only to do things right but, even more important, to do the right things? There seems to be reasonable consensus within the public health community that prolonging productive life is a societal value that has been adopted as part of the public health mission. The reduction of pain and suffer-ing is another generally accepted goal of public health. However, further clarification of the mission and goals may become clouded by politics, ethics, economics, and public opinion. Life satisfaction, quality of care, confidentiality, access to care, blaming the victim, the right to die, and cost containment are issues tied to societal values that affect health decision making in the 1990s. What, if any, effect do these issues have on public health's mission, and how are their implications translated into information upon which decisions and priorities can be based? A Decision Making Model There is no "one best way" to set public health pri-orities. What is essential, however, is that a process or method be adopted that is systematic, objective, and allows for a standardized comparison of problems or alternatives that incorporate the scrutiny of science and the realities of the environment. One approach to this challenge is a methodology which attempts to consoli-Soptomber-October 1990, Vol. 105 No. 5 463 Table 1. Problem size ratings for selected health problems on a scale of 1-10 Incidencelprevalence Mortality Problem Rate, Scale Rate' Scale BPR score AIDS .......... 11.2 2 3.9 0 1 CHD .......... 3,058 6 313.4 4 5 MVI .......... 176 4 18.0 2 3 Smoking ....... 10,006 8 44.1 2 5 I per 100,000 population. NOTE: AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CHD = coronary heart dis-ease; MVI = motor vehicle injury requiring hospitalization. date these factors into a process having a quantifiable outcome. That model, Basic Priority Rating (BPR), (1, 2) applies a defined problem or issue to a set of cri-teria that rate the size and seriousness of the problem, the effectiveness of potential interventions, and a reality test of miscellaneous items. The resulting process pro-duces a quantifiable value for each problem being ana-lyzed, thus providing a basis for priority setting. The BPR formula is as follows: [(A+B) C]÷3xD = BPR where A equals the size of the problem, B the serious-ness of the problem; C the effectiveness of intervention, and D equals propriety, economics, acceptability, and legality, known as "P.E.A.R.L." We shall now describe the model and its use with specific examples. Defining the problem. Decision makers who engage in problem solving can conserve considerable energy by constructing clear statements of problems. Many frus-trating hours and lost opportunities have resulted from an imprecise definition of a problem. Is the problem a dysentery outbreak or a contaminated water supply? Is the problem that people are dying from heart failure at an old age or prematurely, or is the problem better defined by lifestyle practices that lead to heart disease? A clear statement of the problem will not only provide a consensus for direction among those engaged in the pri-ority-setting process, but it will also establish a basis for concise objective setting if, and when, the problem is identified as a priority for which planning, interven-tion, and evaluation are necessary. If the link between risk factors, health status condi-tions, and mortality is recognized, each risk factor or each cause of illness may be considered as a problem. Four potential problems-the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), motor vehicle injuries requiring hospitalization (MVI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and cigarette smoking (smoking)-will be analyzed to illustrate the application of BPR. The nature of priority setting and decision making often involves choices among a variety of conditions requir-ing a public health response, thus further complicating the decision making process. Consequently, care should be taken to arrange problems by category, such as dis-ease and accidents, risk factors, and target populations, before the analysis begins. In our example, we will, for illustration only, be comparing three direct causes of morbidity and mortality (AIDS, MVI, and CHD) and one risk factor (smoking), using both national and Utah data. Size of the problem. The size of a health problem is most often represented by incidence or prevalence rates in 100,000 population segments. These rates are spe-cific to disease and nondisease conditions, such as 176 motor vehicle injuries per 100,000; 10,006 cigarette smokers per 100,000; 11.2 AIDS cases per 100,000; 3,058 heart disease cases per 100,000. Disease specific morbidity data are often difficult to obtain compared with the relative ease of acquiring cause of death information. Most information on dis-ease incidence emanates from hospitals and physicians as a record of treatment and payment. Few States have a morbidity registry that provides a centralized source for disease and injury data, unless the diseases are con-sidered communicable. Therefore, finding reliable data to compare relative problem incidence-prevalence may prove to be a difficult task. Lifestyle risk factor data, on the other hand, are being collected on a regular basis by the majority of States through the Behavioral Risk Fac-tor Survey (3). Mortality rates may also be applied to the process of rating the problem size and, like the incidence and prevalence rates, are presented per 100,000 population, for example, 313.4 CHD deaths per 100,000. These data are easily obtained from State health department offices of vital records and traditionally play a major role in determining public health priorities. The BPR model suggests the following scale for scoring relative rate ranges: Incidence or prevalence per 100,000 population Score (1) 50,000 or more ............... 10 5,000 to 49,999 ............... 8 500 to 4,999 ............... 6 SOto 499 ............... 4 S to 49 ............... 2 0.5 to 4.9 ............... 0 Depending on the magnitude of problems being consid-ered, the scale may require adjustment to compensate for lower incidence or prevalence rates. In table 1 we apply this rating scale to the four prob-lem conditions being analyzed. Smoking and CHD war-rant the highest ratings for problem size, while AIDS scores the lowest. 464 Public Halth Reports Seriousness of the problem. A health problem's seriousness is defined by four factors in the BPR model: (a) urgency, (b) severity, (c) economic loss, and (d) impact on others. Each factor should be evaluated on a per case basis only. Readily identifiable and acces-sible data sources are not available for ranking problem seriousness. The analysis of each seriousness factor will require a considerable degree of investigation in order to obtain quantifiable data. Some factors related to the problem under consideration may require literature searches, while other factors may require the decision making group's best guess. As each seriousness factor is applied, it is important to keep its analyses independent of the other factors, both within the seriousness category as well as the other categories. For example, when assessing the severity of AIDS, the analysis should be undertaken without regard for the size or economic loss of the AIDS problem . This principle of independent assessment within criteria and factor should be applied throughout the process. Each of the four problems is rated according to the four factors that define seriousness in the model. 1. Urgency. Some problems require a rapid response in order to prevent the spread of the problem or death as, for example, in a spill of radioactive waste, con-taminated food, or a rabies outbreak. In BPR we use a 0-5 scale for each factor within the seriousness cate-gory. Since there is no clearly defined data source for these ratings, one must rely on a combination of scien-tific knowledge and public opinion. The four problem areas under consideration and their relative urgency rat-ings, using a scale of 0-5, are: Problem Rating AIDS .... 3 CHD ....1 MVI .....2 Smoking ..... 0 AIDS receives the highest urgency rating, while smok-ing rates lowest of the four problems. 2. Severity. Severity is a major factor which fre-quently drives public health programs. Hence, the severity of a disease, injury, outcome, or event is often the key to health program decision making. AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diarrhea from Salmonella, measles, spinal cord injuries, and low birth weight babies present varying levels of severity. How should one rate these conditions on a scale ranging from 1 to 5? What factors determine severity? Certainly the case fatality rate (CFR), which measures the proportion of those with a disease who die from it, would be the ulti-Table 2. Problem severity ratings by averaging case fatality rate (CFR) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) for selected health problems, on a scale of 0-5 Total average Problem CFR Rating YPLL per case Rating ratbng AIDS ....... 1.00 5 35.0 5 5 CHD ....... .06 3 13.3 3 3 MVI ....... . 10 3 43.7 5 4 Smoking ... . .004 1 1.9 0 0.5 NOTE: AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CHD = coronary heart dis-ease; MVI = motor vehicle injury requiring hospitalization. mate measure of severity. Rabies, for instance, has a CFR of 100 percent. An additional severity index important to priority-set-ting is based on deaths which are deemed premature, that is, before age 65. Premature mortality is repre-sented by years of potential life lost (YPLL) for persons dying before age 65 within a specific disease category (4). Hence, motor vehicle fatalities generate more years of potential life lost per case than heart disease because motor vehicle deaths generally occur at younger ages. For the purpose of severity assessment, consideration of YPLL should be limited to its face value and not include aspects of economics related to productivity, a subject to be addressed at another juncture in BPR. In addition to CFR and YPLL, there are certain "'conditions" or "states of being" which warrant severity consideration because they affect the quality of life. Arthritis, blindness, and spinal cord injury would be examples of such conditions. Because hard data to measure the severity of a disability or condition are fre-quently nonexistent, the information and experience of the decision making group and their personal assess-ments of the problem often determine the ranking of this factor. Risk factors may also be considered legitimate meas-ures of severity. Considering the fact that the risk of dying from lung -cancer is 23 times greater for males who smoke 40 cigarettes per day than for male non-smokers (5), does cigarette smoking warrant a severity rating? Is its rating higher because smoking is also asso-ciated with other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, and vascular disease? How should one rate smoking versus unsafe sex versus sedentary life-style? Because quality of life conditions and risk factors are difficult to quantify with respect to seriousness, we have limited our severity ratings to CFR and YPLL (table 2). Thus, AIDS is the most severe problem and smoking the least severe. A decision making group may choose to weight these subfactors differently. Note that the scale considered for September-October 1990, Vol. 105 No. 5 465 each subfactor can greatly influence the outcome of the ratings. Should AIDS, with a CFR nearly six times that of CHD, proportionally establish the subfactor scale, thus relegating all other problems proportional to AIDS and resulting in CHD perhaps receiving a score of 0 or 1? The application of a scale with a range based more on a pre-determined standard, versus relative com-parisons, as indicated previously, is another option. There is no hard and fast rule as to what procedure to follow. If the relative scale is used, it is possible to achieve a total score for seriousness of 20 points. If the problem size score warranted a 10, a seriousness score of 20 implies that seriousness warrants twice the weight of problem size, which may or may not be valid. 3. Economic costs. The economic aspects of a prob-lem should include the costs of medical expenses, pub-lic services, and prevention programs to the community, to the person or the family or all three. Although these costs can, and later will, be applied to the aggregate problem as identified in problem size, at this point the costs should be addressed on an individual case basis. There is no one central source for average case costs, although some publications provide cost information that could be used in the absence of State or local data (6-8). If at all possible, costs should be adjusted to a given year's dollar value if cost data are based on dif-ferent years for different problems. Both direct and indirect costs, if available, should be applied. Cost estimates by case for each study problem, using a scale of 0-5, would be Problem AIDS................ CHD ................ MVI................. Smoking ............. Case cost per year $50,151 8,700 45,500 643 Rating 5 2 5 Again, the decision to use a standard versus a relative scale arises. Based on the cost information considered, AIDS and MVI warrant the highest rating and smoking the lowest. 4. Impact on others. A basic principle upon which public health was established is that society has legiti-mate concern over individual actions or conditions that may affect many. Communicable disease control remains an important agenda for public health today, but the concept of effect on others has been expanded to include water and air pollution, toxic waste spills, pas-sive smoking, and alcohol use by pregnant women. Economic loss and the cost to society also may be considered as impacts on others, even when the out-come of one person's disease or behavior may not directly affect others. Legislation mandating use of seat belts and motorcycle helmets has been passed partially because of high insurance rates and increased Medicaid costs for injuries. The BPR attempts to capture the effect of health problems on other persons in a quantifiable manner. The decision maker is asked to consider the problem's potential and its actual effect on others, as in the case, for example, of the effect of suicide on a family, or the transmission of AIDS, or drinking while driving. Data for this category may be found in a variety of sources, based on probability of infection per exposure, such as, for example, measles exposure in an 80-per-cent immunized school population; the probability of contracting lung cancer over time as a result of exposure to cigarette smoke; or the probability of spouse abuse in a given population of alcoholic men. These data are not easily linked, however, in the midst of a variety of public health problems and may require considerable interpretation and assumption. Once again, the process requires consideration of the problem on a case basis. The preferred scale is 0-5, but the decision maker may chose a standard or relative scale. The fol-lowing ratings, using a scale of 0-5, indicate that AIDS has the greatest impact on others, while CHD has the least impact. Problem Rating AIDS .... 5 CHD ....1 MVI .....3 Smoking .....2 Summary of seriousness criteria. The ratings of each of the four factors comprising the seriousness category are totalled in table 3. Based on the factors considered in the process, AIDS is rated most serious, followed by motor vehicle injuries, coronary heart disease, and smoking. Effectiveness of interventions. Some public health 466 Public Halth Reports problems seem more easily resolved than others, such as, for example, measles versus AIDS, or smoking versus obesity. The difficulty of educating intravenous drug users, combined with the lack of a vaccine or curative drugs, places AIDS in a less favorable inter-vention position than dental cavities, for instance. An effective intervention, like measles vaccine, may not eliminate a local disease outbreak if less than 80 percent of the targeted child population receive the vaccine. A proven worksite blood pressure control program may be poorly attended if the workers have confidentiality con-cerns. Thus, the BPR model recognizes effectiveness of intervention at two levels: (a) the overall success of the method to be employed and (b) the degree to which the targeted population will respond. Locating information concerning effectiveness of programs and receptivity of a target audience requires an extensive literature search. Occasionally, reports or journals present research summaries for select pro-grams, such as school health (9), smoking cessation (5), or worksite health promotion (10). The pursuit of infor

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Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Abstract This article examines the different circumstances under which infant and adult learners develop speaking skills. We will see the facilities or difficulties in both cases in order to focus on the real possibilities of adults to develop a high level of speaking proficiency. We will see what the role of the teacher is in order to improve the learners’ skills, the features of oral communication that need to be improved and which strategies can be used to overcome the difficulties. Key words : speaking skills, adult learning, oral communication, teaching strategies. Resumen Este artículo analiza las diferentes circunstancias en las que niños y adultos desarrollan las destrezas orales. Veremos las facilidades y dificultades en ambos casos para así centrarnos en las posibilidades reales que tienen los adultos de alcanzar un alto nivel de competencia oral. Veremos también cual es el papel del profesor en este contexto, para mejorar las capacidades de los alumnos, y ver cuáles son los elementos de la comunicación oral que hay que mejorar y qué estrategias se pueden aplicar para superar las dificultades. Palabras clave : destrezas orales, aprendizaje de adultos, comunicación verbal, estrategias de enseñanza. If we think of the period in our lives when we learned to speak our first language, and the moment in which we started to make huge efforts to speak our second/foreign language we find significant differences. In the former case, we may have fond memories of what our parents told us; and in the latter, it suddenly becomes a frustrating experience that seems to bring imperfect results. For adults, learning to speak a new language is in many cases far from satisfactory simply because they feel they need to cope with many different aspects at one time, and that seems to be impossible in real conversations. I wonder if it is possible to acquire a high level of speaking proficiency in adults; I wonder if it is possible to make adult learners improve their speaking skills, and the most important thing for teachers: how? The first question we have to consider in order to reach a conclusion is whether learning at infancy is different from learning at adulthood; which are the circumstances that differentiate them and if those conditions inevitably lead to obvious and hopeless results. Only bearing in mind what we can expect of a particular type of learner, we can focus on how to improve their speaking skills. It is obvious that there are marked differences between children learners and adult learners and that they cannot acquire the second language under the same circumstances. Consequently, the results will be also different. Concerning children and the early age at which they learn to speak, we can say that they enjoy certain advantages that make them outstanding learners. They have surprising linguistic abilities due to optimal moment in which they find themselves for language learning, this is to say, at this moment their brain is characterized by a certain plasticity that allows some abilities to develop with ease during a period of time, after which it becomes really difficult for these abilities to be developed (Fleta, 2006: 53), or using Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 87 Klein’s words ‘between the age of two and puberty the human brain shows the plasticity which allows a child to acquire his first language’ (Klein, 1986: 9). Therefore, children are special learners for their natural and innate abilities to acquire a language. According to Fleta, one of these special abilities is ‘filtering sophisticated information about language properties from birth’ (Fleta, 2006: 49), in other words, children have an enormous ability to integrate difficult information in an easy and unconscious way from the beginning of their development. They are able to acquire and integrate complex data without being aware of it, whereas other learners, at other ages, would find it arduous to achieve. Moreover, apart from this special gift children have for assimilating difficult information, we can mention some of their other qualities, such as their capacity for perceiving and imitating sounds. Some studies have showed that ‘young infants are especially sensitive to acoustic changes at the phonetic boundaries between categories’ (Kuhl, 2004: 832). Also, children are especially good at predicting syllable chunks: ‘infants are sensitive to the sequential probabilities between adjacent syllables’ (Kuhl, 2004: 834) which makes children with a surprising instinct as far as language knowledge is concerned . Finally, students also acquire the ability of ordering words within a sentence (grammar rules) unconsciously: ‘there is some evidence that young children can detect non-adjacencies such as those required to learn grammar’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836). All in all, we can say that children learn the language without being aware of it when they ‘are exposed to the right kind of auditory information’ (Kuhl, 2004: 836), this is, children learn the language through communication and interaction and thanks to that they acquire all the abilities they can potentially develop. On the other hand, concerning adults we observe how difficult is that they can acquire certain native sounds; their pronunciation will be, on many occasions, foreign-like which is due to their difficulty in distinguishing and producing some sounds after the so called ‘critical period’. In that respect, some authors claim that adult learners cannot acquire a phonological development (Lightbown and Spada, 2006: 69). However, other researchers defend the opposite. Wolfgang Klein, in his book Second Language Acquisition (1986) stated that ‘the apparent facility with which children learn a second language is often attributed to biological factors, but an alternative explanation might be that, unlike adults, children have no need to fear the loss of their social identity’ (Klein, 1986: 6). Authors such as Klein argue that phonological facilities of children are not bound to biological reasons, but to psychological ones. In that respect, adults feel attached to their native identities, to their original social identities, which is what prevent them from achieving perfection in L2 pronunciation. Klein confirmed that ‘suitably motivated adults are capable of mastering to perfection the pronunciation of the most exotic languages’ (Klein, 1986: 10). Therefore, we conclude that although the cases of adults speaking a second language without any accent are not very common, this does not mean that it is impossible to acquire a native-like pronunciation. Also, besides phonological issues, we can talk about the capacity of adults to acquire any other kind of linguistic faculties, more related to structural relations (UG). In that sense, there are authors that doubt the validity of Lenneberg’s Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) by assuring that even adults have access to the well known Universal Grammar. While Lenneberg claimed that only before puberty learners had UG available, authors such as S. W. Felix defended by evidence that adult L2 learners also benefit from the UG principles: ‘If child and adult learners use different modules for the purpose of language acquisition, then we would expect adult learners to be unable to attain grammatical knowledge that arises only through the mediation of UG. If, in contrast, adults do attain this type of knowledge, then, we have reason to believe that UG continues to be active even after puberty’ (Felix, 1988: 279). Therefore, we can conclude that adults are also able to master a proficient use of the second/foreign language, not only in grammatical issues but also in phonological ones, which makes us believe that we can improve adult learners’ speaking skills. Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 88 Once we know that adults can be biologically and psychologically prepared to have a native-like proficiency in the second language, we should move on to the second language teaching context in order to achieve our aim of improving adult learners’ skills. In that respect, we should reflect on the teachers’ role in this situation and what they can do to be successful with their learners. Teachers therefore need to analyse the students’ needs, face their problems and find fruitful solutions that help them develop their speaking abilities. S. Pit Corder, in his chapter called ‘Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching’, in Introducing Applied Linguistics (1973) defended the important role of linguists who identify the problems of the learners and find solutions for them. Corder added that specialists’ role is to formulate the appropriate questions in order to define problems that need to be faced. Using his words, ‘the formulation of the questions, the identification of the problems and the specification of their nature presupposes linguistic theory. The nature of the problem is defined by the theory which is applied to it. The solution to a problem is only as good as the theory which has been used to solve it’ (Corder, 1973: 138). In this direction he said that in language teaching there are two appropriate questions teachers should make: what to teach and how to teach, ‘these are the problems of content and method, or, using an industrial analogy, the problem of product and process design respectively’ (Corder, 1973: 139). Therefore, if teachers wish to know how to improve speaking skills, what they need to ask themselves first is what they are going to teach, and how. On the one hand, let us consider the first question: what . If we need to improve speaking skills we need to know which skills or which features learners need to develop. In that respect, there are several authors that stated different goals or different dimensions that speakers needed to achieve. Goodwin, for instance, established several goals for a proper pronunciation. She called them ‘functional intelligibility, functional communicability, increased self-confidence, and speech-monitoring abilities’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118). She argued that learners should be able to speak an intelligible foreign language, that is to say, listeners need to understand the learner’s message without huge efforts; learners also need to be successful in a ‘specific communicative situation’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); they need to ‘gain confidence in their ability to speak and be understood’ (Goodwin, 2001: 118); and finally, they need to monitor and control their own production by paying attention to their own speech. Goodwin specified those abilities that learners need to acquire through certain linguistic features that can be practiced: Intonation, rhythm, reduced speech, linking words, consonants and vowel sounds, word stress, etc. These are concrete speaking aspects in which learners should be trained in order to improve their speaking skills. Similarly, other authors such as Anne Lazaraton suggest that oral communication is based on four dimensions or competences: grammatical competence (phonology, vocabulary, word and sentence formation…); sociolinguistic competence (rules for interaction, social meanings); discourse competence (cohesion and how sentences are liked together); and finally, strategic competence (compensatory strategies to use in difficult situations), (Lazaraton, 2001: 104). According to Lazaraton learners should develop all these abilities to acquire a high oral level of the foreign language, but she adds that in recent years, with the influence of the communicative approach, more importance is given to fluency, trying to achieve a balance with the traditional accuracy. Moreover, apart from what pedagogically and theoretically should be taught, many researchers are presently analysing real problems that learners face: ‘fluent speech contains reduced forms, such as contractions, vowel reduction, and elision, where learners do not get sufficient practice’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103); use of slang and idioms in speech since students tend to sound ‘bookish’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 103), stress, rhythm, intonation, lack of active vocabulary, lack of interaction pattern rules… Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 89 Once speaking goals have been determined, next step consists of questioning how they are going to be achieved. For designing a concrete methodology teachers need to adopt a theoretical perspective, they need to reflect on the linguistic approach that will be used in their teaching. Many authors, following the up-to- date trend of the Communicative approach, defend the interactive role of speaking and promote its teaching from a communicative perspective stressing meaning and context. In Goodwin’s words: ‘In “Teaching Pronunciation” the goal of instruction is threefold: to enable our learners to understand and be understood, to build their confidence in entering communicative situations, and to enable them to monitor their speech’ (Goodwin, 2001: 131), also ‘pronunciation is never an end in itself but a means of negotiating meaning in discourse, embedded in specific sociocultural and interpersonal contexts’ (Goodwin,2001: 117). If we think of how this theoretical background will be applied in real teaching, we find that in traditional classes they focused speaking practice on the production of single and isolated sounds, whereas within the communicative approach, ‘the focus shifted to fluency rather than accuracy, encouraging an almost exclusive emphasis on suprasegmentals’ (Goodwin, 2001: 117). There is the key word, when communication is the main goal linguistic practice turns into longer structures, at the suprasegmental level; therefore, the training on individual sounds makes way for macro structures that affect interaction directly. The second part of how to teach, moves away from theory to approach real problems and their solutions. Several authors have stated that when learners face problems in speaking they need practical and concrete solutions to know how to behave and respond in order to overcome those difficulties. Mariani, in his article ‘Developing Strategic Competence: Towards Autonomy in Oral Interaction’ , recalls L1 strategies that native speakers use when they encounter communication problems, and suggests teaching those strategies to L2 learners: ‘just think of how often, in L1 communication, we cannot find the words to say something and have to adjust our message, or to ask our interlocutor to help us, or to use synonyms or general words to make ourselves understood’ (Mariani, 1994: 1). Mariani classifies those strategies according to the speakers’ behaviour: learners can either avoid certain messages because they don’t feel confident with their speaking skills (‘reduction strategies’), or make the most out of their knowledge and modify their message bearing in mind their weaknesses and strengths (‘achievement strategies’: borrowing, foreignizing, translating…(Mariani, 1994: 3). The author praises the latter by saying that achievement strategies are a very interesting way of developing learners’ language domain. Speakers who opt for this option make huge efforts to transmit a message by playing with the language to the extreme, which only brings beneficial consequences. In the second or foreign language classroom context, teachers should train learners to use and practice the different strategies that can help them face difficult situations. The only way of training students in this direction is by means of a bank of activities in which they become aware of the different possibilities that they can put into practice. Authors such as Goodwin or Lazaraton offer a varied list of exercises to be used in class: poems, rhymes, dialogues, monologues, role plays, debates, interviews, simulations, drama scenes, discussions, conversations… Therefore, coming back to the initial question proposed above, I think it is absolutely feasible to teach adults strategies to improve their speaking skills. Of course, that objective depends on many different factors that will affect the degree of acquisition, let us think of age, motivation, or even the context in which the language is learned: ESL versus EFL. In that respect, learners in a second language context will have numberless occasions to practice the language and that will undoubtedly influence their skills development. With reference to the foreign language context, authors such as Lazaraton admitted the difficulties learners Improving Speaking Skills Betsabé Navarro Romero Encuentro, 18, pp. 86-90 90 normally face: ‘homogeneous EFL classes, where all students speak the same first language and English is not used outside the classroom, present certain additional challenges for the teacher’ (Lazaraton, 2001: 110). As she said, teachers have considerable limitations in EFL classes such as lack of opportunities to use the language, lack of motivation in the learners, the number of students in the class, curriculum restrictions…(Lazaraton, 2001: 110), but there are solutions and strategies, as the ones previously mentioned, that should be put into practice. Mariani, in his article mentioned above , also makes a reflection on whether communication strategies should be teachable or not. He states the pros and cons by saying that training students on specific strategies can provide them with certain limitations and consequently hamper fluent communication: ‘we can hardly force them into a straightjacket of pre-selected strategies […] Most of us would agree that we should encourage spontaneity, creativity and originality in language use’ (Mariani, 1994: 7). However, on the other hand, he argues that if learners become aware of the different strategies they can flexibly use, they will finally integrate them either consciously or unconsciously, which will stretch their possibilities for communication. To sum up, as teachers can, and should, improve learners’ speaking skills and communication strategies, the only thing they need to do is to plan their teaching around two main questions: what they want to teach, which specific speaking features they want to develop in their learners; and how they want to do it.

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Everyone has experienced to be adolescence. At this period, it will experience a change process both biological and psychological. The change influenced by society, close friend and mass media. The level of this research is an level of result, related to physical prosperity, bouncing and contact social, not only face from disease or weakness in all matter of related to health reproduce, function and its process. Adolescent attitude in this research is an attitude which is done to avoid the sexual contagion. It is a disease which is resulted by free sexual that happened of adolescent. Therefore, sex education to adolescent how to take care the reproduction organ to be healthy. Venereal diseases have been recognized, but after found a new disease the term changed to be sexual of transmitted Disease (STD) or sexual sectional. This research is analytic descriptive with a cross sectional research. It means that the data are taken at the same time. This research is done on October 2000 in SMUN 1 Pleret Bantul. The population is student of class III SMUN 1 Pleret Bantul amount 467 samples. The conclusion from this research is : 1. the result of this research is counted by 68 % adolescent categorized as sexactive. 2. there is no relation meaning between levels of reproduction health of knowledge with the sexual contagion. From the statistical test with the level of mistake is a 5 % (0,05) and P value is 0,673, so Ho is refused 3. there is no relation meaning between adolescent attitudes with the sexual contagion, from the statistical test with the level of mistake is a 5 % (0,05) and P value is 1000, so Ho is refused Key Words : Reproduction health, risk sexual behavior 1 Yulian Endarto,S.KM, dosen Prodi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat STIKES Surya Global Yogyakarta 2 Parmadi Sigit Purnomo, SE, MM, dosen Prodi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat STIKES Surya Global Yogyakarta BAB 1

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goegle terjemahan Abstract Purpose - The greatest competitive challenge facing companies today is said to be embracing change. The business environment is in constant flux and companies must grapple with a host of new realities. This backdrop of change has catalyzed a reassessment of traditional managerial concepts and practices. Aims to trace the evolution of a new management paradigm and identifies its main drivers. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides narrative and analysis. Findings - Assesses the implications of the change in management paradigms for the educational system, highlights needed adjustments in orthodox management education and lingering challenges for management education providers. Originality/value - Provides help in understanding the perspectives of the various business stakeholders that can help academics allocate resources and design programs that cater for the needs of managers in the 21st century. Keywords Change management, Management activities Paper type General review Introduction The dawn of the 21st century has brought with it an unprecedented wave of change. The days of mass production or standardized products appear to be over. The key words for the future are variety, flexibility, and customization. Indeed, a new techno-economic rationale is emerging, with a clear shift towards information intensive rather than energy or material intensive products. Globalization has also brought with it new business opportunities, and a growing global marketplace, where information goods and capital flow freely and customer choice is expanding. Against this backdrop of change, the field of management has suffered some degree of dislocation (Collins, 1996). This dislocation has in turn catalyzed some soul-searching on the part of managers and academicians alike, and a reassessment of traditional managerial concepts and practices. This paper argues that this introspection has resulted in a discernible evolution in traditional theoretical approaches/orientations as well as fundamentally changed organizational practices, to the extent that the changes qualify as a genuine paradigmatic transformation. Noting that a paradigm is a framework of basic assumptions, theories and models that are commonly and strongly accepted and shared within a particular field of activity, at a particular point in time (Mink, 1992; Collins, 1998), this paper synthesizes the main assumptions of what is commonly referred to as the traditional management and identifies the main drivers that facilitated the ascendancy of new paradigm are then addressed. The implications of this paradigm shift for institutions of higher education are in turn assessed to delineate the challenges associated with the evolution of a new management pedagogy in universities. The traditional management paradigm Functional hierarchical line management was the main management paradigm for nearly 200 years. The system was based on the theories of Fayol, Taylor and Weber that viewed the management environment as stable and as such tended to prescribe centralized decision-making processes and hierarchical communication channels (Table I). Organizations were perceived to be rational entities pursuing specific rational goals through their organization into highly formalized, differentiated and efficient structures (Turner and Keegan, 1999; Burnes, 2000; Jaffee, 2001). This mechanistic orientation dominated most businesses in the past and is still commonly encountered especially in the context of developing countries. As shown in Table I, the traditional management paradigm was characterized by its inward focus, with special attention accorded to cutting costs, complying with rules, respecting hierarchy, and dividing labor into simple, specialized jobs. It was narrowly focused on promoting production efficiency and combating waste. Within the spirit of this overarching objective, a range of practices were prescribed and allowed to flourish, including a focus on order giving and control, enforced standardization/cooperation, and authoritarian/disciplinarian approaches to management. This was generally associated with a mechanistic orientation to structural design, emphasizing high specialization, rigid departmentalization, clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, centralization and high formalization (Kreitner, 2002; Robbins and Coulter, 2003). The overriding concern of the traditional paradigm was thus with improving the firm’s productivity, and managing available resources in a static and stable technological environment (Khalil, 2000). Within this context, managers were viewed to be solely accountable for making strategic decisions that all had to embrace and implement (Black and Porter, 2000). They were commonly perceived as watchdogs, police officers and manipulators pertaining to a privileged elite class (Burnes, 2000). Labor was also commonly characterized as unreliable and predisposed to seek the Emphasis on Experimentation, standardization, and the use of diligent scientific observation, time and motion study, systematic worker selection and training and managerial responsibility for monitoring and control A core management process revolving around universal functions (e.g. planning, organizing and controlling) and principles such as division of work, discipline, centralization, order and stability Division of labour, hierarchical authority, formal rules/regulations, and impersonality contributing in turn to efficiency, precision, consistency, subordination, and reduction of friction/personal costs Source: Kreitner (2002); Robbins and Coulter (2003) maximum reward for the minimum effort. Access to information systems and data was therefore tightly controlled as concern about low trust, suspected motives, and fear about confidentiality prevailed (Boyett and Boyett, 2000). Promoting knowledge was also accorded low priority as emphasis on specialization and standardization undermined the need for learning. In such an environment, individuals had a tendency to be inhibited and uncreative, whereby new ideas were dismissed and people were discouraged to take risks, or experiment (Carnall, 2003). The classical management system worked well when markets, products and technologies were slow to change (Turner and Keegan, 1999). Nevertheless, the system’s revealed weaknesses and limitations were gradually exposed with accelerating globalization and technological innovation. Drivers of change A rapidly changing techno-socio-economic environment is presenting new challenges for structuring and managing organizations. Increasing technological complexity and the need to diffuse information and technology within the organizations is proving to be beyond the capacity of the old rigid hierarchal management system. Technological complexity implies the need for higher levels of human knowledge and multi-disciplinary involvement (Bridges, 1996; Boyett and Boyett, 2000). Firms operating in the knowledge economy need to harness growing knowledge, technology and engineering advances and a whole range of new skills and dynamic competencies (Liyanage and Poon, 2002). Knowledge workers on the other hand rightfully perceive the old management system as under-utilizing their expertise and under-estimating their willingness to take initiative and responsibility. New attitudes towards work involve feelings of pride and ownership and employees are becoming more concerned about merit, value, worth, meaning and fulfillment (Stallings, 2000). Customers are also becoming better educated, more enlightened, more sophisticated, more inquisitive and critical - in sum more demanding when it comes to spending (Chapman, 2001). New products are having to be innovative, flexible for customization and of high quality while having a short life cycle in a fickle global market (Turner and Keegan, 1999; Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). On the economic level, the old hierarchal organizations that flourished in a relatively stable market are facing the prospects of a new world order, with permeable geo-political boundaries. The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the proliferation of international standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, allow every company that satisfies the new rules to enter the game. Taken together, these drivers have necessitated a fundamental re-orientation to management, implying that organizations are having to manage in different ways to survive and prosper in the new environment. Some analysts group the different environmental triggers of change into four distinct categories under the acronym PEST (Johnson and Scholes, 1999) or STEP (Goodman, 1995), both of which refer to the political, economic, technological and socio-cultural triggers of change, which have influenced the organizations and their management processes (Figure 1). A new management paradigm Organizations have become increasingly aware that the world has turned on its axis, necessitating a fundamental re-assessment of objectives, operations and management orientation. Therefore the 1980s have witnessed the emergence of a paradigm shift, or to be more accurate the search for new more appropriate paradigms (Collins, 1996; Burnes, 2000). The theories that have most widely affected contemporary management thinking include the behavioral approach, the systems theory, the contingency approach, the culture-excellence approach, and the organizational learning theory, each of which contributed new insights to our understanding of contemporary management processes. The behavioral approach for example turned attention to the human factor in the organization and the importance of group dynamics and complex human motivations. The systems approach alerted managers to the notions of embedded-ness and interdependencies, while the contingency approach underscored adaptability/situational appropriateness. The culture-excellence approach reminded managers to accord more attention to the softer issues of people, values, and employee/customer satisfaction. It also posited innovation as a central driver of excellence in organizations. The organizational learning approach emphasized the usefulness of carefully nurturing and cultivating the capacity to acquire new knowledge and to put it into new applications.  Inspired by these various contributions, traditional management perspectives are being transformed, and the long-held criteria for evaluating organizational and managerial effectiveness are being reinvigorated. While the changes have proved unsettling for many managers and organizations, 21st century corporations are surely charting new grounds where familiar themes and practices are being disrupted and remolded. Business discourse increasingly revolves around intelligence, information and ideas (Handy, 1989) and capitalizing on brainpower and intellectual capital to add value and sustain competitiveness. Management in the 21st century has accordingly taken a new orientation. It is increasingly founded on the ability to cope with constant change and not stability, is organized around networks and not hierarchies, built on shifting partnerships and alliances and not self-sufficiency, and constructed on technological advantage and not bricks and mortar (Carnall, 2003). New organizations are networks of intricately woven webs that are based on virtual integration rather than vertical integration, interdependence rather than independence, and mass customization rather than mass production (Greenwald, 2001). Table II presents the contrasting assumptions of the traditional and new management paradigms. Organizations embracing the new management changes are restructuring their internal processes and management approaches around rapidly changing information and technology. This shift is favoring cellular and matrix organizational structures with fewer layers of management over the old inflexible multi-layered vertical hierarchical organizations (Benveniste, 1994; Cravens et al., 1997). The new management philosophy is also embracing innovation as a key ingredient of success and increased competitiveness (Khalil, 2000; Liyanage and Poon, 2002). This entails developing the creative potential of the organization by fostering new ideas, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm, tapping the innovative potential of employees, and encouraging the proliferation of autonomy and entrepreneurship (Blanchard, 1996; Kuczmarski, 1996; Boyett and Boyett, 2000; Black and Porter, 2000). Modern organizations as such, are making major strides to nurture innovation, positing human knowledge as a key component of their asset base, and creating knowledge bases or repositories to shorten learning curves (Khalil and Wang, 2002; Carnall, 2003). People are treated as the natural resource and capital asset of the organization and the most important source of sustainable competitive advantage. Whereas the traditional paradigm considered labor a commodity to be bought, exploited Table II. Contrasting assumptions of the traditional and new management paradigms Reduction of the direct costs of production as the primary focus of management The operations of an enterprise characterized and analyzed as stable Single critical technology-based product lines with long product lifetimes Managers regarded as decision-makers and labor as passive followers of instruction World markets divided on a national basis, with national firms dominant in domestic markets Source: Adapted from Khalil (2000) Reducing the indirect costs of the enterprise while improving competitiveness Flexible and agile operations and continuous improvement Multi-core technology product lines with shorter product lifetimes Managers regarded as coaches/facilitators and labor as knowledge workers/intellectual capital Global world markets and greater attention to international economic and political structures to exhaustion, and discarded when convenient, a much different orientation currently prevails, requiring the careful nurturing and skillful management of human resources, with a focus on psychological commitment, empowerment, teamwork, trust, and participation. The new management paradigm therefore revolves around teamwork, participation, and learning. It also revolves around improved communication, integration, collaboration, and closer interaction and partnering with customers, suppliers and a wider range of stakeholders. Value creation, quality, responsiveness, agility, innovation, integration and teaming are increasingly regarded as useful guiding principles in the evolving new environment (Table III). Kanter (1989, p. 20) aptly describes the revolution in management practice. She writes: The new game of business requires faster action, more creative maneuvering, more flexibility and closer partnerships with employees and customers than was typical in the traditional corporate bureaucracy. It requires more agile, limber management that pursues opportunity without being bogged down by cumbersome structures or weighty procedures that impede action. Corporate giants, in short, must learn how to dance (Kanter, 1989, p. 20). Against the myriad changes and conflicting expectations, individual managers and executives are being asked to change their approach to running their operations and managing people. The “new” managers we are told must learn to be coaches, team players, facilitators, process managers, human resource executives, visionary leaders, and entrepreneurs (Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). They must also be knowledge-integrating boundary spanners, stimulators of creativity, innovation muses and promoters of learning (Harvey et al., 2002). They must be more bottom-line driven, more innovative, and more focused on the human dynamics of the organization (Chapman, 2001). The 21st century managers are therefore expected to nurture a complex amalgamation of technical, functional, and socio-cultural skills to cope with the new paradigm, that has changed their responsibilities, increased their risks and weakened their control by flattening hierarchy (Nohria and Ghoshal, 1997; Pucik and Saba, 1998; Fish, 1999). They are increasingly conceived as pillars and architects of organizational competitiveness, linking people, opportunities and resources (Chapman, 2001). on the other hand, failing to live up to these expectations may limit the organization’s ability to thrive in an increasingly complex and dynamic environment. While managers search for new approaches to management in an ever-turbulent environment, academics also have to search for new approaches and methodologies. Management education indeed needs to reflect the changing times by overhauling not Value creation Value added constitutes the basic social responsibility of the enterprise Quality Quality as a fundamental requirement influencing competitiveness Responsiveness Responsiveness to external environmental changes and customer demands Agility Flexibility in communications and operations Innovation Fostering new ideas, harnessing people’s creativity and enthusiasm Integration Integration of a portfolio of technologies for a distinctive competitive advantage Teaming Decentralized, multi-functional and multi-disciplinary enterprise teams Source: Adapted from Carnall (2003) only its content and delivery modes, but also its overall approach and orientation (Liyanage and Poon, 2002). Implications for management education In this context of transition and radical change, the field of management education has attracted extensive attention, reflection and criticism. Management education can be described as a formal classroom (off-site) learning experience that attempts to expose managers to new concepts, practices, and situations that can be transferred to the workplace (Longenecker and Ariss, 2002). Formal management education programs may cover a host of specialized topics (e.g. financial management, strategic planning, leadership, negotiation) or may include more comprehensive programs such as certificate granting programs or executive MBA programs. While formal management education is only one way in which managers learn, organizations and individuals often rely on this developmental intervention as a vehicle for improvement (Talbot, 1997). A key question that is increasingly echoed in management education circles concerns the efficacy and relevance of traditional management education. Various criticisms have been raised and doubt has been cast upon the nature, relevance and appropriateness of orthodox management education. Spender (1994, p. 387) for example notes that, “management education ostensibly designed to equip managers to deal with the world seems to have changed little in recent years”. In the US context, Hayes and Abernathy (1980) specifically linked the decline in competitiveness of US industry with the effect of the traditional professional education model on management graduates. Their critique of this model asserted that management graduates learnt analytic detachment over insight, and that methodological rigor prevented them from learning from experience. A similar criticism has been raised in a recent article by Handy (1987), which linked the decline in the UK economy to the increasingly irrelevant management education which many undergraduate students and post experience managers receive. Other criticisms abound. Cheit (1985) for example identified 13 major complaints, which have been made against North American business schools, mostly revolving around emphasizing the wrong pedagogical model, ignoring important work, fostering undesirable attitudes and failing to meet society’s needs. He concluded that graduate business education was not preparing students adequately for the challenges of corporate life. Porter and McKibben (1988) criticized the emphasis in the dominant professional management model on quantitative, analytical and rational ap

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goegmenurut adam smith dalam teorinya hubungan antara majikan dan karyawan adalah hubungan "jual-beli" an sich (tak lebih dan tak kurang). Oleh karenanya, jika upah di sector lain naik maka karyawan berlomba lomba berpindah ke sector terebut. artinya, tidak ada ikatan sama sekali sama sekali antara majikan dan karyawan. hubungannya adalah sebatas pekerjaan sehingga turn over karyawan sangat tinggi. artinya tingkat perputaran (keluar masuk) tenaga kerja sangat tinggi. Berbeda dengan konsep syariah yang menegaskan bahwa para karyawan adalah saudara majikan.Dengan demikian majikan menanggung amanah dari allah untuk bertanggung jawab pada karyawan sehingga tidak ada karyawan yang kelaparan,tidak ada yang telanjang dan tidak akan dieksploitasi . le terjemahan

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LECTURE ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-SIXTH Zechariah 7:1-3 1. Et factus est (datus est,) anno quarto Darii regis, sermo Iehovae ad Zachariam, quarta die mensis noni Chisleu; 1. And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Darius, that the word of the LORD came unto Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu; 2. Nam miserat in domum Dei (hoc est, Templum) Sareezer et Regem-melech et 2. When they had sent unto the house of God Sherezer and Regemmelech, and their men, to pray before the LORD, viros ejus ad deprecandam faciem Iehovae (aut, Miserat in domum Dei Sareezer et Regem-melech, in nominativo casu, et viri ejus ad deprecandam faciem Iehovae:) 3. Ad dicendum sacerdotibus qui erant in domo Iehovae exercituum, et Prophetis, 3. And to speak unto the priests which were in the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the prophets, saying, Should I weep in the dicendo, An flebo mense, quinto? Separabo fifth month, separating myself, as I have me? quemadmodum feci his annis? (est done these so many years? turbata series verborum, quemadmodum solitus sum facere his annis?) There is no vision here, but the answer which Zechariah was commanded to give to the messengers of the captives: for he says that some had been sent from Chaldea to offer sacrifices to God, and at the same time to inquire whether the fast, which they had appointed when the city was taken and destroyed, was to be observed. But there is some ambiguity in the words of the Prophet, for it is doubtful whether the two whom he names, even Sherezer and Regem-melech, together with the others, had sent the messengers of whom mention is made, or they themselves came and brought the message from the captives. But this is a matter of no great moment. As to the question itself, I am disposed to adopt their view, who think that these two came with their associates to Jerusalem, and in the name of them all inquired respecting the fast, as we shall hereafter see. 68 The Jews think that these were Persian princes; but this opinion is frivolous. They are thus accustomed to draw whatever occurs to the glory of their own nation without any discretion or judgment, as though it had been an object much desired by the Jews, that two Persian should go up to the temple. But there is no need here of a long discussion; for if we regard the Prophet’s design, we may easily conclude that these were Jews who had been sent by the exiles, both to offer gifts and to inquire about the fast, as the Prophet tells us. The sum of the whole then is, that Sherezer and Regem-melech, and their companions, came to the temple, and that they also asked counsel of the priests and Prophets, whether the fast of the fifth month was still to be observed. It must first be observed, that though all had not so much courage as to return to their own country as soon as leave was given them, they were not yet gross despisers of God, and wholly destitute of all religion. It was indeed no light fault to remain torpid among the Babylonians when a free return was allowed them; for it was an invaluable kindness on the part of God to stretch forth his hand to the wretched exiles, who had wholly despaired of a return. Since then God was prepared to bring them home, such a favor could not have been neglected without great ingratitude. But it was yet the Lord’s will that some sparks of grace should continue in the hearts of some, though their zeal was not so fervid as it ought to have been. The same sloth we see in the present day to be in many, who continue in the filth of Popery; and yet they groan there, and the Lord preserves them, so that they do not shake off every concern for religion, nor do they wholly fall away. All then are not to be condemned as unfaithful, who are slothful and want vigor; but they are to be stimulated. For they who indulge their torpor act very foolishly; but at the same time they ought to be pitied, when there is not in them that desirable alacrity in devoting themselves to God, which they ought to have. Such an instance then we see in the captives, who ought to have immediately prepared themselves for the journey, when a permission was given them by the edicts of Cyrus and Darius. They however remained in exile, but did not wholly renounce the worship of God; for they sent sacred offerings, by which they professed their faith; and they also inquired what they were to do, and showed deference to the priests and Prophets then at Jerusalem. It hence appears, that they were not satisfied with themselves, though they did not immediately amend what was wrong. There are many now, who, in order to exculpate themselves, or rather to wipe away (as they think) all disgrace, despise God’s word, and treat us with derision; nay, they devise crimes with which they charge us, with the view of vilifying the word of the Lord in the estimation of the simple. But the Prophet shows that the captives of whom he speaks, though not so courageous as they ought to have been were yet true servants of God; for they sent sacrifices to the temple, and also wished to hear and to learn what they were to do. He says first, that messengers were sent to entreat the face of Jehovah. Here by the word entreating or praying, the Prophet means also sacrifices. For it is certain that the Jews prayed in exile, as there could have been no religion in them had they not exercised themselves in prayer. But the mention made here is of that stated prayer, connected with sacrifices, by which they professed themselves to be God’s people. We may hence also learn, that sacrifices of themselves are of no great importance, since prayer, or calling on God, has ever the first place. Sacrifices then, and other offerings, were, as we may say, additions; (accessoria — accessions;) for this command ought ever to be regarded by the faithful, “offer to me the sacrifice of praise.” (Psalm 50:14.) He says, in the second place, that messengers were sent, that they might learn from the priests and the Prophets what was to them doubtful. We hence conclude, that it was no gross dissimulation, such as is found in hypocrites who pretend to pray to God, but that there was a real desire to obey. And, doubtless, when God’s word and celestial truth are despised, there is then neither any real prayer, nor any other religious exercise; for unbelief pollutes and contaminates whatever is otherwise in its nature sacred. Whosoever then desires rightly to pray to God, let him add faith, that is, let him come to God in a teachable frame of mind, and seek to be ruled by his word. For the Prophet in telling us what was done, no doubt keeps to the method or the order observed by the captives. It was then worthy of praise that they not only were anxious to seek God’s favor by prayers and sacrifices, but that they also sought to know what was pleasing to Cod. Nor was it a matter of wonder that they sent to Jerusalem on this account, for they knew that that place had been chosen by God as the place from which they were to seek the right knowledge of religion. Since then Jerusalem was the sanctuary of God, the captives sent there their messengers, particularly as they knew that the priests were the ambassadors of God, and that the interpretation of the law was to be sought from their mouth. They indeed knew that the time was not yet come when the doctrine of salvation was to be disseminated through the whole world. But the Prophet says, that the captives not only inquired of the priests, but also of the Prophets. It hence appears, that it was a thing commonly known, that God had raised up Prophets, which he had ceased to do for a long time. For it was not without reason that Isaiah said, that God would yet speak by his Prophets, when he would again comfort his people. (Isaiah 40:1.) There had been then a mournful silence for seventy years, when no Prophets were sent forth, according to what is said in the book of Psalms,

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“Paradigm of Humanistic, Behavior, and Transpersonal Psychotherapy” Abstract The paradigm shift in psychological studies from the Humanistic, Freudain and Behaviouristic psychotherapies has brought us to yet another psychological paradigm (transpersonal) that is based on spirituality as a process of human guidance and counselling. This paradigm is aimed at handling the psychological problems beyond the physical entities, but going down to the spiritual nature of man. The spiritual nature of man from the Islamic perspective is the consciousness of Allah's will and power in therapy which is lacking in the contemporary transpersonal approach. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss the denotational implications, the scope and the shortfalls of the contemporary transpersonal psychotherapy. This is with the view to offering the Islamic process of psychotherapy based on the concept of Tauheed. By way of development, the relic of historical facts would be used to show the effectiveness of Islamic paradigm of psychotherapy so as to guide the Muslims from the aqidah contamination entails by the transpersonal approach. In summation, the paper would provide an Islamic model of transpersonal psychotherapy for the use of Muslims in their psychological practices. Introduction The concern of psychology is the manipulation of the variables and processes involved in motivation, development and modification of human behaviour. In pursuance of this need modern psychological theories are founded to serve as guide for human psychoses. The formulations of these theories according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) are based on cultural and geographical limitations as they emerged over time to address the needs of the people of different social contexts1. With the variations in perception, environment, and the passage of time the discipline of psychology undergoes different transformations based on three well-known paradigmatic forces of Behaviouristic, Freudian and Humanistic psychology. These transformations reveal the psychological concern for soul, psyche (conscious and unconscious state of man), mental processes, feelings and sensations underlying human behaviour2. Maslow (1968) considered the humanistic third force psychology to be a transitional preparation for a still 'higher' fourth paradigmatic force of psychology, ie. transpersonal psychology. This is based on the observation of Maslow (1970) that human beings who are wonderful out of their own human and biological nature necessitate the need for another paradigm for a more complete understanding of psychoses and the effective treatment. As a result of the variation in human social groups, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) emphasize the need for a psychological approach that will serve the spiritual needs of man (spiritual). Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) see the proposed spiritual dimension as a universal aspect of human nature. As such, its need cannot be under-emphasized. According to them, to remain relevant in a postmodern world, psychologists must incorporate the comprehensive perspective of transpersonal theory into education and practice. From the views of Cowley and Derezotes (1994), Maslow (1968) and (1970) and Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990) the development of the contemporary psychological theories until the introduction of transpersonal psychology has been centred on either the overt, external and material variables or the internal, covert and hidden variables in man. Although the present efforts being made by transpersonal psychologists have made a small shift, but the shift is only geared towards spirituality that is devoid of religion (Islam) which is unsatisfactory from the Islamic point of view. It is therefore the aim of this paper to discuss and introduce the Islamic framework of psychotherapy which satisfies the Islamic expectations that is based on aqidah. Transpersonal Psychotherapy Literally the word transpersonal according to Wittine (1987) denotes beyond or through the "mask". While technically Cowley and Derezotes (1994) defined the term as going beyond the personal level. The implication of the their definitions entails the application of the concept as a process of treating human behaviour outside the context of physical entities. To them psychotherapy should be based on the natural energy3 that drives the entire human endeavours (spiritual). This is a psychological treatment that addresses the spiritual dimension of human existence to the psychological process. The paradigm which according to Valle (1989) calls us through and beyond our more familiar level of ego awareness to a critical examination of the very ground from which our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions emerge as forms or manifestations. Cowley and Derezotes (1994) perceive it as an essential aspect of being that is existentially subjective, transrational, non-local and non- temporal. Transpersonal psychotherapy according to Maslow (1971) evolves in response to the need of broader context for understanding what it means to be fully human and to assess the farther reaches of human nature. This is a spiritual therapy that is an integral part or an essential universal need of human nature (Netting, Thibault and Elliot (1990). Transpersonal psychotherapeutic tradition is perceived by Nasr (1975) as a tradition of treatment which comes from the spirit (confidence in Allah) and not the psyche that can be the source of ethics of aesthetics. It is an approach that believes in the need for meaning for higher values and for spiritual life which are as real as biological or social needs (Keen, 1974). This task according to Huxley (1968) involved a start from new premises, such as the premise that the most ultimate satisfaction comes from a depth and wholeness of the inner life, and therefore that we must explore and make fully available the techniques of spiritual development. Furthermore, the need for the fourth force according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) is the desire to remain relevant in the highly sophisticated postmodern world to cater for educational and psychotherapeutic practices. The realization of the need for more comprehensive system that could cover the general need of man in the greatest depth of awareness has led to the development of transpersonal psychology as the fourth force of the psychological paradigm. Based on the above needs, the transpersonal psychologists have tried to evolve techniques that are quite relevant to the present "illness" in man. This "illness" in man of our time is linked to a deficit of values and these values are spiritual in nature (concern for Allah as the source of cure). Although, Toynbee (1995) sees this approach as human degradation and the sickness of modern society who sought solutions through programmes based on religious practices (faith in Allah). But the essence of spirituality is to guide and influence the behaviour of man so as to establish a spiritually guided community which believes in Allah for cure. Grof (1988) and Hartman (1990) believe that much of the transpersonal ideas focus on the need for a reconnection of the human families to establish a global community or communion. Concurrently, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) observe that, the overall goal for transpersonal ideas is to facilitate the development of the spiritual dimension of higher states of "consciousness" within individuals, organizations, communities and cultures. As such the aim of transpersonal psychology is to shift from the traditional secular western position of self-actualization to the spiritually-based process. Spiritual Limitation of the Transpersonal Psychotherapy Although transpersonal approach has been able to create a space for spirituality in psychology, it is still questionable on how relevant and how applicable is it to human societies? Have the propounded ideas within the transpersonal approach covers all aspects of spirituality? To answer these questions, Cowley and Derezotes (1994) note that in aspiring to work with the transpersonal or spiritual dimension, it is crucial that the client system and social worker come to a common understanding or shared meaning about the term spiritual as used in transpersonal theory. Not as contained by the theological walls of any specific ideology system, spirituality in transpersonal theory is not considered as equivalent to religion. In support of this Bloomfield (1980) states that the use of the word "spiritual" is neither a statement nor a belief per se. It is therefore an energy and life force that is innate in all living matter driving to perfect itself. Houston (1988) uses the term entelechy to describe this essential urge of human nature to realize its inner potential. Thus, according to Cowley and Derezotes (1994) the development of the spiritual and morapol;l dimensions forms the basis for spiritual maturity or higher states of consciousness. The individual manifests this maturity through increased social and self-responsibilities, which will benefit all in a given psychosocial environment. The scope emphasizes by transpersonal psychology has put the Muslims out of the maximum utilization of transpersonal paradigm because to the Muslims human existence must revolve around religion which is divine by origin. The divine nature entails the faith (Iman) as the epitome of psychotherapeutic treatment as implicated by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun (sickness of the mind). In this sense transpersonal psychotherapy from the Muslims, point of view could hardly be separated from religion. This is in line with the assertion of Nasr (1975) that God has placed religion in the world to enable man to overcome his complexes. The human therapeutic complexes could be of any kind ranging from psychological, social and biological to spiritual. For a successful therapy, divine spirituality that is based on the revealed guidance is the answer. Thus, the absence of religion in transpersonal approach seems to only summarize the ideas and practices entail by the earlier paradigms or they are going toward witch-crafting which is totally at variance with aqidah. In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively could only be realized by resorting to divine knowledge and ethical values. The Expected Spiritual Scope of Transpersonal Psychotherapy There is no doubt that transpersonal approach has created a space for spirituality in the formal conventional psychological theories. Yet the inclusion of the spiritual aspect to the psychological theories as contained in the transpersonal psychology is not enough for the general reference to the Muslims. This is because to them (Muslims) spirituality is an element of religion (Islam) that is directed by the knowledge contained in the Quran which are general guide for human existence. As such it is only the spiritual that is based on divine guidance that is paramount and total, and which precisely because of its totality embraces the psychic and even the corporeal aspects of man. (Nasr, 1975). In other words, the excellence of man and his well-being individually and collectively are realized by means of divine knowledge and ethical values. Hence, knowledge and ethics are linked (Hanafi, 1996). On the contrary the transpersonal psychologists see spirituality as an entity devoid of religion (divine guidance). Even to some non-Muslim psychologists this position is baseless as Koltko and Mark (1998) observe that it is a contradiction to think one can develop a psychology by leaping across the person from a point of view which goes beyond religion. In his quest for religious consideration in the transpersonal paradigm, Denton (1990) asserts that, to make it (transpersonal psychology) a complete spiritual approach, religious approach is inevitable because the religious and spiritual concerns provide the prime motive for all social works4. Based on this the development of religious spirituality should be an extension of the present form of transpersonal process of psychotherapy. Koltko and Mark (1998) note that transpersonal psychology represents an extension of psychology (spiritual) that leads to what it really means to be a human being and marks the beginning of a psychological analysis that recognizes the natural status of man. As such some transpersonal psychologists have surfaced in the direction different from the earlier transpersonal paradigm as observed by Sollod (1992) that, a social work curriculum that deletes or omits the content related to the spiritual dimension may be called "Hollow". For the success of psychotherapeutic practices Weick (1992) so aptly observed that, when artistic practice joins with value commitment (religion), social work can indeed be a force in the society. The idea here is the connection between the psychotherapeutic process and the religiously inclined spiritual value of human nature that makes the therapeutic endeavours more effective. The confirmation of this could be perceived from the work of Anthony et. al, (1987) that, for the individual with a genuine hunger for truth, reality, spirit, soul, self, God Oneness, freedom, being and meaning, the task of choosing among these offerings is intricate and subtle and not without the element of peril discriminations. Contrary to the concept of "neutral spirituality" maintained by transpersonal perspective, religious spirituality is therefore of paramount importance. Although, it is inevitable to acknowledge the efforts of transpersonal psychologists in evolving theories based on spiritual values, yet these efforts are unsatisfactory to the Muslims because they do not include divine faith in their theories. As such an attempt is made in this paper to provide another transpersonal framework that would be useful to the Muslims. Islamic Approach to Transpersonal Psychotherapy From the Islamic point of view spiritual approach to psychotherapy is an aspect of behaviour modification that is based on the relationship between man and his Creator (Allah) which entails an operational paradigm in which faith (Iman) in Allah is the focal point. Iman is both a cognitive and ethical constructs that gather all data and facts in the perspective which is proper to and requisite for a true understanding of the therapeutic processes. It is the consciousness of Allah's existence and the conviction in service (Iman) that serve as the beginning of therapy to remove mental sickness (maradhun) in man. This is rightly pointed out by Hanafi (1996) that, those who live in consciousness of Him (Allah) are safe and protected against maradhun as implicated by the verse below. "Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek" (Quran, 1:5) The implication of the above verse is the recognition of Allah as the Creator. Having faith in Him is a matter of conviction which by extension leads a man to realistic services as a created organism in need of His help and bounties. In support of this point, a Professor of Botany5 in his alternative cure for cancer emphasizes ones commitments to his religion and faith in his God as the foundation of treatment. The divine knowledge in man leads him to realization which is faith. From this conviction then comes the consciousness leading to purification of the body and soul. This is channelled through devotion. The attainment of this level is the therapy in man. For the success of Islamic psychotherapy, the internal and external components of man must be purified. When this is accomplished the Ruh, the Qalb and Nafs as the fountainhead of vitality could be transformed into sources of psychodynamics explaining the human behaviour (Daud, 1996). The internal purification referred to above entails one's realization of the power of Allah and confidence in Him, while the external purification on the other hand is the appreciation of Allah's Law of observing the Halal (lawful) and Haram (unlawful) conducts. The essence of purification of the Ruh, the Qalb and the Nafs according to Sabeena (1996) is to bring one's Nafs under control and channelling it to the right direction because; "Successful is the one who keeps it pure, and ruined is the one who corrupts it" (Quran, 91:9-10) When the Nafs is purified one would be in observance of the recommended (halal) acts which is the foundation of spiritual therapy and morality in Islam. The premise of faith is that servanthood and the fulfilment of its obligation is a prerequisite for the well-being of man in his individual and societal lives. One's successful engagement in the worship of Allah paves the way for His assistance (therapy) as contained in the verse quoted earlier from Suratul Fatiha. For the treatment of psychoses the spiritual issues of Allah's power, will and ability, the consequences of the day of judgement, the agony of the hellfire and the joys of paradise are some of the Islamic variables of transpersonal psychotherapy. The Effectiveness of Islamic Psychotherapy As earlier on discussed, psychotherapy in Islam is the conviction and servitude to Allah the creator that paves the way for His assistance (therapy). Good mental and spiritual health of the individual is a by product of a natural balance within the individual and the practice of social and religious obligations that are based on the three aspects of psychotherapy as noted by Shah (1996) that, (a) Analysis of the Nafs (b) Reformative process, and (c) Socio-religious reintegration of the individual. According to him psychotherapy from the Islamic point of view revolves around these three aspects. The revelation, application and implication of the chapters of An-Nas (Mankind) and Al-Falaq (Daybreak) in the Quran are some of the clear examples of psychotherapy in Islam that is purely a psycho-spiritual treatment for human psychoses. For the purpose of spiritual guidance and solution to therapeutic problems, Islam prescribes some transpersonal modalities in the conduct of all affairs. For example to prevent the problems arising from the Jinns Muslims are required to recite psychotic antidotes before going into the toilet. Apart from the anti psychotic prescriptions there are many historical episodes in which the Islamic modes of conduct serve to be psychotherapeutic. A clear example could be seen from the following narration found in the address delivered to the King of Abyssinia by Jafar, as narrated by Sheikhulhadith (1978), p.19, that: "O King! We were ignorant people. We worshipped stones. We used to eat carrion and commit all sort of undesirable and disgraceful acts. We did not make good our obligations to our relatives. The strong among us thrived at the expense of the weak....... (But when faith that is Allah's consciousness was inserted into their hearts) . . . . . We, were exhorted to give up idolatry and stone worship. We were enjoined right conduct and forbidden any act of indecency. We were taught to tell the truth, to make good our trust, to have regard for our Kith and Kin, and to be good to our neighbours.... and to shun everything foul and to avoid bloodshed, adultery, lewdness, telling of lies, misappropriating the orphan's heritage, bringing false accusations against others and all other indecent things of that sort....". The above statements made by Jafar revealed the psychotic mind and behaviours of the 'Jahiliyyah' period which was the era of the 3W (Wine, Women and War). The time when the consumption of wine was part of the human survival. The era when a woman can have as many husbands as she desires. Likewise a man can have as many wives as he desires. It was also the attitude of the Jahiliyya people that war between tribes and towns was a matter of pride. These undesired behaviours have been changed to noble behaviours through faith which shows that fear of Allah is the foundation of good human behaviour and the most effective therapy. The historical narration below

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